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That Was the Year That Was – 1979
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Image by brizzle born and bred
1979 For the first time in history in 1979 a woman Margaret Thatcher is elected Prime minister in the UK. As technology becomes smaller Sony released the Walkman a worldwide success costing 0 which at that time was a significant amount of money. Also the first Snowboard is invented in the USA. The bombing by the IRA in England continues with Lord Mountbatten and three others assassinated. Following the return of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini Iran becomes an Islamic Republic and 63 Americans are taken hostage in the American Embassy in Tehran on 4th November.

1979 the Britain Thatcher Inherited

The Conservative Party appointed her as their leader on 11 February 1975. She was the first woman to head a British political party, and went on to become the country’s first female Prime Minister in 1979.

Britain wasn’t a country gagging for modernization in 1979 so much as one in a state of nostalgia-tinged denial: a country still traumatized by the retreat from empire and the loss of its global economic clout, symbolized by its humiliation at the hands of the International Monetary Fund three years earlier. A generation on, and the political and economic debate is still tinged as much by the nostalgia as the modernization.

In the “Winter of Discontent” in 1979, almost half of the hospitals in the U.K. were accepting only emergency patients. Household rubbish collection stopped. Petrol shortages loomed as flying pickets of transport workers blocked refineries. And it was the coldest winter in 20 years to boot.

One of Margaret Thatcher’s first political battles after becoming Prime Minister in 1979 was with the unions and Red Robbo in Birmingham.

The British Leyland era at Longbridge became a byword for wildcat walkouts, union militancy and industrial chaos – and helped clear the path to political power for Margaret Thatcher. Just two years after the arrival of hardliner Michael Edwardes, the diminutive South African car chief who took on Red Robbo and the unions at Longbridge, she was voted in as Britain’s first woman Prime Minister. The former Communist works convenor was drummed out of Longbridge after 38 years in November 1979 – within six months of Thatcher’s ascent to power.

The mood of the country had changed dramatically.

Robinson was sacked by BL for putting his name to a pamphlet that had criticised the BL management. A strike ballot opposing the dismissal was held but was thrown out by an overwhelming 14,000 against to just 600 in favour. It was the end of the road for Red Robbo at Longbridge and a watershed in industrial relations in the West Midlands car industry. Significantly, in her memoirs, Thatcher later described Robinson as a ‘notorious agitator’.

The BBC had once claimed that between 1978 and 1979 Robinson was credited with causing 523 walkouts at British Leyland, costing an estimated £200 million in lost production. The BL-style disruption had spread across the nation, and the so-called Winter of Discontent in 1978-79 saw 29.2 million working days lost, with bodies left unburied following a gravediggers’ strike and uncollected rubbish piled high in the frozen streets, when dustbin workers walked out.

It was in that climate of lingering industrial chaos that Margaret Thatcher came to power the following spring.

In his last newspaper interview at the time of the closure of MG Rover in April 2005, Robinson, who is now in his 80s, told the Mail: “Edwardes wanted to reduce it to a small motor company and closed 13 factories, but he never made a profit. “I grew up with the company, joining as a toolmaker at 14 in 1941 and loved my time, both as an ordinary worker and then convenor. “But when Edwardes took over the writing was on the wall. Shutting plants down was not the way to go.”

He described his Red Robbo tag as a badge of honour.

The backdrop to the industrial climate which saw Sir Michael Edwardes – and his spiritual political leader at Number 10, Mrs T – defeat Red Robbo is described in Gillian Bardsley and Colin Corke’s history of the famous Birmingham car factory, Making Cars at Longbridge. The authors wrote: “The formation of British Leyland in 1968 created the fourth biggest motor manufacturer in the world, a formidable player in terms of jobs, finance and exports, something no Government could afford to ignore.

“BL dominance of the home market evaporated as Ford strengthened and imports grew in volume, including the rapidly improving products of Japan.

“The company changed its name to Rover Group in 1986, officially banishing the last vestiges of British Leyland, though it would prove more difficult than this to wipe these words from the British consciousness. “Margaret Thatcher, the Conservative Prime Minister elected in 1979, would certainly not be fooled by a change of name. Nevertheless in 1988 she sold the Government’s unwanted shareholding in Rover Group to British Aerospace.”

Lord Kumar Bhattacharyya, head of the WMG manufacturing arm of Warwick University, who was an industrial adviser to Mrs Thatcher for much of her period in office, said: “She came to the fore at a time when the perception of Britain as an economic entity was very low.

“I can’t think of anyone else in recent history who was so single-minded in her determination to turn Britain round. Today we are enjoying the fruits of what she put in place. “She gave power to young people and the working class. She ensured that Britain escaped the image of being strike ridden and suffering a lack of competitiveness.”

All had disappeared forever by the time Mrs. Thatcher left the stage in 1990, many of them succeeded by privatized versions of the same companies that have come to be every bit as bitterly resented, for various reasons.

1979

Population: 56.27 million

Gross domestic product: £199.22bn

Average household income per week: £248.96

Average house price: £83,169

Life expectancy: men, 70.33 years; women, 76.41 years

Britain in 1979

The average house cost £13,650, and inflation was 17%. Sony launched a portable cassette player called a Walkman, marketed in the US at 0, and McDonalds introduced Happy Meals. Mother Theresa won the Nobel peace prize, China ordered its citizens to have no more than one child, and smallpox was eliminated.

Britain’s trade unions entered 1979 in a state of deep discontent at Jim Callaghan’s attempt to control soaring inflation by limiting pay. But while graveyards were locked and civic squares piled high with uncollected rubbish, popular culture offered merciful release. Britons watched home-grown favourites Are You Being Served and Last of the Summer Wine, and indulged in the comparative glamour of American imports Dallas and Charlie’s Angels . For most of 1979 they were unable to read the Times, which did not appear for almost a year owing to an industrial dispute.

The Clash released London Calling and Pink Floyd released The Wall, while Off the Wall became Michael Jackson’s breakthrough solo album. 1979 was also the year the performer had what is thought to be his first cosmetic surgery, after breaking his nose while dancing.

The release of the Sugarhill Gang’s Rapper’s Delight in October 1979 was credited with heralding the birth of hip-hop. Sid Vicious died of a heroin overdose while on bail for the murder of his girlfriend Nancy Spungen. Kramer vs Kramer was the year’s top-grossing movie in the US, and Alien and Apocalypse Now were also in the top 10, with The Muppet Movie.

Punk and new wave dominated the music scene, with Ian Dury & The Blockheads’ ‘Hit Me With Your Rhythm Stick’ and Blondie’s ‘Heart Of Glass’ two of the year’s first number one singles. Joy Division’s debut album Unknown Pleasures – an aptly dark, brooding picture of despair – was released in June. Amid the gloom, the television schedules were packed with what would become Britain’s most affectionately remembered comedy series. New episodes of Fawlty Towers, Yes, Minister, Terry and June, Minder, and To The Manor Born were all screened throughout the year. The two Hollywood blockbusters Alien and Mad Max proved hits in cinemas, propelling their stars Sigourney Weaver and Mel Gibson into the 1980s A-list.

1979 was a unique year for Top of the Pops, which saw the show record its highest audience of 19 million viewers and in which physical format singles sales hit an all-time high of 79 million. 1979 is maybe the most diverse year ever for acts on Top of the Pops with disco at its peak, new wave, 2 Tone, reggae, rock, folk and electro records all making the top five.

Original interviews with Gary Numan, Nile Rodgers, Woody from Madness, Jah Wobble, Chas and Dave, Janet Kay, Linda Nolan, Jim Dooley, Secret Affair, the Ruts, Legs and Co and many others tell the story of an exceptional year.

In the year that the ‘winter of discontent’ saw continuing strikes black out ITV and TOTP reduced during a technicians strike to a narrator introducing videos, the show also found itself the site of conflict backstage. TOTP’s old guard of 70s MOR acts had their feathers continually ruffled by new wave bands, as the Skids spat at the Nolan Sisters backstage and Generation X urinated off the roof onto the Dooleys.

Elsewhere in the corridors of TV Centre, in preparation for playing their single Death Disco, Public Image Ltd demanded their teeth were blacked out in make-up to appear ugly while Gary Numan remembers the overbearing union presence which prevented TOTP artists moving their own microphones without a union technician and the Musicians Union trying to ban him from the show for his use of synthesizers.

The most popular musical styles of 1979 were 2 Tone, reggae and disco. The latter saw Nile Rodgers, the man of the year, score four hits with Chic as well as writing and producing a further four hits with Sister Sledge, Sheila B Devotion and Sugarhill Gang, who appeared with what would prove to be the first ever rap hit.

Jamaican and UK reggae artists scored continual hits through the year and then watched as the Police notched up three hits with white reggae and the label 2 Tone revived the 60s reggae style known as ska. In November, in what is remembered as the 2 Tone edition, all three of the label’s new acts – Madness, Specials and Selecter – appeared on one historic night and took the show by storm, with Madness capping off their performance of One Step Beyond by leading a ‘nutty train’ conga through the studio.

The Murder of Earl Mountbatten

2015 – The Irish police have been accused of failing to fully investigate IRA terror suspects responsible for the Mountbatten killings in 1979, along with other terror attacks. A Westminster source has made clear his suspicion that the Irish authorities were fully aware of who caused the death of Earl Mountbatten of Burma, the Queen’s cousin. But the source continued that the motivation to investigate past terrorist attacks had dissipated following the signing of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998.

The agreement gave those suspected of attacks an amnesty, the source told the Sunday Telegraph, in a secret deal for peace. The source added that ‘of course’ the Irish knew who had committed the murders, as they were ‘very good at gathering intelligence’ but were not successful when it came to taking the cases to court.

The revelations have emerged in the lead up to the ground-breaking first official visit by the Prince of Wales – the murdered Earl’s great-nephew – to the site of the attack, to be made this week. Prince Charles will visit the scene of the murder in the fishing village Mullaghmore, Co Sligo, as part of a four-day tour of the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.

Only one man has ever been convicted over the Mountbatten killings, the now 67-year-old bomb-maker Thomas McMahon. But as he was 70 miles away in police custody – and therefore unable to detonate the bomb – when the boat was blown up it is clear that at least one accomplice managed to escape justice. A bomb packed with 50lb of explosives was stashed aboard the Earl’s boat, Shadow V, in August 1979.

The bomb was detonated when the boat was about 200 yards from Mullaghmore harbour, as it was being taken out to sea. It is certain that the bomb was detonated by an accomplice keeping watch, and not by an automatic timer, because it was not certain when the group of passengers would board the boat. Two teenage boys were also killed in the explosion, the Earl’s 14-year-old grandson Nicholas Knatchbull and 15-year-old Paul Maxwell, a local boat hand.

The 83-year-old Dowager Lady Brabourne – who was also aboard the boat – died from shock and internal injuries the day after the attack. Mountbatten’s daughter Lady Brabourne and her husband Lord Brabourne were both injured but survived the blast, as did their son Timothy, Nicholas’ twin brother. McMahon served 18 years before being released in 1998 under the Good Friday peace agreement. But a spokesman for the Irish police – known as the Garda – has insisted that the case remains open while urging any members of the public who may have information about the killings to come forward.

Onlookers have insisted that the Westminster sources claims, along with the upcoming visit of Prince Charles, should inspire a renewed urgency within the investigation.

The source insisted that the Garda was in fact aware of names of those suspected of carrying out the Mountbatten bombing, as well as other terror attacks. But he continued that they failed to act on that knowledge as a result of an ‘amnesty’ struck up as a result of the Good Friday Agreement, signed by the British and Irish governments.

IRA suspects received what have become known as ‘comfort’ letters from the British government, it has previously been revealed. The letters reassured suspects who had not yet been prosecuted and were ‘on-the-run’, that they were not being pursued for any specific offence. The ‘comfort’ letter controversy emerged after the trial of John Downey collapsed last year. Downey had been charged with the murder of four soldiers in the Hyde Park bombing in 1982, but had received a ‘comfort’ letter while he was on the run.

The source insisted that as a result of this covert amnesty, the authorities did not pursue those suspected of carrying out these notorious attacks. Although Charles’ visit comes 36 years after the bombing, it is believed that he has wanted to visit the village for some time. The Prince of Wales – accompanied by the Duchess of Cornwall – will arrive on Tuesday, when they fly to Galway for a reception at the city’s university to celebrate the area’s links with Britain.

They will later attend a private dinner hosted by the Irish president, Michael D. Higgins, in Lough Cutra Castle in South Galway. On Wednesday they will attend a service of peace and reconciliation at Drumcliffe church in Sligo.

Car bomb kills Airey Neave

Shadow Northern Ireland Secretary Airey Neave killed by a car bomb as he left the House of Commons car park. The bomb, said to be highly sophisticated, exploded as Mr Neave began driving up the exit ramp shortly before 1500GMT. Emergency services were on the scene in minutes. The 63-year-old Conservative MP, known for his tough line on anti-IRA security, was taken to Westminster Hospital where he died from his injuries. So far two groups, the Provisional IRA and the Irish Natonal Liberation Army, have claimed they carried out the killing.

It is not yet known when the bomb was attached to his car but investigators believe a timing device and trembler – which detonates the bomb through movement – were used to ensure the bomb went off as Mr Neave was leaving the Commons. The area around Parliament Square was immediately closed as police began a full-scale search of the premises. Despite increased threats to the safety of MPs not all cars are checked fully as they enter the car park. Gilbert Kellard, assistant commissioner of the Metropolitan Police said Mr Neave was aware of the dangers and was "happy and content" with his security.

Conservative leader Margaret Thatcher led tributes to Mr Neave saying: "He was one of freedom’s warriors. Courageous, staunch, true. He lived for his beliefs and now he has died for them." Prime Minister James Callaghan said: "No effort will be spared to bring the murderers to justice and to rid the United Kingdom of the scourge of terrorism."

The killing is thought to have been timed to coincide with the start of the election campaign which was announced yesterday. Mr Neave was a close adviser to Mrs Thatcher, he led her campaign to become the Conservative Party leader and headed her private office.

Teacher dies in Southall race riots

A 33-year-old man has died from head injuries after a bloody battle broke out between police and demonstrators in Southall. The fighting began when thousands of protesters gathered to demonstrate against a National Front campaign meeting. The extreme right-wing organisation had chosen Southall Town Hall to hold its St George’s Day election meeting. The area has one of the country’s biggest Asian communities.

Police had sealed off the area, and anti-racism demonstrators trying to make their way to the town hall were blocked. In the confrontation that followed, more than 40 people, including 21 police, were injured, and 300 were arrested. Bricks and bottles were hurled at police, who described the rioting as the most violent they have handled in London. Among the demonstrators was Blair Peach, a New Zealand-born member of the Anti-Nazi League. A teacher for special needs children in east London, he was a committed anti-racism activist.

During an incident in a side street 100 yards from the town hall, he was seriously injured and collapsed, blood running down his face from serious head injuries. He died later in hospital. Witnesses said his injuries were caused by police baton blows. Martin Gerrald, one of the protestors, was nearby Mr Peach at the time. "Mr Peach was hit twice in the head with police truncheons and left unconscious," he said. "The police were wielding truncheons and riot shields. It was a case of the boot just going in – there was no attempt to arrest anybody."

Another witness, 24-year-old Parminder Atwal, took the injured teacher into his house and called an ambulance. He said, "I saw a policeman hit a man on the head as he sat on the pavement. The man tried to get up, fell back and then reeled across the road to my house." The Anti-Nazi League claim Mr Peach bore the brunt of a "brutal" and "excessively violent" police baton charge.

A spokesman for Scotland Yard said it was impossible to comment on the death until a full-scale inquiry had been completed.

Thorpe cleared of murder charges

Former Liberal Party leader Jeremy Thorpe has walked out of the Old Bailey a free man, after a jury cleared him of the attempted murder of Norman Scott.
Mr Thorpe, who resigned as leader in 1976 amid allegations that he had had a homosexual affair with Mr Scott, hailed his acquittal as "a complete vindication".

Mr Thorpe and three other men were charged with conspiracy to murder, after the bungled assassination attempt of Mr Scott on a deserted moor in Southern England.

All were found not guilty. It took the jury 15 hours of deliberation spread over three days to reach its verdict. Mr Thorpe was also acquitted on a charge of inciting one of his co-defendants, David Holmes, to murder Mr Scott.

The trial lasted 31 days but Mr Thorpe’s ordeal began when he was charged last August. Although he was found not guilty, the case has probably ruined Mr Thorpe’s political career. As the verdict was read out he sat motionless. Afterwards he leant over to give his wife a long kiss.

Speaking later he said: "I have always maintained that I was innocent of the charges brought against me and the verdict of the jury, after a prolonged and careful investigation by them, I regard as totally fair and a complete vindication."

He added that he would be taking "a short period of rest" away from the glare of publicity.

Jeremy Thorpe’s political career was indeed ruined by the case.

Mr Thorpe had risen to prominence in 1967 when he became leader of the Liberal Party, but stepped down in 1976 as Norman Scott’s allegations about their relationship surfaced. At the May general election, shortly before the trial began, the voters of north Devon threw him out of the Parliamentary seat he had held for 20 years.

In 1999, two decades after disappearing from public life, Mr Thorpe published his memoirs in which he asserted that he never had any doubt about the acquittal of all the defendants on trial. Not long after the trial, Thorpe was diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease and retired from public life. For many years, the disease was at an advanced stage. In 1997 he visited the Liberal Democrat party conference, where he was given a standing ovation, and he attended the funeral of Roy Jenkins in 2003.

In 1999, Thorpe published his memoirs, In My Own Time, describing key episodes in his political life. He did not shed any light on the Norman Scott affair and never made any public statements regarding his sexual orientation.

On 4 December 2014, Thorpe died at his home in London of Parkinson’s disease, aged 85.

David Steel, who succeeded him as party leader, said: "He had a genuine sympathy for the underprivileged – whether in his beloved North Devon where his first campaign was for ‘mains, drains and a little bit of light’ or in Africa, where he was a resolute fighter against apartheid and became a respected friend of people like President Kaunda of Zambia."

1979 The Yorkshire Ripper Murders

4 April – Josephine Whitaker, a 19-year-old bank worker, is murdered in Halifax; police believe that she is the 11th woman to be murdered by the Yorkshire Ripper.

Police found in the wounds of Josephine Whitaker traces of milling oil used in engineering shops. Unfortunately, they also found traces of a similar oil on one of the envelopes from Sunderland sent by a man claiming to be the Ripper, but who turned out to be a hoaxer. This gave the letters an added credibility to the claims contained in them. They also found pinhead traces of metal particles in Josephine Whitaker’s wounds (possibly from when Sutcliffe sharpened the screwdriver into a bradawl). The police thought the killer might be a skilled machine tool-fitter, or an electrical or maintenance engineer, or a skilled or semi-skilled worker with engineering or mechanical connections.

2 September – Police discover a woman’s body in an alleyway near Bradford city centre. The woman, 20-year-old student Barbara Leach, is believed to be the 12th victim of the mysterious Yorkshire Ripper mass murderer.

Barbara Leach’s roommates were concerned when she still had not returned late Sunday night and called the police. The following day at 3:55 pm, while engaged in a police search of the area to find the missing student, Police Constable Simon Greaves found her body where Sutcliffe had hidden it in Back Ash Grove, about 200 yards from where she had left her friends. Her wounds, similar to the wounds received by Josephine Whitaker, clearly indicated to the police that the Yorkshire Ripper had struck again, and as in the previous murder, not in a red-light area.

1979 Timeline

5 January – Lorry drivers go on strike, causing new shortages of heating oil and fresh food.

10 January – Prime Minister James Callaghan returns from an international summit to a Britain in a state of industrial unrest. The Sun newspaper reports his comments with a famous headline: "Crisis? What Crisis?"

15 January – Rail workers begin a 24-hour strike.

22 January – Tens of thousands of public-workers strike in the beginning of what becomes known as the "Winter of Discontent".

1 February – Grave-diggers call off a strike in Liverpool which has delayed dozens of burials.

2 February – Sid Vicious, the former Sex Pistols guitarist, is found dead in New York after apparently suffocating on his own vomit as a result of a heroin overdose. 21-year-old London-born Vicious (real name John Simon Ritchie) is on bail for the second degree murder of his girlfriend Nancy Spungen, who was found stabbed to death in a hotel room on 12 October last year.

9 February – Trevor Francis signs for Nottingham Forest in British football’s first £1 million deal.

12 February – Over 1,000 schools close due to the heating oil shortage caused by the lorry drivers’ strike.

14 February – "Saint Valentine’s Day Concordat" between Trades Union Congress and Government, The Economy, the Government, and Trade Union Responsibilities, marks an end to the "Winter of Discontent".

15 February – Opinion polls show the Conservatives up to 20 points ahead of Labour, whose popularity has slumped due to the Winter of Discontent.

22 February – Saint Lucia becomes independent of the United Kingdom.

1 March – Scottish devolution referendum: Scotland votes by a majority of 77,437 for a Scottish Assembly, which is not implemented due to a condition that at least 40% of the electorate must support the proposal.

Welsh devolution referendum: Wales votes against devolution.

Conservative candidate David Waddington retains the seat for his party in the Clitheroe by-election.

National Health Service workers in the West Midlands threaten to go on strike in their bid to win a nine per cent pay rise.

17 March – Nottingham Forest beat Southampton 3-2 at Wembley Stadium to win the Football League Cup for the second year running.

18 March – An explosion at the Golborne colliery in Golborne, Greater Manchester, kills three men.

22 March – Sir Richard Sykes, ambassador to the Netherlands, is shot dead by a Provisional Irish Republican Army member in The Hague.

28 March – James Callaghan’s government loses a motion of confidence by one vote, forcing a General Election.

29 March – James Callaghan announces that the General Election will be held on 3 May. All of the major opinion polls point towards a Conservative win which would make Margaret Thatcher the first female Prime Minister of Britain.

30 March – Airey Neave, World War Two veteran and Conservative Northern Ireland spokesman, is killed by an Irish National Liberation Army bomb in the House of Commons car park.

31 March – The Royal Navy withdraws from Malta.

April – Statistics show that the economy shrank by 0.8% in the first quarter of the year, largely due to the Winter Of Discontent, sparking fears that Britain could soon be faced with its second recession in four years.

4 April – Josephine Whitaker, a 19-year-old bank worker, is murdered in Halifax; police believe that she is the 11th woman to be murdered by the Yorkshire Ripper.

23 April – Anti-Nazi League protestor Blair Peach is fatally injured after being struck on the head probably by a member of the Metropolitan Police’s Special Patrol Group.

1 May – The London Underground Jubilee line is inaugurated.

4 May – The Conservatives win the General Election by a 43-seat majority and Margaret Thatcher becomes the first female Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Liberal Party leader Jeremy Thorpe is the most notable MP to lose his seat in the election. Despite losing the first General Election he has contested, James Callaghan is expected to stay on as leader of a Labour Party now in opposition after five years in government. Among the new members of parliament is John Major, 36-year-old MP for Huntingdon and Thatcher’s successor.

8 May – Former Liberal Party leader and MP Jeremy Thorpe goes on trial at the Old Bailey charged with attempted murder.

9 May – Liverpool win the Football League First Division title for the 12th time.

12 May – Arsenal defeat Manchester United 3-2 in the FA Cup final at Wembley Stadium, with Alan Sunderland scoring a last gasp winner in response to two United goals inside the last five minutes which had seen the scores level at 2-2.

15 May – Government abolishes the Prices Commission.

21 May – Elton John becomes the first musician from the west to perform live in the Soviet Union.

Conservative MPs back Margaret Thatcher’s proposals to sell off parts of nationalised industries. During the year, the Government will begin to sell its stake in British Petroleum.

24 May – Thorpe Park at Chertsey in Surrey is opened; it becomes one of the top three most popular theme parks in the country.

25 May – Price of milk increases more than 10% to 15 pence a pint.

30 May – Nottingham Forest F.C. defeat Malmö FF, the Swedish football league champions, 1-0 in the European Cup final at Olympiastadion, Munich. The only goal of the game is scored by Trevor Francis.

7 June – European Parliament election, the first direct election to the European Parliament; the turnout in Britain is low at 32%. The Conservatives have the most MEPs at 60, while Labour only have 17. The Liberals gain a 12.6% share of the vote but not a single MEP, while the Scottish National Party, Democratic Unionist Party, Social Democratic and Labour Party and Official Ulster Unionist Party all gain an MEP each.

12 June – The new Conservative government’s first budget sees chancellor Geoffrey Howe cut the standard tax rate by 3p and slashing the top rate from 83% to 60%.

18 June – Neil Kinnock, 37-year-old Labour MP for Islwyn in South Wales, becomes shadow education spokesman.

22 June – Former Liberal Party leader Jeremy Thorpe is cleared in court of the allegations of attempted murder which ruined his career.

5 July – The Queen attends the millennium celebrations of the Isle of Man’s Parliament, Tynwald.

12 July – Kiribati (formerly Gilbert Islands) becomes independent of the United Kingdom.

17 July – The athlete Sebastian Coe sets a record time for running a mile, completing it in 3 minutes 48.95 seconds.

23 July – The government announces £4 billion worth of public spending cuts.

1 August – Following the recent takeover of Chrysler’s European division by French carmaker Peugeot, the historic Talbot marque is revived for the range of cars previously sold in Britain as Chryslers, also taking over from the Simca brand in France.

9 August – A nudist beach is established in Brighton.

10 August–23 October – The entire ITV network in the UK is shut down by a technicians’ strike. But Channel Television remains unaffected.

14 August – A storm in the Irish Sea hits the Fastnet yacht race. Fifteen lives and dozens of yachts are lost.

Disgraced ex-MP John Stonehouse is released from jail after serving four years of his seven-year sentence for faking his own death.

24 August – The Ford Cortina receives a major facelift.

27 August – Lord Mountbatten of Burma, his nephew and a boatboy are assassinated by a Provisional Irish Republican Army bomb while holidaying in the Republic of Ireland, the Dowager Lady Brabourne dying the following day in hospital of injuries received. He was an admiral, statesman and an uncle of The Duke of Edinburgh.

Warrenpoint ambush: eighteen British soldiers killed in Northern Ireland by IRA bombs.

30 August – Two men are arrested in Dublin and charged with the murder of Lord Mountbatten and the three other victims of the bombing.

2 September – Police discover a woman’s body in an alleyway near Bradford city centre. The woman, 20-year-old student Barbara Leach, is believed to be the 12th victim of the mysterious Yorkshire Ripper mass murderer.

5 September – The Queen leads the mourning at the funeral of Lord Mountbatten of Burma.

Manchester City F.C. pay a British club record fee of £1,450,000 for Wolverhampton Wanderers midfielder Steve Daley.

8 September – Wolverhampton Wanderers set a new national transfer record by paying just under £1,500,000 for Aston Villa and Scotland striker Andy Gray.

10 September – British Leyland announces that production of MG cars will finish in the autumn of next year, in a move which will see the Abingdon plant closed.

14 September – The government announces plans to regenerate the London Docklands with housing and commercial developments.

21 September – A Royal Air Force Harrier jet crashes into a house in Wisbech, Cambridgeshire killing two men and a boy.

25 September – Margaret Thatcher opens the new Central Milton Keynes Shopping Centre, the largest indoor shopping centre in Britain, after its final phase is completed six years after development of the huge complex first began.

October – Statistics show a 2.3% contraction in the economy for the third quarter of the year, sparking fresh fears of another recession.

11 October – Godfrey Hounsfield wins the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine jointly with Allan McLeod Cormack "for the development of computer assisted tomography".

23 October – All remaining foreign exchange controls abolished.

27 October – Saint Vincent and the Grenadines gains independence.

28 October – Chairman Hua Guofeng becomes the first Chinese leader to visit Britain.

30 October – Martin Webster of the National Front is found guilty of inciting racial hatred.

November – British Leyland chief executive Michael Edwardes wins the overwhelming backing of more than 100,000 of the carmaker’s employees for his restructuring plans, which over the next few years will result in the closure of several plants and the loss of some 25,000 jobs.

1 November – The government announces £3.5 billion in public spending cuts and an increase in prescription charges.

5 November – The two men accused of murdering Lord Mountbatten and three others go on trial in Dublin.

9 November – Four men are found guilty over the killing of paperboy Carl Bridgewater, who was shot dead at a farmhouse in the Staffordshire countryside 14 months ago. James Robinson and Vincent Hickey receive life sentences with a recommended minimum of 25 years for murder, Michael Hickey (also guilty of murder) receives an indefinite custodial sentence, while Patrick Molloy is guilty of manslaughter and jailed for 12 years.

11 November – Last episode of the first series of the sitcom To the Manor Born on BBC1 receives 23.95 million viewers, the all-time highest figure for a recorded programme in the UK.

13 November – The Times is published for the first time in nearly a year after a dispute between management and unions over staffing levels and new technology.

Miners reject a 20% pay increase and threaten to go on strike until they get their desired pay rise of 65%.

14 November – Vauxhall launches its first-ever front-wheel drive car – the Astra range of hatchbacks and estates – to compete in the growing family hatchback sector. It replaces the traditional rear-wheel drive Viva saloon, which had been produced in three incarnations since 1963. Initial production of the Astra will take place at the Opel factory in West Germany, with production set to be transferred to Britain by 1981.

15 November – Minimum Lending Rate reaches an all-time high of 17%.

Art historian and former Surveyor of the Queen’s Pictures Anthony Blunt’s role as the "fourth man" of the ‘Cambridge Five’ double agents for the Soviet NKVD during World War II is revealed by Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher in the House of Commons; she gives further details on 21 November.

21 November – Six months after winning the General Election, the Conservatives are five points behind Labour (who have a 45% share of the vote) in an MORI opinion poll.

23 November – In Dublin, Ireland, Irish Republican Army member Thomas McMahon is sentenced to life in prison for the assassination of Lord Mountbatten.

4 December – The Hastie Fire in Hull leads to the deaths of 3 boys and begins the hunt for Bruce George Peter Lee, the UK’s most prolific killer.

7 December – Lord Soames appointed as the transitional governor of Rhodesia to oversee its move to independence.

10 December – William Arthur Lewis wins the Nobel Prize in Economics with Theodore Schultz "for their pioneering research into economic development research with particular consideration of the problems of developing countries".

Daredevil Eddie Kidd performs an 80 ft jump on a motorcycle.

14 December – Doubts are raised over the convictions of the four men in the Carl Bridgewater case after Hubert Vincent Spencer is charged with murdering 70-year-old farmer Hubert Wilkes at a farmhouse less than half a mile away from the one where Carl Bridgewater was murdered.

The Clash release post-punk album London Calling.

20 December – The government publishes the Housing Bill which will give council house tenants the right to buy their homes from the following year. More than 5 million households in the United Kingdom currently occupy council houses.

Inflation rises to 13.4%.

The largest number of working days lost through strike action since 1926.

Dame Josephine Barnes becomes first woman president of the British Medical Association.

The first J D Wetherspoon pub is established by Tim Martin in the London Borough of Haringey.

The band Spandau Ballet begin to play under this name.

Scottish Gaelic service Radio nan Eilean established in Stornoway.

New plant species, Senecio eboracensis, the York groundsel, is discovered.

A record of more than 1.7 million new cars are sold in the United Kingdom this year, with the best selling car, the Ford Cortina, selling more than 190,000 units. Ford Motor Company enjoys the largest share of the new car market, following in second place by British Leyland, the former Chrysler Europe brands (now owned by Peugeot) in third place, and Vauxhall in fourth place. Foreign brands including Datsun, Renault and Volkswagen also prove popular.

1979 in British music

23 February – Dire Straits begin their first American tour, in Boston.

27 March – Eric Clapton marries Patti Boyd, ex-wife of Clapton’s friend George Harrison.

31 March – In the Eurovision Song Contest, UK representatives Black Lace finish 7th.

2 April – Kate Bush begins her first and, to date, her only live tour.

6 April – Rod Stewart marries Alana Hamilton.

1 May – Elton John becomes the first overseas pop music artist to perform in Israel.

2 May – The Who perform their first concert following the death of drummer Keith Moon. The band performed with new drummer Kenney Jones.

11 August – Led Zeppelin play their last ever British concert at Knebworth in Hertfordshire.

21 August – Cliff Richard achieves his tenth UK No.1 and the first for over 11 years.

August – Brotherhood of Man members Martin Lee and Sandra Stevens marry.

26 November – Bill Haley & His Comets perform at the Drury Lane Theatre in London in a command performance for The Queen. This was Haley’s final recorded performance of "Rock Around the Clock".

The Welsh Philharmonia becomes the Orchestra of Welsh National Opera.

Richard Rodney Bennett becomes a resident of New York City.

Arthur Oldham founds the Concertgebouw Orchestra Chorus in Amsterdam.

Number one singles

"Y.M.C.A." – Village People
"Hit Me With Your Rhythm Stick" – Ian Dury and the Blockheads
"Heart of Glass" – Blondie
"Tragedy" – Bee Gees
"I Will Survive" – Gloria Gaynor
"Bright Eyes" – Art Garfunkel
"Sunday Girl" – Blondie
"Ring My Bell" – Anita Ward
"Are ‘Friends’ Electric?" – Tubeway Army
"I Don’t Like Mondays" – The Boomtown Rats
"We Don’t Talk Anymore" – Cliff Richard
"Cars" – Gary Numan
"Message in a Bottle" – The Police
"Video Killed the Radio Star" – The Buggles
"One Day at a Time" – Lena Martell
"When You’re in Love with a Beautiful Woman" – Dr. Hook & The Medicine Show
"Walking on the Moon" – The Police
"Another Brick in the Wall Part II" – Pink Floyd

1979 in British television

2 January – BBC2 broadcasts the first in Michael Wood’s groundbreaking history documentary series, In Search of the Dark Ages.

28 January – Thomas & Sarah, a spin-off of Upstairs, Downstairs premieres on LWT. It runs for only one series.

24 March – Tales of the Unexpected, an Anglia Television series based on the short stories of Roald Dahl, makes its debut on ITV.

3 May–4 May – BBC1 and ITV broadcast coverage of the 1979 General Election. The election is won by the Conservatives and sees Margaret Thatcher become the first female Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

6 August – Technicians at Thames Television go on strike following a long-running dispute.

10 August – The whole of the ITV network except the Channel Islands is affected by a technicians’ strike for eleven weeks.

27 August – Lord Mountbatten was murdered by IRA bombers. His death set a record audience for a news bulletin, as 26 million viewers watched the coverage on BBC1.
Strike action at ITN led to the record viewing figures.

2 September – Subtitling of television programmes on Ceefax begins.

25 September – Robin Day presents the first edition of the long-running political debate programme Question Time on BBC1. The programme continues to air to the present day.

24 October – On ITV’s first night back on the air after the strike, Quatermass, the fourth and final serial featuring Professor Bernard Quatermass, begins its run on the network.

11 November – Last episode of the first series of the sitcom To the Manor Born on BBC1 receives 23.95 million viewers, the all-time highest figure for a recorded programme in the UK.

1 December – BBC2 unveils the first computer-generated television presentation symbol in the world. US broadcaster NBC unveils their first computer-generated symbol later that year.

BBC1

18 January – Blankety Blank (1979–1990, BBC1 1997–1999, ITV 2001–2002)
18 February – Antiques Roadshow (1979–present)
9 June – The Paul Daniels Magic Show (1979–1994)
25 September – Question Time (1979–present)
30 September -To the Manor Born (1979–1981, 2007)
Shoestring (1979–1980)
24 October – Terry and June (1979–1987)

BBC2

28 September – Friday Night, Saturday Morning (1979–1982)
16 October – Not the Nine O’Clock News (1979–1982)

ITV

3 January – The Book Tower (1979–1989)
6 January – Dick Turpin (1979–1982)
14 January – Thomas & Sarah (1979)
25 February – Worzel Gummidge (1979–1981)
11 March – Agony (1979–1981)
24 March – Tales of the Unexpected (1979–1985; 1987–1988)
15 April – End of Part One (1979–1980)
10 July – Sapphire & Steel (1979–1982)
12 July – Shelley (1979–1992)
25 September – Once Upon a Time (1979–present)
29 October – Only When I Laugh (1979–1982)
Minder (1979–1994; 2009)

Image from page 803 of “Knight’s American mechanical dictionary : a description of tools, instruments, machines, processes and engineering, history of inventions, general technological vocabulary ; and digest of mechanical appliances in science and the ar
household tooling made in china
Image by Internet Archive Book Images
Identifier: knightsamericanm02knig
Title: Knight’s American mechanical dictionary : a description of tools, instruments, machines, processes and engineering, history of inventions, general technological vocabulary ; and digest of mechanical appliances in science and the arts
Year: 1882 (1880s)
Authors: Knight, Edward H. (Edward Henry), 1824-1883
Subjects: Industrial arts Mechanical engineering
Publisher: Boston : Houghton, Mifflin and Company
Contributing Library: NCSU Libraries
Digitizing Sponsor: NCSU Libraries

View Book Page: Book Viewer
About This Book: Catalog Entry
View All Images: All Images From Book

Click here to view book online to see this illustration in context in a browseable online version of this book.

Text Appearing Before Image:
See Pillow-block. b. The socket of apivot. An ink orstep. 2. {ShiphuikUng.) Ablock of wood on whichthe inner end of the Pillows.bowsprit rests. 3. (Fabric.) A kind of fustian havingleaved twill. 4. A cushion for the head. The ancient Egjptians used a head-rest for a pillow (6), verysimilar to that now used in China and called a head-stool, orrather by its equivalent in Chinese. It looks uncomfortable,but no doubt was preferred to our kind of pillow in a hot cli-mate. These Egyptian head-rests are mentioned by Porphyry. Theywere maiie of wood or alabaster. They are still used in China,Japan, Abyssinia, Ashantee, and Otaheite. Wood, stone, andearthenware are the modern as they were the ancient materials.They are from 4^ to 10 inches high. Many of them are preserved in the British Museum. One ofwood, 6i inches high, and inscribed with the name and titlesof Mas-khar-hao. Another of arragonite, 6| inches high, witha fluted column, and the name and titles of Atai in front. Fig. 3724. four-

Text Appearing After Image:
a, base. d, pillow. PiUow-Block. b, pedestal.€, cap. c, pedestal-corer. PILLOW-BLOCK. 1705 PIN. Others might be cited. It appears to have been a regular pieceof household furniture. The Egvptians were not ignorant of the use of soft pillows.A cushion with a linen cover and filled with the feathers ofwater-fowl is preserved in the British Museum. Michal, when she sought to save her husband David from thefury of her father Saul, took an image and laid it in the bed,piilo^ving its head upon a bolster of goafs hair covered with acloth Cushions and pillows are common in the East, formed ofsheeps fleeces or goat-skins stuffed with cotton. Pillow-block. (Madiin-ert/.) An iron emdleor bearing to hold the boxes or brasses wliich form ajournal-bearing for a shaft or roller. Pillow-lace. A lace made with bobbins or pirnsu[H)n a pillow. Bobbbi-lac^. It was originally made of silk or tbreid woven into a netwitli hexagonal or octagonal meshes. Afterw.iid, it ivae orna-meated with a thicker taread

Note About Images
Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability – coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.

Nice Plastic Tooling Design China photos

Nice Plastic Tooling Design China photos

A few nice plastic tooling design china images I found:

The Portable Atelier, Nyc.
plastic tooling design china
Image by atelier-ying
This is my camera bag that follows me everywhere, even inside my own home. I also toss it into the baby stroller.

Let’s take a tour starting clockwise from the upper left, shall we?

1. Turano iPad bag with 4 compartments and some dividers. I wish they made this in red or army green or clear smoky plastic.
2. metal drafting triangle, I did forget to include my elliptical and circle templates which I use.
I have a miniature engineer’s scale but there’s no real reason to use it for what I’m doing, my cameras designs stand without toppling over and there’s no standardized dimension of camera building materials to concern myself over. Actually, glue, tape, and architectural modeling supplies are my materials for the most part.
3. the Ricoh GRD3 is tuned for taking only baby photos. I treat it like a film camera; I don’t use the LCD at all, it’s got two settings for color or b&w, and I toss the used chips into a small plastic box. I will have to spend a week on the computer downloading and editing, maybe when my kids turn two years of age.
4. old-fashioned fan. I really use this. it feels so good in the hand, very practical. And good for fanning a restless baby in the stroller. I’d like to get a sandalwood one from HK.
5. Moleskine notebooks. The largest one fits in the Turano, amazingly. I have many sizes of these black notebooks. Actually, I have a red suitcase from my childhood full of nothing but notebooks.
6. Name seals and red ink paste.
7. Office date stamp
8. Muji measuring tape, in millimeters, you never know when you need to measure camera dimensions and distances.
9. Yellow tape, pencil sharpener (sandpaper works best, I find)
10. Coromega (the best Omega supplement and this brand causes no heartburn)
11. my quasi-conductor’s watch made from a complimentary Michael Kors sample attached to a 70’s key strap.
12. iphone and cover and 5mm kaweco lead holder, both in white and brass, my favorite color combo. I want a white and brass kit. Drawing with the Kaweco is a real pleasure. I upload all my drawings with the iphone, from anywhere.
13. Swiss Villiger Cigar box filled with clay scratchboard papers for drawings. I’d like to store an old-world gambling dice game, or a golf game in here too. Like the old Howzat game. I’m working on it.
14. Davidoff Primeros, the best small cigars I have ever had. There is a relic of St. Therese de Lisieux on top of the box. It’s a piece of her habit. It blesses all my efforts.
15. Micron Pen set (.005, .01, .08 sizes)
16. Muji ink refill in gel blue, wonderful scriber’s tool.
17. Namiki Fountain Pen with red ink cartridges. I wish they’d make a vermillion red ink. I can do all my drawings in red, I love the impact and color.
18. Delta La Dolce Vita Fountain pen with Fine nib. The opposite of the ink refill pen in size and feel.
19. HB lead holder
20. Promecha Super Pencil. A work of art in itself.
21. Macanudo Portofino tube with sandpaper for sharpening leads
22. Derwent Electric Eraser, one of my favorite tools, I cannot live without this when I am drawing.
23. Baby’s Rattle. This is one of the best baby pacifiers I know of. Always handy to quiet the little ones.

Cool China Tooling Making Suppliers images

Cool China Tooling Making Suppliers images

Some cool china tooling making suppliers images:

A Bitcoin You Can Flip
china tooling making suppliers
Image by jurvetson
My son has become fascinated with bitcoins, and so I had to get him a tangible one for Xmas (thanks Sim1!). The public key is imprinted visibly on the tamper-evident holographic film, and the private key lies underneath.

I too was fascinated by digital cash back in college, and more specifically by the asymmetric mathematical transforms underlying public-key crypto and digital blind signatures.

I remembered a technical paper I wrote, but could not find it. A desktop search revealed an essay that I completely forgot, something that I had recovered from my archives of floppy discs (while I still could).

It is an article I wrote for the school newspaper in 1994. Ironically, Microsoft Word could not open this ancient Microsoft Word file format, but the free text editors could.

What a fun time capsule, below, with some choice naivetés…

I am trying to reconstruct what I was thinking, and wondering if it makes any sense. I think I was arguing that a bulletproof framework for digital cash (and what better testing ground) could be used to secure a digital container for executable code on a rental basis. So the expression of an idea — the specific code, or runtime service — is locked in a secure container. The idea would be to prevent copying instead of punishing after the fact. Micro-currency and micro-code seem like similar exercises in regulating the single use of an issued number.

Now that the Bitcoin experiment is underway, do you know of anyone writing about it as an alternative framework for intellectual property?

IP and Digital Cash
@NORMAL:
Digital Cash and the “Intellectual Property” Oxymoron
By Steve Jurvetson

Many of us will soon be working in the information services or technology industries which are currently tangled in a bramble patch of intellectual property law. As the law struggles to find coherency and an internally-consistent logic for intellectual property (IP) protection, digital encryption technologies may provide a better solution — from the perspective of reducing litigation, exploiting the inherent benefits of an information-based business model, and preserving a free economy of ideas.
Bullet-proof digital cash technology, which is now emerging, can provide a protected “cryptographic container” for intellectual expressions, thereby preserving traditional notions of intellectual property that protect specific instantiations of an idea rather than the idea itself. For example, it seems reasonable that Intuit should be able to protect against the widespread duplication of their Quicken software (the expression of an idea), but they should not be able to patent the underlying idea of single-entry bookkeeping. There are strong economic incentives for digital cash to develop and for those techniques to be adapted for IP protection — to create a protected container or expression of an idea. The rapid march of information technology has strained the evolution of IP law, but rather than patching the law, information technology itself may provide a more coherent solution.

Information Wants To Be Free
Currently, IP law is enigmatic because it is expanding to a domain for which it was not initially intended. In developing the U.S. Constitution, Thomas Jefferson argued that ideas should freely transverse the globe, and that ideas were fundamentally different from material goods. He concluded that “Inventions then cannot, in nature, be a subject of property.” The issues surrounding IP come into sharp focus as we shift to being more of an information-based economy.
The use of e-mail and local TV footage helps disseminate information around the globe and can be a force for democracy — as seen in the TV footage from Chechen, the use of modems in Prague during the Velvet Revolution, and the e-mail and TV from Tianammen Square. Even Gorbachev used a video camera to show what was happening after he was kidnapped. What appears to be an inherent force for democracy runs into problems when it becomes the subject of property.
As higher-level programming languages become more like natural languages, it will become increasingly difficult to distinguish the idea from the code. Language precedes thought, as Jean-Louis Gassée is fond of saying, and our language is the framework for the formulation and expression of our ideas. Restricting software will increasingly be indistinguishable from restricting freedom of speech.
An economy of ideas and human attention depends on the continuous and free exchange of ideas. Because of the associative nature of memory processes, no idea is detached from others. This begs the question, is intellectual property an oxymoron?

Intellectual Property Law is a Patch
John Perry Barlow, former Grateful Dead lyricist and co-founder (with Mitch Kapor) of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, argues that “Intellectual property law cannot be patched, retrofitted or expanded to contain digitized expression… Faith in law will not be an effective strategy for high-tech companies. Law adapts by continuous increments and at a pace second only to geology. Technology advances in lunging jerks. Real-world conditions will continue to change at a blinding pace, and the law will lag further behind, more profoundly confused. This mismatch may prove impossible to overcome.”
From its origins in the Industrial Revolution where the invention of tools took on a new importance, patent and copyright law has protected the physical conveyance of an idea, and not the idea itself. The physical expression is like a container for an idea. But with the emerging information superhighway, the “container” is becoming more ethereal, and it is disappearing altogether. Whether it’s e-mail today, or the future goods of the Information Age, the “expressions” of ideas will be voltage conditions darting around the net, very much like thoughts. The fleeting copy of an image in RAM is not very different that the fleeting image on the retina.
The digitization of all forms of information — from books to songs to images to multimedia — detaches information from the physical plane where IP law has always found definition and precedent. Patents cannot be granted for abstract ideas or algorithms, yet courts have recently upheld the patentability of software as long as it is operating a physical machine or causing a physical result. Copyright law is even more of a patch. The U.S. Copyright Act of 1976 requires that works be fixed in a durable medium, and where an idea and its expression are inseparable, the merger doctrine dictates that the expression cannot be copyrighted. E-mail is not currently copyrightable because it is not a reduction to tangible form. So of course, there is a proposal to amend these copyright provisions. In recent rulings, Lotus won its case that Borland’s Quattro Pro spreadsheet copied elements of Lotus 123’s look and feel, yet Apple lost a similar case versus Microsoft and HP. As Professor Bagley points out in her new text, “It is difficult to reconcile under the total concept and feel test the results in the Apple and Lotus cases.” Given the inconsistencies and economic significance of these issues, it is no surprise that swarms of lawyers are studying to practice in the IP arena.
Back in the early days of Microsoft, Bill Gates wrote an inflammatory “Open Letter to Hobbyists” in which he alleged that “most of you steal your software … and should be kicked out of any club meeting you show up at.” He presented the economic argument that piracy prevents proper profit streams and “prevents good software from being written.” Now we have Windows.
But seriously, if we continue to believe that the value of information is based on scarcity, as it is with physical objects, we will continue to patch laws that are contrary to the nature of information, which in many cases increases in value with distribution. Small, fast moving companies (like Netscape and Id) protect their ideas by getting to the marketplace quicker than their larger competitors who base their protection on fear and litigation.
The patent office is woefully understaffed and unable to judge the nuances of software. Comptons was initially granted a patent that covered virtually all multimedia technology. When they tried to collect royalties, Microsoft pushed the Patent Office to overturn the patent. In 1992, Software Advertising Corp received a patent for “displaying and integrating commercial advertisements with computer software.” That’s like patenting the concept of a radio commercial. In 1993, a DEC engineer received a patent on just two lines of machine code commonly used in object-oriented programming. CompuServe announced this month that they plan to collect royalties on the widely used GIF file format for images.
The Patent Office has issued well over 12,000 software patents, and a programmer can unknowingly be in violation of any them. Microsoft had to pay 0MM to STAC in February 1994 for violating their patent on data compression. The penalties can be costly, but so can a patent search. Many of the software patents don’t have the words “computer,” “software,” “program,” or “algorithm” in their abstracts. “Software patents turn every decision you make while writing a program into a legal risk,” says Richard Stallman, founder of the League for Programming Freedom. “They make writing a large program like crossing a minefield. Each step has a small chance of stepping on a patent and blowing you up.” The very notion of seventeen years of patent protection in the fast moving software industry seems absurd. MS-DOS did not exist seventeen years ago.
IP law faces the additional wrinkle of jurisdictional issues. Where has an Internet crime taken place? In the country or state in which the computer server resides? Many nations do not have the same intellectual property laws as the U.S. Even within the U.S., the law can be tough to enforce; for example, a group of music publishers sued CompuServe for the digital distribution of copyrighted music. A complication is that CompuServe has no knowledge of the activity since it occurs in the flood of bits transferring between its subscribers
The tension seen in making digital copies revolves around the issue of property. But unlike the theft of material goods, copying does not deprive the owner of their possessions. With digital piracy, it is less a clear ethical issue of theft, and more an abstract notion that you are undermining the business model of an artist or software developer. The distinction between ethics and laws often revolves around their enforceability. Before copy machines, it was hard to make a book, and so it was obvious and visible if someone was copying your work. In the digital age, copying is lightning fast and difficult to detect. Given ethical ambiguity, convenience, and anonymity, it is no wonder we see a cultural shift with regard to digital ethics.

Piracy, Plagiarism and Pilfering
We copy music. We are seldom diligent with our footnotes. We wonder where we’ve seen Strat-man’s PIE and the four slices before. We forward e-mail that may contain text from a copyrighted news publication. The SCBA estimates that 51% of satellite dishes have illegal descramblers. John Perry Barlow estimates that 90% of personal hard drives have some pirated software on them.
Or as last month’s Red Herring editorial points out, “this atmosphere of electronic piracy seems to have in turn spawned a freer attitude than ever toward good old-fashioned plagiarism.” Articles from major publications and WSJ columns appear and circulate widely on the Internet. Computer Pictures magazine replicated a complete article on multimedia databases from New Media magazine, and then publicly apologized.
Music and voice samples are an increasingly common art form, from 2 Live Crew to Negativland to local bands like Voice Farm and Consolidated. Peter Gabriel embraces the shift to repositioned content; “Traditionally, the artist has been the final arbiter of his work. He delivered it and it stood on its own. In the interactive world, artists will also be the suppliers of information and collage material, which people can either accept as is, or manipulate to create their own art. It’s part of the shift from skill-based work to decision-making and editing work.”
But many traditionalists resist the change. Museums are hesitant to embrace digital art because it is impossible to distinguish the original from a copy; according to a curator at the New Museum of Contemporary Art, “The art world is scared to death of this stuff.” The Digital Audio Tape debate also illustrated the paranoia; the music industry first insisted that these DAT recorders had to purposely introduce static into the digital copies they made, and then they settled for an embedded code that limited the number of successive copies that could be made from the a master source.
For a healthier reaction, look at the phenomenally successful business models of Mosaic/Netscape and Id Software, the twisted creator of Doom. Just as McAfee built a business on shareware, Netscape and Id encourage widespread free distribution of their product. But once you want support from Netscape, or the higher levels of the Doom game, then you have to pay. For industries with strong demand-side economies of scale, such as Netscape web browsers or Safe-TCL intelligent agents, the creators have exploited the economies of information distribution. Software products are especially susceptible to increasing returns with scale, as are networking products and most of the information technology industries.
Yet, the Software Publishers Association reports that 1993 worldwide losses to piracy of business application software totaled .45 billion. They also estimated that 89% of software units in Korea were counterfeit. And China has 29 factories, some state-owned, that press 75 million pirated CDs per year, largely for export. GATT will impose the U.S. notions of intellectual property on a world that sees the issue very differently.
Clearly there are strong economic incentives to protect intellectual property, and reasonable arguments can be made for software patents and digital copyright, but the complexities of legal enforcement will be outrun and potentially obviated by the relatively rapid developments of another technology, digital cash and cryptography.

Digital Cash and the IP Lock
Digital cash is in some ways an extreme example of digital “property” — since it cannot be copied, it is possessed by one entity at a time, and it is static and non-perishable. If the techniques for protecting against pilferage and piracy work in the domain of cash, then they can be used to “protect” other properties by being embedded in them. If I wanted to copy-protect an “original” work of digital art, digital cash techniques be used as the “container” to protect intellectual property in the old style. A bullet-proof digital cash scheme would inevitably be adapted by those who stand to gain from the current system. Such as Bill Gates.
Several companies are developing technologies for electronic commerce. On January 12, several High-Tech Club members attended the Cybermania conference on electronic commerce with the CEOs of Intuit, CyberCash, Enter TV and The Lightspan Partnership. According to Scott Cook, CEO of Intuit, the motivations for digital cash are anonymity and efficient small-transaction Internet commerce. Anonymity preserves our privacy in the age of increasingly intrusive “database marketing” based on credit card purchase patterns and other personal information. Of course, it also has tax-evasion implications. For Internet commerce, cash is more efficient and easier to use than a credit card for small transactions.
“A lot of people will spend nickels on the Internet,” says Dan Lynch of CyberCash. Banks will soon exchange your current cash for cyber-tokens, or a “bag of bits” which you can spend freely on the Internet. A competitor based in the Netherlands called DigiCash has a Web page with numerous articles on electronic money and fully functional demo of their technology. You can get some free cash from them and spend it at some of their allied vendors.
Digital cash is a compelling technology. Wired magazine calls it the “killer application for electronic networks which will change the global economy.” Handling and fraud costs for the paper money system are growing as digital color copiers and ATMs proliferate. Donald Gleason, President of the Smart Card Enterprise unit of Electronic Payment Services argues that “Cash is a nightmare. It costs money handlers in the U.S. alone approximately billion a year to move the stuff… Bills and coinage will increasingly be replaced by some sort of electronic equivalent.” Even a Citibank VP, Sholom Rosen, agrees that “There are going to be winners and losers, but everybody is going to play.”
The digital cash schemes use a blind digital signature and a central repository to protect against piracy and privacy violations. On the privacy issue, the techniques used have been mathematically proven to be protected against privacy violations. The bank cannot trace how the cash is being used or who is using it. Embedded in these schemes are powerful digital cryptography techniques which have recently been spread in the commercial domain (RSA Data Security is a leader in this field and will be speaking to the High Tech Club on January 19).
To protect against piracy requires some extra work. As soon as I have a digital bill on my Mac hard drive, I will want to make a copy, and I can. (Many companies have busted their picks trying to copy protect files from hackers. It will never work.). The difference is that I can only spend the bill once. The copy is worthless. This is possible because every bill has a unique encrypted identifier. In spending the bill, my computer checks with the centralized repository which verifies that my particular bill is still unspent. Once I spend it, it cannot be spent again. As with many electronic transactions today, the safety of the system depends on the integrity of a centralized computer, or what Dan Lynch calls “the big database in the sky.”
One of the most important limitations of the digital cash techniques is that they are tethered to a transaction between at least three parties — a buyer, seller and central repository. So, to use such a scheme to protect intellectual property, would require networked computers and “live” files that have to dial up and check in with the repository to be operational. There are many compelling applications for this, including voter registration, voting tabulation, and the registration of digital artwork originals.
When I asked Dan Lynch about the use of his technology for intellectual property protection, he agreed that the bits that now represent a bill could be used for any number of things, from medical records to photographs. A digital photograph could hide a digital signature in its low-order bits, and it would be imperceptible to the user. But those bits could be used with a registry of proper image owners, and could be used to prove misappropriation or sampling of the image by others.
Technology author Steven Levy has been researching cryptography for Wired magazine, and he responded to my e-mail questions with the reply “You are on the right track in thinking that crypto can preserve IP. I know of several attempts to forward plans to do so.” Digital cash may provide a “crypto-container” to preserve traditional notions of intellectual property.
The transaction tether limits the short-term applicability of these schemes for software copy protection. They won’t work on an isolated computer. This certainly would slow its adoption for mobile computers since the wireless networking infrastructure is so nascent. But with Windows ’95 bundling network connectivity, soon most computers will be network-ready — at least for the Microsoft network. And now that Bill Gates is acquiring Intuit, instead of dollar bills, we will have Bill dollars.
The transaction tether is also a logistical headache with current slow networks, which may hinder its adoption for mass-market applications. For example, if someone forwards a copyrighted e-mail, the recipient may have to have their computer do the repository check before they could see the text of the e-mail. E-mail is slow enough today, but in the near future, these techniques of verifying IP permissions and paying appropriate royalties in digital cash could be background processes on a preemptive multitasking computer (Windows ’95 or Mac OS System 8). The digital cash schemes are consistent with other trends in software distribution and development — specifically software rental and object-oriented “applets” with nested royalty payments. They are also consistent with the document-centric vision of Open Doc and OLE.
The user of the future would start working on their stationary. When it’s clear they are doing some text entry, the word processor would be downloaded and rented for its current usage. Digital pennies would trickle back to the people who wrote or inspired the various portions of the core program. As you use other software applets, such as a spell-checker, it would be downloaded as needed. By renting applets, or potentially finer-grained software objects, the licensing royalties would be automatically tabulated and exchanged, and software piracy would require heroic efforts. Intellectual property would become precisely that — property in a market economy, under lock by its “creator,” and Bill Gates’ 1975 lament over software piracy may now be addressed 20 years later.

——–end of paper———–

On further reflection, I must have been thinking of executable code (where the runtime requires a cloud connect to authenticate) and not passive media. Verification has been a pain, but perhaps it’s seamless in a web-services future. Cloud apps and digital cash depend on it, so why not the code itself.

I don’t see it as particularly useful for still images (but it could verify the official owner of any unique bundle of pixels, in the sense that you can "own" a sufficiently large number, but not the essence of a work of art or derivative works). Frankly, I’m not sure about non-interactive content in general, like pure video playback. "Fixing" software IP alone would be a big enough accomplishment.

1960’s packet of sealed Embassy cigarettes unopened best selling cigarett brand of the 1960’s until 1971, succeeded by Players No6
china tooling making suppliers
Image by Computer Poster Photographs
Cigarettes have been available packets for a long time The fraze "Coff in nails" Is a old 19th century word (1880s) Only fitting because the like of brands that came out with natural, especially like "WoodBine" 1888) and knowing the dangers of smoking even then. called cigarettes "coffin nails" The Bonsack machine in 1880 was the first cigarette making machine ever Woodbine was formally britains best selling cigarette and was decomissiomednon its 200th aninversery in 1988 when the manufactuer Wd&Ho Whills decided to debunked because of old age and call it a day at 200 years old. they was also the manufactuers odd Golden Virginia, and Embassy. in Britain not many brands have been Britains best selling cigarette, since the end of end of the 1940s there is only four brands that ever did this(Embassy, Players N06, Silk Cut and Lambert and Butler) Benson&Hedges special filter was never actually britains best selling cigarette, as there is no evidence in figures to say they was, also there is no figures published for the 1980s, maybe four brands drew with each other, so there was no out right winner, maybe Bensons had individual yeas a britains best selling cigarette and a good enough average of sales in infact qualify them for said award?. I guess maybe even though they never was beat seller in a decleration adequate they surly had lots of individual years where they was UK’so Number1. Silk Cut is a Benson brand any way, and so is Mayfair in reality. Mayfair are Britains second best selling cigarette since 2002 (First ever econemy tobacco brand that ever held the honour of Britain’s second best selling cigarette, L&B have been The UKs best seller since 2002, the top two have not changed to date., Mayfair are branded Gallagher, and now JTI that are the same company as Benson.. Mayfair is a 1960s Benson cigarette, originally in a red box, and not king size.
Silk Cut themselves was the biggest selling cigarette brand of the 1990s,
I might add.The worlds best selling cigarette is Marlboro since 1973 AS THE AMERICANS ALL THEM AS "COWBOY KILLERS" INDEED I AM A SMOKER AND I WOULD LIKE TO SAY THAT IS INDEED DANGEROUS TO ARM THESE CIGARETTES WITH A GUNS.
OLD CIGARETTE BOXES CAN FETCH A LOT OF MONEY UP TO A (£100 )ORIGINAL CIGARETTE PACKETS FROM 1847 TO THE 1890s ARE RARE AND WORTH A £ OR TWO, BUT REMAIN Unseen UNDOCUMENTED IN A PRIVATE COLLECTION BY A UNKNOWN COLLECTOR. IN INTERNET DOCUMENTATION, YOU MAY FIND DIAGRAMS ELSEWHERE BUT AT THIS MOMENT IN TIME THERE IS NO REAL DOCUMENTATIONAL EVIDENCE TO SHOW THESE EARLY CIGARETTES, SAYING THAT WE HAVE BEEN SMOKING IN BRITAIN FOR APPROX 540 YEARS OR MORE. THERE IS LOTS OF MEMORABILIA OUT THERE, IVE SEEN A FEW THREE HUNDRED YEARS OLD BRASS TOBACCO POTS WITH LIDS FOR SALE ON EBAY, NICE ADDITION TO YOUR 14 A DAY, WHY DO THEY STILL MAKE CIGARETTES? BECAUSE WE GET BAD TEMPERED IF WE HAVE NOT GOT ANY AND AGGRESSIVELY FORCE THE TOBACCO FACTORY WORKERS TO MAKE US SOME? WELL THAT MUST PASSED A MIND OF TWO WONDERING TO OURSELVES AFTER ALL KNOWING THE DANGERS OF SMOKING, TO AS WHY WE ARE TECHNICALLY STILL SMOKING THESE SMOKE STICKS THAT MAKE YOU FEEL SICK, MAYBE THEY ARE OUR PAIN THRESH HOLD, AND DEFEAT ANOTHER ILL. IF WE ENDURE THEM?
THE GOVERNMENT KNOW WHAT WE ARE LIKE. AND THAT’S WHY THEY CAN’T BAN THE STUFF? I HAVE BEEN PUFFIN AND INHALING TOBACCO PRODUCTS FOR 30 YEARS. IN THEM DAYS. 20 SUPERKINGS WAS £1.14p that about £3.40p in today’s reckoning. over £5 now is paid in tax on cigarettes (75%)
.Tax was introduced in 1976 and health warnings on packets in 1971 by EU law. knowing the dangers of smoking as i do i must say there is still mythology and confusion about cigarettes. Such as the boy advert on todays graphic health warning.that claim that "even smoking around children can kill them" and that people "up to the 1950s use to smoke a average of 100 cigarettes a day" opposed to today’s figures of 14 a day average intake. Its where the system gets confused, and the seems as if the non smoker is trying to take control, and make false claims such as "smoking around children damages there health", When infact most of us smokers would rather be the child as they have 99.9% fresher air than us non smokers do, whether or not there is smoke in the same room as they are in, and the smell of nicotine is good for them , as it makes them feel sick and deters them from smoking when they are old enough to do so, parents on the whole do not encourage children to smoke, it comes as well from other parts of the community, anyway there parents are not to blame for smoking, because they was children themselves once. Maybe a ignorant non smokers attitude at the end of the day to use children as the victim.
100 cigarettes a day is a myth? maybe maybe because cigarettes price have gone up five times , so they count that as 100? another case of misinterpretation of the official secrets act because they could not read the complexity of the text, these long words, and invest in PHD professors to de classify the official secrets act as official public revelation?
Jut like China did when they banned the motorbike recently, and never read the health and saft act out first as you must, but said they was not banning them from there towns because they was dangerous, but said because they was cheap, it is not so much they said they was a cheap form of transport, but they should have read the health and safety act out first, then you as thus say "there is better things to spend our money on"
.There has been Health warnings in BRITAIN FOR OVER 400 HUNDRED YEARS ON TOBACCO. I READ ONE RECENTLY DATED 200 YEARS AGO SAYING "SMOKING KILLS" THERE ARE INFACT 12 MILLION SMOKERS IN BRITAIN
AGAIN THE FIGURES WAS LOWERED TO HIDE A KIND OF NON SMOKERS PARANOIA WHERE IS THE EVIDENCE THAT SMOKING IS ON THE DECREASE? ANYWAY HERE IS YOUR TOP TEN ALTERNATIVES TO SMOKING YOU ASKED ME FOR. CHOOSE YOUR OWN DEATH. JUST CHECK THAT TAB . YES YOU CAN "CUSTOMISED YOUR OWN DEATH" INSTEAD OF DYEING FROM CIGARETTES. CHOOSE FROM THE LIST PROVIDED AS A ALTERNATIVE INSTEAD
1- DRINK AND DRIVE?." ITS A FUN WAY TO GO"
US AT MADABOUT@COM CAN OFFER YOU THE BEST DEALS ON MASTER OF YOUR OWN ROAD, .WARNING BEWARE OF THIS WEBSITE AS THE PRODUCT IS A SEMI RIPP-OFF AS THEY ONLY SUPPLY A IN CAR BAR FITTING. NO TRAINING TO DO 125MPH ON A BUILT UP AREA FOR CHARITY DRUNK.
2- CONFESS TO THE POLICE YOU ARE REALLY A PAEDOPHILE? AT MORE T-I-C,s THAN A CLOCK .COM we can arrange this for you ,the setting up of fake photos,,witnesses to the crime, children in there masses can be supplied on demand to give false witnessbaccounts, as we are indeed the "biggest UK supplier" of said resource. guaranteed satisfaction, or "we will refund you your mumy back "GUARANTEED".
AGAIN IT MUST BE SAID BECAUSE OF THESE SITES CLAIMING TO BE PROFESSIONAL PEDO FRAME SPECIALISTS. YOU CAN END UP SPENDING A LOT OF MONEY "DIE PEDO DIE.CO.UK@YOU" ARE THE WORLD LEADER IN THIS INDUSTRY. THEY GET TO THE POINT. DON’T TAKE IT FROM ME, TAKE IT FROM THEM. THEY JUST SIMPLY SUPPLY YOU WITH A DIGITAL CAMERA, OR CAMCORDER. SIMPLE ISN’T IT JOB DONE BECAUSE WE ALL KNOW THAT PEOPLE IN PUBLIC WITH CAMERAS ARE PEDO’S RIGHT? !THIS HAS A 100% SUCCESS RATE, OR YOU MONEY BACK GUARANTEED EXCUSE ME AS I GIVE MY SPONSOR A HELP IN HAND I AM JUST LOOKING OUT OF MY CAR WINDOW RIGHT NOW, I AM HERE TO PLEASE I CAN SEE A MEMBER OF THE PUBLIC NOW WITH A SLR. camera,"HAY YOU PEDO WHAT ARE YOU TAKING PICTURES FOR IN PUBLIC FOR, ARE YOU A REAL PERV? THAT’S AGAINST THE LAW TO TAKE PHOTOS IN PUBLIC PLACES I AM TELLING ON YOU PEDOCAM"
THERE YOU GO I OFFER MY SERVICE AS VOLUNTEER.
,3 -WATCH THE BBC ,4- LIVE, WITH MUM AND DAD ALL YOUR LIFE?
,5- SMOKE CHESTERFIELDS?,
6-USE TESCO’S 24HOUR?,
7-BELIEVE THAT BREAST ENLARGEMENTS ARE REAL?
8- LIVE ON FACEBOOK (THE STUDENTS UNION HAVE A GOVERNMENT HEALTH WARNING WRITTEN ON THEIR BACKS?) and behind there backs.
-9 USE FLICKR 16 A DAY, ARSEH*LE CREEPING AROUND OTHER FLICKR MEMBERS. LOOKING AT THERE PHOTO STREAM, LEAVING COMMENTS SO YOU CAN GET MORE VIEWS FOR YOUR BORING PICTURES PLASTIC? SYNTHETIC VIEW COUNT CHEAP OR WHAT?
. I MEAN AT HALF THE PRICE TWO FOR ONE OFFER! LIMITED PROMOTION TIME ONLY, OFFER END 30/09/2078.
YES WE GET IT THAT YOU VIEW EVERBODYS PHOTSTREAM, SO THEY WILL VISIT YOUR FLICKR WEBSITE, TO CONTRIBUTE TO THE DIGITS, TO INCREASE THEM SO IT LOOKS LIKE A MASS POLITICAL COVER UP, THAT IN ALL OTHER CIRCUMSTANCES WAS THE BORING HOME SLIDE SHOW COME ALIVE, COME REAL, CONCOCTED IN BEELZEBUBS LABS, USING ONLY "BLACK BUNNIES" TO TEST SAID APPLICATIONS OF DEEP BORE, ONLY CAPABLE AS WE KNOW BY THE COPYRIGHT LAWS TO BE EXCLUSIVE TO THE UNDERGROUND TEST FERSILATIES OF THE DEVIL.
I WILL JUST READ THE MANUFACTURES GLOSSY ON THIS SITE CALLED death-by-flickr@uk.com.
You mean flickr was concocted by the underworld, to fool us to believing different from what we all ready knew, and that was that other peoples photos are boring?
No you get done in by a dunce that contacted you on your flickr stream, and got friendly and then they came around and and killed you.

AND LAST BUT NOT LEAST No-10 "give up smoking" all together now "smoking kills" IT DOES IF YOU HAVE NOT GOT ANY THIS IS GUARANTEED BY TH MANUFACTURERS CALLED GOOGLE.BOMB TO BE THE ONLY REAL ALTERNATIVE TO SMOKING CIGARETTES "GOOGLE.BOMB".UNIVERSITY KNOWALLS@CO.UK claim a 100% success rate on my spelling…erm i mean on this particular subject product description highlighted on top of the Pops 1978. WE ARE HERE TO SERVE THE SMOKING COMMUNITY. JUST DOWNLOAD THE SOFTWARE CLICK "RUN" and when the yahoo tool bar is fully downloaded press INSTALL US AND ARE FRIENDS YAHOO WITH ASK JEAVES ON LEAD BASEBALL BAT, CAN HAVE "ANY F***ER" YOU SEEMED TO KNOW THE SPELLING CORRECTION ON THAT DIDN’T YOU? JUST YOU LITTLE B*STARDS OF INTERNET FLIDDERMISATION-KEYBOARD JUNKY CLONES "WE ARE ARD" and thus "GUNS DON’T KILL PEOPLE , WE KILL PEOPLE". us at cog-google re-enterprises forward-slash-you-up-a-bit@http. can do anyone. So tell me now you have herd the top ten options whats your choice? you only live one life life’s to short not to take advantage of these offers why not try a free 30 day trial download them all and brake your hard drive rendering your PC useless maybe that’s the "11th best alternative to smoking" that no one is offering us smokers so in the mean time as i light another JPS up. oh that’s a add as it illegal to promote cigarettes. (in other words they need no introduction. that’s why they don’t promote cigarettes anymore
And before i totality CoggGoogle looking at the internet all the time, stripping the gears i have to say to the next time.

You was serious there for a minute wasn’t you John Future?"

Indeed because i was dying for a cigarette, so back to normal now with Dr Dr

"Dr Dr i cant give up smoking". Dr says try hand grenades, just juggle them until they expire.

Maybe thinking about it though if it was not best to ship all of the smokers out on big ships and put them all on a island somwhere, and maybe put there faces on a Easter egg as a "Thanks" but no thanks, the supermarkets are now hiding the cigarettes behind sliding doors, and so should smokers be?

"But we are not black you may say?"

But i got a shipping line to run, and get this "Duty Free" where do you want to go? Easter island?

"WE will re invade the UK, and ethnic every where. The Cannery islands"

Ok lets go anyway i will becoming along with you as the government does not like me either.

"We will miss home"

Miss home i am just taking you on a cruise tour of my New Album, as this is a smugglers ship, and if anything goes wrong don’t worry you take the blame. Last stop Felixstowe

And we have to stop to pick up some cars, and other items. As we don’t intend on paying any VAT once we arrive back, excise duty is really means exercise duty, but as we are "Fat Wasters" we don’t qualify to pay for any. and you want out of Britain don’t you? to go and live in other peoples countries, the land of promise. And get this we can scream racial discrimination with the best off them. Have our foreign faces put on TV programmes in other county. embarrass there society when other competitor country’s watch there exported TV programmes. as they are now ethnicated broadcasters?
Have have" White nigger" shouted to us by a passing white van, and then as always thus, go and find a puney little native and bash beefy Because you are in the right?
We all know people emigrate to other peoples country’s because they think they are soft targets, and they will get a better life, better house than living in there own countries , or the UK, and you think it was because they was on the run?.
I have simply cut out the middleman here with my ship, and intercepted some ethnics to be, and sank the ship in the middle of the ocean with there grandads left over submarine missile, he was innuendoing about for years, and "Germans this and that".
And i got a big bumper pack of 200 Embassy, and get this duty free for my Captain Seagull efforts today.

You mean shoot the ethnics living in Britain, and the British nationals living abroad?

YES AND YOU TAKE THE BLAME. FOR LETTING THEM DO THIS IN THE FIRST PLACE.

Granted IT WAS NOT MY NUCLEAR MISSILE FROM POUND LAND THAT SANK THE EX PATS TO BE SHIP.
It was sank by imagrents arriving to come into Britain(there own worse enemy’s).
But you take the blame anyway, because you thought it in your best interest to do such a thing, its written all over your face "you are as bad as them" and if they get it you get it, law of advantages and the law also says "75+% tax. and i guess i will be getting a cut in that. BECAUSE YOU ARE GOING TO TAKE THE BLAME FOR WHAT I JUST DID, I SIMPLY CUT OUT THE MIDDLEMAN, AND "SANK RULE BRITANNIA -1" ON IT’s MAIDEN VOYAGE because they was apprentice ethnics.
call IT A MIX OF PERKS OF THE jOB AND ACT OF CHARITY.

Indeed you at home that never left these shores, along with foreign people abroad in there said counties that never emigrate.and are indiginous to the tee, are as bad as them. How could you be any different?
Do you really think we could have got away with being that racist for long ? No. Because they are all in together, Trust no one, you will be informed on at any moment in time. aproach with caution. It’s best to take the piss out of both sides and this is as we know called "Job satisfaction" You canot have your cake and eat it? Because it was a piece of cake.

Nice China Tooling Make Maker photographs

Nice China Tooling Make Maker photographs

Some cool china tooling make maker images:

Mission Impossible
china tooling make maker
Image by jurvetson
Hanging by its tail from the balcony roof. (best viewed large)

Costa Rica: Abolished its army to invest in education instead. Almost a carbon neutral country, as all of their electricity comes from hydro, wind and geothermal, and they planted 3 million trees last year. The forest coverage grew from 21% in 1987 to 52% today. They made a bet that ecotourism would be a better use of the land than cattle farming. And now it does earn more than cattle, bananas and coffee combined. And they are still the second largest banana producer in the world.

I was reading these stats in Stewart Brand’s new book, Whole Earth Discipline, while ensconced in the Guanacaste Forest he celebrates.

And how about the Costa Ricans?
They are the happiest people on Earth (NYT).

Here are some provocative quotes from Stewart Brand’s book – a eco-friendly pragmatist’s celebration of urbanization, nuclear energy and genetically modified organisms:

“Climate change. Urbanization. Biotechnology. Those three narratives, still taking shape, are developing a long arc likely to dominate this century.

In all societies from hunter-gatherers on up through agricultural tribes, then chiefdoms, to early complex civilizations, 25 percent of adult males routinely died from warfare… Humans perpetually fight because they always outstrip the carrying capacity of their natural environment and then have to fight over resources… Peace can break out, though, when carrying capacity is pushed up suddenly, as with the invention of agriculture…trade, or technological breakthroughs. Also a large-scale dieback from pestilence can make for peaceful times… With climate change under way… we face a carrying capacity crisis leading to war of all against all, this time with massively lethal weapons and a dieback measured in billions.

The United States and France have the highest birth rates in the developed world, just below replacement level. America does it with immigrants and churchgoers… France does it with socialism.

Fully 85 percent of the world’s working age youth, those between the ages of 15 and 24, live in the developing world.

Chernobyl: The real damage to people in the region is from poverty and mental stress. Fear of radiation is a far more important health threat than radiation itself. The zone’s evacuation put an end to industrialization, deforestation, cultivation and other human intrusions, making it one of Ukraine’s environmentally cleanest regions… The world’s worst nuclear power plant disaster is not as destructive to wildlife populations as are normal human activities. Even where the levels of radiation are highest, wildlife abounds. I predict there will be a Chernobyl National Park.

Nuclear energy has done more to eliminate existing nuclear weapons from the world than any other activity. …currently 10% of the electricity Americans use comes from Russian missiles and bombs.

Coal is now understood to be the long-term systemic horror we once thought nuclear was.

The environmental movement has done more harm with its opposition to genetic engineering than with any other thing we have been wrong about. We’ve starved people, hindered science, hurt the natural environment, and denied our own practitioners a crucial tool. We make ourselves look a conspicuously irrational as those who espouse ‘intelligent design’ or ban stem-cell research, and we teach that irrationality to the public and to decision makers.

As with nuclear, those who know the most are the least frightened.

By current estimates, 80% of the genes in microbes traveled horizontally at some point in their past. Parasitic plants and fungi swap genes spontaneously with their hosts. Virus-like genes represent a staggering 90% of the human genome.

Despite their best efforts to shut it down or ignore it, environmentalists gained more from the space program than anyone else, and sooner.

Ecosystem engineering is an ancient art, practiced and malpracticed by every human society since the mastery of fire.

A continental American population estimated to have been between 50 million and 100 million in 1491 was reduced to 6.5 million by 1650. It was the greatest cataclysm in human history; a fifth of the world’s population died. We think of it as a military event, but it was almost entirely biological.

China, a nation run by engineers rather than lawyers.

When Kevin Kelly was traveling in China in 2006, he found that every elementary school in every village had a sign over the door in Mandarin with the following guidance:

LOOK UP TO SCIENCE.
CARE FOR YOUR FAMILY.
RESPECT LIFE.
RESIST CULTY RELIGION.”

A-B – Bristol Street Directory 1775
china tooling make maker
Image by brizzle born and bred
Sketchley’s Bristol Directory 1775

1775 Albemarle Row, Hotwells

www.flickr.com/photos/41308227@N00/3261230220/in/photolis…

1. Dupont, John
2. Speed, John, L.B.
3. Crook, ?, L.B.
4. Budge, Rev. Christopher
5. Raynous, Eliz., L.B.
7. Watkins, John, L.B.
7. Weaver, -, L.B.

1775 Aldridge Key Lane, recently Aldersquay Lane, Narrow Quay

www.flickr.com/photos/20654194@N07/8686767084/in/photolis…

In the parish of St. Stephen. In 1696, Ebenezar Duddlestone lived here.

A corruption of the name “Aldworth”, from the fact that Alderman Aldworth caused a dock to be made here. It was filled up in 1687. The Lane was absorbed in the Co-operative Wholesale Society’s building about the year 1900.

1868 Bankruptcy is awarded and issued against James Milton, late of the sign of the King of Prussia, Aldersquay-Lane, in the City of Bristol.

www.flickr.com/photos/20654194@N07/7152247955/in/photolis…

Blue Bell, (pub) Quay Lane (Alderskey Lane) 1775 Jacob Beer.

1. Davis, Elinor, widow, vict, King of Prussia (pub)
2. Cutler, John, carpenter
3. Powell, William, post-chaises to let
4. Powell, Mary, widow
5. Beer, Jacob, vict, Blue Bell (pub)

1775 Alexander’s Court, near Redcross Street, now demolished

Off Redcross Lane

1. Parker, John, sailcloth manufacturer

1775 Anchor Road see Rope Walk

1775 Ann Street

Built about 1711-12

8. Thompson, (malt-house)
18. Baker, John, baker
25. Spearing, William, vict, Duke of Devonshire
50. James, Charles, carpenter

1775 All Saints’ Lane

Corn Street to High Street market.

The Rummer mentioned below was a well-known inn. Formerly the Greene Lattis stood on or near this site as far back as 1241, and it appears to have been succeeded by the Abyndon, the New Inn, the Jonas, and finally the Rummer. It was demolished when the Exchange was erected in 1743, and afterwards the present Rummer was built on a portion of the site.

4. Taylor, Tho., Rummer Tavern

1775 Assembly Lane, now Assembly Rooms Lane

So called from its conmtiguity to the Assembly Rooms, Prince Street, which was once a fashionable concert hall, but is now used as a warehouse.

The Assembly Rooms, once a fashionable concert hall, resounding with the merry music of harp, sackbut, and psaltery, has long lost caste, and Cithara tollat curas, the inscription on the forehead of the building, is only suggestive of the sweet memories of its past experience.

1. Hobbs, James, mason and bricklayer

1775 Avenue, near St. James’s Square

1. Higgins, Elizabeth, vict, Trout
4. Weaver, Thomas, attorney and clerk to the justices of the counties of Gloucester and Somerset

5. Rock, ?
6. Fox, Mary
7. Cole, ?

1775 Avon Street, Temple

Built on ground originally the gardens and grounds of the Augustinian Friars. At No.7 lived Richard Trevett, the night constable, probably a decrepit ancient individual, in direct contrast to the sturdy policeman of today.

1. Ring, Robert, cooper
2. Prust, Thomas, captain of the John
3. Clements, John, mariner
5. Cannon, Jeremiah, taylor
6. Green, William, gent.
7. Trevett, Richard, Night Constable
8. Isaacs, Isaac, glass cutter and engraver
9. Spencer, Elizabeth, school-mistress
10. Bale, Rich, cooper and vict, Hart
12. Ward, Wm., vict and sailcloth weaver, Bell
13. Perry, Thomas, shoe-maker
14. Collins, John, excise officer
15. Cridland, Richard, flax-dresser
18. Prichard, Thomas, flax-dresser
19. Cannon, Lewis, warehouse-keeper
20. Parmiter, John, maltster
21. Podger, Thomas, Accountant
22. Wooles, Wm., cooper
25. Reynolds, Ann, widow

1775 Avon Street, Temple

Built on ground originally the gardens and grounds of the Augustinian Friars. At No.7 lived Richard Trevett, the night constable, probably a decrepit ancient individual, in direct contrast to the sturdy policeman of today.

1. Ring, Robert, cooper
2. Prust, Thomas, captain of the John
3. Clements, John, mariner
5. Cannon, Jeremiah, taylor
6. Green, William, gent.
7. Trevett, Richard, Night Constable
8. Isaacs, Isaac, glass cutter and engraver
9. Spencer, Elizabeth, school-mistress
10. Bale, Rich, cooper and victualler, Hart
12. Ward, Wm., victualler and sailcloth weaver, Bell
13. Perry, Thomas, shoe-maker
14. Collins, John, excise officer
15. Cridland, Richard, flax-dresser
18. Prichard, Thomas, flax-dresser
19. Cannon, Lewis, warehouse-keeper
20. Parmiter, John, maltster
21. Podger, Thomas, Accountant
22. Wooles, Wm., cooper
25. Reynolds, Ann, widow

1775 Back Lane: or, Back Church Lane, St. Michaels

1. Seed, William, gent.
1. Walker, Thomas
2. Bond, John, captain
3. Thomas, William, custom-house officer

1775 Back Lane As above; or perhaps at Bedminster or Redcliff

6. Reed, Sarah
7. Bernet, Peter, rigger
8. Lewis, Margaret

1775 Back Street Now Queen Charlotte Street

Back Street, running from Baldwin Street to King Street, was roughly parallel with the Welsh Back on the Floating Harbour and not far from the church of St. Nicholas.

King John is said to have had a mansion in what is now Queen Charlotte Street, overlooking beautiful gardens. It was re-named Queen Charlotte Street in 1885.

1. Lester, ?, vict, White Swan (pub) 1752 – 54 James Brookers / 1755 Edwin Dowdin.
3. White, Philip, glazier
4. Beaver, Sarah, cook-shop
5. Thomas, Thos., grocer
6. Minifee, Ann, vict.
7. Franklin, George, brightsmith
7 or 17. Lucy, William, maltster and hop-merchant
8. Guy, Esau, tin-plate worker
9. Jones, Thomas, vict, Newport Boat (pub)
10. Whithair, Benj., grocer
11. Lewis, Thomas, vict, Ship (pub)
15. Helps, William, grocer
16. Jones, John, gingerbread-baker, confectioner and toy-man
17. See 7
18. Morgan, William, vict, Old Noah’s Ark (pub)
20. Ames, John, engraver
21. Wood, William, sworn timber measurer
22. Terrett, Richard, baker
23. Harris, Edward, cheese-monger
24. Nicholas, Davy, vict, King’s Head (pub) The King’s Head was lost in the late 1870’s when Back Street was widened, the street was also re-named ‘Queen Charlotte Street’.

25. State, William, flax dresser
26. Hadlam, James, peruke-maker
27. Williams, Margaret, L.B.
28. Gronough, Griffy, shoe maker
30. Jones, William, vict, George (pub)
31. Williamson, ?, widow, vict, Bell (pub)
32. Morgan, John, tyler and plasterer
33. Morgan, ?, tide-waiter
34. Smith, Richard, buckle maker
35. Edkins, John, butcher
35. Lisle, Thomas, gunstock maker
36. Strickland, James, vict & mariner, Hen and Chickens (pub)
37. Hunt, William, peruke-maker
38. Privett, flax dresser
40. Herbert, William, shoe-maker
41. Harris, Edward, taylor
42. Green, Joseph, cutler
43. Burnet, William, victualler
44. Davis, John, Baptist minister
44. Readycliffe, ?, taylor
45. Taylor, John, bright smith
47. Rogers, John, cheese & butter seller

1775 Baldwin Street

Prince Henry (afterwards Henry II) was placed with a schoolmaster, named Matthews, in this street, to be “instructed in letters and trained up in civil behaviour”.

1. Tully, George, cornfactor & cheese-monger
5. Watts, Henry, wire worker
6. Thomas, John, capt. of the Industry sloop, to Bridgewater
7. Jones, Rebecca, widow
11. Cheston, Elizabeth, baker
12. Counsell, Richard, hooper
13. Purrier, Thomas, cabinet-maker
13. Taylor, William, plumber & shot-maker
14. Higgins, Imm, book-keeper
15. Russel, James, tide-waiter
17. Bilch, Elizabeth, widow
18. Welton, Sam., brewer & maltster
19. Sheppard, William, plumber
20. Hill, Benjamin, plumber & shot-maker
21. Harris, Susannah, Three Black Birds (pub)
22. Mitchell & Orchard, braziers
23. Emanuel, Penelope, widow
24. Bird, Jonathan, starch-maker
25. Fidoe, Edmond, plumber
26. Strickland, Jacob, joiner & carpenter
27. Thayer, John, rigger
28. Pierce, Thomas, baker
31. Elliot, Philip (residence)
32. Evans, Elizabeth, widow
33. Smartfoot, Thomas, Joiner
34. Good, Richard, brush-maker
35. Warder, Elizabeth, shop-keeper
36. Henry, King (sic), clock and watch-maker
37. Gullam, Cha., carpenter and joiner
38. Taylor, Archibald, victualler, Rising Sun (pub)
40. Cooper, Ann, victualler, Marquis of Granby (pub)
41. Johnson, Elizabeth, tobacconist
42. Jones, Jonathan, basket-maker
43. Lewis, John, bed-joiner
44. Peters, John, carpenter
46. Ellis, Hannah, basket-maker
47. Kidson, John, cabinet-maker
48. West, Wm., shoe-maker
49. Johnson, James, rigger
50. Griffee, George, smith
54. Thomas, Richard
55. Dobson (or Jonson), Joseph, vict, Ship (pub) the Ship was later named the Sceptre
56. Lewis, Eliz., fishmongers
57. Carter, Edward, seedsman
58. Cumly, Stephen, wire-drawer
59. George, William, distiller
60. Lewis, Wm., gingerbread baker & toy-maker
61. Whitehouse, Thomas, ironmonger
Nichols, William, victualler, King’s Arms (pub)
Perry, James, victualler and cooper, Ship and Castle (pub)
Shenfield, Christopher, vict. & mason, Golden Cross (pub)

1775 Bars Lane

Now Barrs Street, existed as long ago as 1129, when a “pound” and two “great barns” were situated close by. It acquired the dignity of being named a street when it was widened in 1846.

1. Fowles, Thomas, baker
2. Cox, Christopher, brightsmith
3. Golledge, Edward, mason
5. Long, John, farrier
6. Wood, William, whip maker
9. Watts, ?, sheriff’s officer

1775 Barton Alley, St. James

Led from St. James’s Barton to the churchyard. It is said that two persons carrying umbrellas could not pass through the alley. Its demolition was decided upon in 1846, but the new street (Bond Street) was not opened for vehicles until some fifteen years later.

1. Elford, Thomas, insurance broker
2. Saunders, Thomas, victualler, Grapes (pub)
3. Seede, John, bright smith
4. Richardson, Richard, dealer
5. Dundass, Alexander, taylor
6. Williams, Joshua
7. Atlee, Samuel, confectioner

1775 Barton’s Court, Barton Street, St. James’s Barton

3. Trotman, -, taylor

1775 Barton Street, St. James Barton

Probably built on a portion of the farm-yard of St. James’s Priory. In Domesday Book, Bristol is referred to as part of the Roya Manor of Barton.

1. Russel, John, capt.
2. Gingell, John, post chaises to let
8. Rich, Robert, maltster
9. Oakens, Wm., coaches & chaise to let
11. Fry, Ebinezer, school-master
13. Thomas, Benjamin
14. Lewis, Dice, taylor
15. Roman, Thomas, victualler, Sugar Loaf (pub)

1775 Beaufort, Buford’s or Burford’s Court, now Beaufort Place, Lower Montague Street

1. Oliver, Thomas, gent
3. Naish, ?
5. Roberts, Thomas, accomptant
6. Hawksford, Edward, officer of excise
7. Esterbrook, Jacob, cryer
9. Ferris, Robt., shoe-maker
? Sindram, J. Christopher, taylor & draper

1775 Bedminster, now East Street

In 1698 Bristol was separated from Bedminster by a clear space of half-a-mile. The well-known London Inn will be noticed at No.141.

2. Richards, Joseph, victualler, Horse and Groom (pub)
5. Clark, -, wheelwright
7. Kirby, John, basket-maker
8. Webb, George, chair-maker
9. Loynes, Francis, stay-warehouse
10. Hanny, John, leather-dresser & breeches-maker
12. Pyerke, Gardener, brazier & victualler
13. Wilcox, John, hat-maker
14. Cloud, John, sacking, twine, and rope-maker
16. Gregory, Roger, victualler, Jolly Sailor (pub)
22. Rossiter, Ann, victualler, Three Bee Hives (pub)
23. Lyne, Richard, baker
25. Gough, Thomas, victualler, Wind Mill (pub)
27. Mayo, John, leather dresser
37. Adams, Thomas, gingerbread-baker
41. Smith, Wm., victualler, Cock and Bottle (pub)
43. Astens, -, skinner
44. Herbert, Edward, leather-dresser & breeches-maker
45. Jones, John, gardener
53. Withey, John, farrier
55. Dabbs, James, victualler, Tennis Court (pub)
59. Lane, Samuel, victualler, Rose and Crown (pub)
68. Watts, Lionel, school master
69. Nelmes, –
78. Levins, George, victualler, Mill-stone (pub)
82. Williams, Jos., victualler, Dun Cow (pub)
83. Taylor, Walter, gent.
85. Lasey, Francis, victualler, Red Lion (pub)
96. Rose, Joseph, victualler, Engine-house (pub)
99. Hill, –
110. King, William, miller, Lock’s Mill
115. Underhill, Dinah, victualler, Old White Horse (pub)
124. Stock, James, victualler, Three Crowns (pub)
125. Lowdin, -, corn broker and auc-tioneer
138. Duffet, James, turnpike-man
141. Morgan, Wm., victualler, London (pub)
142. Williams, Evan, victualler, Colston Arms (pub)
147. Sweet, Joseph, victualler, Anchor (pub)
154. Jones, Francis, victualler, Moon and Stars (pub)
160. Creech, -, captain
161. Goodale, George, victualler, Coach and Horses (pub)
164. Little, Fortune
170. King, John, victualler, Rose and Crown (pub)
176. Sanders, William, gent
178. Cheese, John, gardener
179. Godwin, John, turnpike-man
181. Page, John, victualler, Hen and Chickens (pub)
182. Sivier, Daniel, victualler, Elephant (pub)
205. Gerrard, Francis, victualler, Star (pub)
208. Silcox, Edward, farrier
210. Dabbs, James, joiner
211. Groves, Benjamin, wheel-wright
222. Walters, Wm., butcher
223. Fear, Wm., baker
224. Stannah, William, victualler (pub)
245. Burges, John, victualler, Horse and Jockey (pub)
255. Hurley, Jos., clock and watch maker
256. Soudly, Thomas, edge tool-maker
259. Mounteir, Abraham, black-smith

1775 Bedminster Causeway, now incorporated with Bedminster Parade

1. Smith, Samuel, mustard manufactory
5. Davis, John, soap-master (sic) & chandler
6. Williams, Wm., cooper
7. White, Jacob
9. Grisley, Henry, merchant
10. Williams, Wm., capt.
11. Pook, Richard
12. Hasle, Thomas
14. Salter, Richard, shop-keeper
16. Bowen, Mrs.
17. Hazard, Thomas
19. Sawyers, Robert, corn factor
22. Bryant, John, twine spinner
25. Hooper, Thomas, victualler, Squirrel (pub)
28. James, Stephen, carpenter & joiner
31. Evans, William, victualler, White Hart (pub)

1775 Blinkerd’s Court, probably now Blinkers Steps, Milk Street

3. Beser, Hester, widow

1775 Bloomsbury Court, probably now Bloomsbury Buildings, Charles Street

2. Roberts, John, sheriff’s officer
3. Lilleecrop, Edward, officer of excise
4. Field, -, widow
5. Gillam, Jos., tide-waiter
6. Saunders, William, book-keeper
14. Shadwell, Sarah, School for children

1775 Brandon Hill, near St. George’s Road

This Hill itself was one of the chief defences of the city during the sieges of 1643-5. Women, from time immemorial have enjoyed the privilege of drying their clothes here, and not only since the occasion of Queen Elizabeth’s visit to Bristol, as has been previously stated. A splendid panoramic view of Bristol may be obtained from the Cabot Tower which crowns the summit of the Hill.

2. West, –
7. Jones, Sarah, widow
8. Rogers, Thomas, glass-maker
9. Short, Thomas, glass-maker

1775 Brandon Street, College Green

5. Rees, -, mantua-maker
6. Brown, John, marble-cutter
8. Davis, William
9. Simms, Thomas
10. Millsom, Thomas

1775 Bridewell Lane, now Bridewell Street

The Bridewell from which this street takes its name, stood on both sides of the Lane, it was fired by the Rioters in 1831, and rebuilt in 1835 at a cost of £7,800.

An important improvement was effected in 1835 by opening through Bridewell Lane, a street from Nelson Street to the Horse Fair, covering over part of the Froom, Bridewell Street was widened in 1846, and the new court was opened in 1880.

1. Daubeny, John & George & Co., sugar refiners
1. Young, Ja., stocking manufacturer
2. Priest, William, watch-maker
3. Wells, George, pastry cook
4. Rees, -, butcher
6. Addison & Co., paper shop
7. Cherry, John
8. Murrill, William, peruke-maker and hair-dresser
9. Green, Samuel, bookseller
10. Partridge, Hannah and sister, grocers
11. Pool, Hester
12 & 18. Cherry, David, auctioneer and cabinet maker
13. Welch, James, Bridewell Keeper
14. Crump, Isabella, toy shop
15. Lloyd, Francis, pastry-cook
17. Powell, John, bright-smith
18. see 12
21. Parry, John, shoe-maker
22. Parker, Robert, grocer
23. Painter, William, bed-joiner and cabinet-maker
24. Seton, James, peruke-maker
26. Nunn, Jonathan, victualler, Sugar Loaf (pub)
27. Willis, James, tin-plate worker
28. Hensley, John, hat-maker
29. Walker, -, butcher
30. Hill, Norman, glazier
31. Milleman & Co., tobacco and snuff warehouse
32. Sheppard, ?, carpenter and joiner
33. Kroger, Henry, victualler, Sugar Loaf (pub)
34. Andras, Walsingham, turner

1775 Bridge Street, formerly Worship Street

Was built on the site of the ancient shambles, or flesh market

1. Morgan, John, grocer and tea-dealer
2. Vines, Isaac, glover and breeches maker
3. Brown, James, ironmonger
3. Naish, Thomas, goldsmith and cutter
4. Woodward, Thomas, toy-maker & cutter
5. Day, William, undertaker and milliner
6. Viner, Christopher, hat-maker
7. Stephens, John, auctioneer
8. Lock, James, watch and clock-maker
15. Howell & Son, upholsterers
18. Rouths and Nelson, printers
20. Renneson, Thomas, thread-maker
20. Smith, John, harpsicord and spinnet-maker
22. Jones, Robert, surgeon; Jones, Mrs., sells tea and hosiery
23. Priest, Robert, apothecary
24. Tustin, John, hatter
25. Goldwyer, William, surgeon
26. Lury, John, cutter and Goldsmith
29. Verity, –
31. Lewis, David, corn-factor
41. Coleman, Harris, and Coleman, hosiers
Nelson & Co., printers

1775 Bridge Foot, now Bristol Bridge

As will be seen below, at No.2 (on the right as one approached the bridge from Temple Meads Station way) lived Burgum, the pewterer, for whom Chatterton drew up a bogus de Bergham ancestral history for 5/-. On the opposite side was at one time Sir Thomas Day’s “great house”, where Queen Anne was entertained. Close by on Bristol Bridge, Tobias Matthew, Archbishop of York, was born in 1546. The modern Bristol Bridge was completed in 1768, and has since been twice widened.

1. Smith & Sons, hosiers
2. Burgum & Catcott, pewterers
4. Vining, Thomas, grocer
5. Thomas, John, grocer and butter-merchant
6. Grove, Kingsmill, paper-maker
7. Grigg, William, haberdasher

1775 Bristol Back, or Welsh Back

Named from the fact of Welsh coasting vessels being moored near here.

1. Doole, John, grocer
2. Ford, Sarah, fishmonger
3. Phelps, Isaac, cabinet-maker
4. Beynon, William, mast-maker and victualler, Mermaid (pub)
5. Haskins, Joseph, and nephew, distillers
6. Vawdrey, Ann, rope-maker
7. Roberts, -, widow, victualler, Coffee-pot
8. Attwood, George, hooper
9. Salmon, Robert, timber-merchant and cabinet maker
10. Morgan, Henry, wholesale linen-draper
11. Bullock, Charles, Penry, tobacconist
12. Davis, John and Benjamin, tobacconists and snuff makers
13. Howldy, Elenor, paper-maker and stationer
14. Garratt, John, victualler, Chepstow Boat (pub)
15. Wigginton, Abraham, tobacconist
16. Walter, Crispin, victualler
17. Terrel, John, flax-dresser
18. Mullet, Thomas & Co., paper-makers and stationers
19. Rees, Thomas, victualler, Brockwar Boat (pub)
20. Evans, Thomas, cook-shop
21. Hill, James, victualler, Three Cups and Bath Barge (pub)
22. Encell, John, glass-maker, china and earthen-ware
23. Wheeler, Isaac, water-bailiff
24. Warden, Church, ironmonger, cutler, and sells wholesale, needles and fish-hooks
26. Evans, Thomas & Co., tobacconists and oilmen
27. Willis and Wallis, peruke-makers and hair-dressers
28. O’Neal, T., slop-seller
29. Jones, John, victualler, L.B., Cross Keys (pub)
30. Nicholas, Thomas, White Hart
31. Davis, Christian, victualler, L.B., Noah’s Ark (pub)
32. Hale, Williams & Son, coppersmiths and braziers, warehouse
33. Sloper, Ann, L.B.
34. Moody, James, accomptant, L. & B.
35. Llewellin, Eliz., corn-factor
36. Brett, Joseph, hooper
37. Beech, John, potter
39. Scott, Ann, victualler, L.B.
40. Bundy, William, sail maker
41. Gill, David, merchant tailor
42. Williams, Mary, victualler, The Bell (pub)

1775 Broad Mead

Was a spacious meadow in William Wyrcestre’s time, hence its name. Two famous chapels are contained in this street, one near the Lower Arcade was the first built by John Wesley (1739), the other Broadmead Baptist Chapel was originally built in 1670.

The first attempt at gas-lighting in Bristol was by Mr. Breillat, a dyer at 56 Broadmead in 1811.

2. Bowen, Charles, broker
3. Morse, John, apothecary
4. Pool, Edward, victualler, Coach and Horses (pub)
5 & 7. Whitchurch, Jonathan, hair merchant
6. Millsom, Thomas, glazier
7. see 5
10. Bows, John, shoe-maker
11. Dove, Ed., victualler, Crown and Cushion (pub)
12. Lambert, William, tyler and plasterer
13. Dove, William, velvet-weaver
14. Jones, Joseph, victualler, Coach and Horses (pub)
15. Ireland, James, peruke-maker
17. Nighbour, Joseph, clock and watch-maker
18. Millard, Ann
21. Stephens, Mary, hosier
22. Simmonds, Samuel, shoe-maker
25. Farr, William, attorney
27. Phillips, Sarah, baker
28. Stuckey, Joel, shoe-maker
30. Harman & Chambers, leather-dressers
32. Patty, James, carver and gilder
33. Southcote, John, school-master
34. Maynard’s hair-warehouse
35. Cordis, John, victualler, The Ship (pub)
36. Power, Francis, apothecary
37. Tyler, James, grocer & cheese-monger
38. Lewis, John, victualler, Bull (pub)
39. Tovey, William, baker
41. Morgan, Ann, widow
42. Ritch, Daniel, cooper
43. Granger, William, butcher
44. Evans, John, cabinet-maker
47. Ellery, Charles, shoe-maker
48. Hare, Thomas, victualler, Bell (pub)
49. Snell, John, innkeeper, Greyhound (pub)
50. Butler, ?
51. Bullock, William, leather-dresser
52. Jarvis & Holland, dry-salters
53. Maynard, Joseph, hair-merchant
54. Jones, Thomas, coach-office
55. Perrin, Thomas, currier
56. Sandes (or) Sandys, Samuel, grocer and cheese-monger
57. Cox, ?, currier
58. Davis, Henry, cooper
59. Gibbs, John, cutter
61. White, ?, victualler, Apple Tree (pub)
62. Colley, Martha, widow
63. Hoare, James, dyer of linens
66. Castle, Joseph, baker
67. Jones, William, rigger
68. Snary, Michael, victualler, Rose and Crown (pub)
Sawyer, Francis, innkeeper, The Lamb (pub)

1775 Broad Plain

(see St. Philips’ Plain)

1775 Broad Street

The gateway and church of St. John crossing this street add an old-world touch to the heart of the city. Another interesting feature is the Guildhall, built 1843-6, on the site of an older structure where in 1685 the famous Judge Jeffreys appeared during the “Bloody Assize”.

The Grand Hotel on the other side of the street, once the White Lion, was the scene of many civic feasts and was at one time kept by the father of Sir Thomas Lawrence.

1. Pine, William, printer and book-seller
2. Palmer, Arthur, tea-dealer
3. Edwards, Ann, tea-dealer
5. Millet, Ann, poulterer
6. Doyle, Mary, haberdasher
7. Prosser, Charles, silk-mercer
8. Pierce, Thomas, jun., watch-maker and goldsmith
9. Ellis, John, peruke-maker & hair-dresser
10. Davis and Griffiths, milleners
11. Wallis, Elizabeth, perfumer
12. Smith, Wm., glover and undertaker
13. Kempson, Sarah, poulterer
14. Headington, John, apothecary
15. Nangle, Nath., jeweller & watch-maker
16. Lewis, George, glover, undertaker and breeches-maker
17. King, Ben., baker
18. Parsley, James, barber-surgeon, and publican, Bell and Compass (pub)
19. Holdway, William, intelligence-office keeper
20. Poole, Nicholas, haberdasher
21. Hole, William, grocer
22. Wady, William, watch-maker, jeweller, & toy-man
23. Snook, John, wine-merchant
24. Bagnall, Wm., Irish linen mer.
25 & 40. Parker, Edward & Richard, attornies and M.C.
26. Smith, Hester & Mary, pastry-cooks
27. Owen, John, tailor
28. Edwards, James, druggist & chemist
29. Winter, John, victualler, Bell (pub)
31. Bath, John, baker
32. Morgan, Rich., gunsmith and victualler, Cooper’s Arms (pub)
33. Parker, William, permit writer
33. Skynner, James, excise officer
34. Begg, Sophia, late Pullins, wine vaults
35. Troughton & Newcomb, silk-men
36. Nash, John, cheese & corn factor
37. Hunter, Rob., linen merchant
38. Cox, Peter, presser and packer
39. Cadell, Ann and Sarah, tea-dealers
40. see 25
41. Langford, Robert, clerk to the bank
42. Lloyd, Elton & Co., bankers
43. Osborne and Seager, attornies, N.P. & M.C.
44. Smith & Pierce, milliners
45. Creed, Richard, grocer & chandler
46. Thompson, Samuel, shoe-maker
47. Bird, Edward, grocer & tea-dealer
48. Excise office
48 – 49 (between) Barrat, -, collector of excise
49. James, Ann, china, glass and earthen-ware seller of all sorts
50. Williams, Job, grocer & chandler
51. Philpot, William, hair-dresser
52. Townsend, John, surgeon
53. Johns, Richard, distiller
54. Sevier, Joseph, brush & toy-maker
56. Gravenors and Carrs, ribbon & stuff warehouse
57. Jackson, Ann, hosier
58. Bowsher, Richard, innkeeper, White Lion, (pub) At this place is kept the American coffee-house, also post-chaises to let, the London coach puts up here.
59. Dunbar, Thomas, millinery & haberdasher
61. Harford, Truman, silk-mercer
62. Brown and Shipman, glovers and hosiers
63. Smith, Joseph, watch-maker

White, William, innkeeper, White Hart. He lets post-chaises, a London coach inns here; at this place is held a lodge of free and accepted masons, 1st and 3rd Wednesday.

1775 Broad Ware, now Broad Weir

The ancient implement for the punishment of scolds, the “cucking” or ducking-stool stood here until about 1785.

1. Underwood, William, leather-dresser
3. Haythorn, Joseph, oil & leather warehouse
4. Morgan, John, clock & watch-maker
5. Jones, William, victualler, Bell (pub)
7. Matthews, William, victualler, Ship (pub)
8. Belban, John, victualler shop
9. Webb, Mary, widow
10. Brown, John, peruke-maker
11. Hamman, Joseph, currier, & leather processing
12. Blinman, Thomas, shoe-maker
13. Lewis, John, grocer
14. Trowbridge, Isaac, carpenter
17. Frampton, -, leather-dresser
18. Virgin, Thomas, victualler, Crown (pub)
19. Porter, John, buckle-maker
20. Bryant, Hannah, widow
21. Raymon, Thomas, victualler, Crown (pub)
22. Cooper, Thomas, baker
23. Coles, Thomas, clothier’s shop
24. Plyer, Samuel, weaver
25. Dust, Richard, dyer

1775 Bull Lane, probably off Great George Street, St. Philip’s

2. Morgan, James, victualler, joyner
4. Plummer, ?

1775 Bush Street, off Hillgrove Street

1. Salmon, Susannah, widow, watch-maker
2. Cleverly, Benjamin, gardener
3. Reid, William, accomptant

1775 Butter Lane, probably off Avon Street

3. Thornton, Sarah, widow

1775 The Butts From opposite the end of Denmark Street to Canon’s Marsh, now demolished

1. Farr, Thomas, baker & pastry-cook
2. Daniel, Ann, widow
3. Fowler, John, merchant
4. Pratt, Richard, mate of a ship
5. Gardener, Elizabeth, victualler, Ship (pub)
6. Harrat, ?, widow,
8. George, Richard, deal yard

C – D – Bristol Street Directory 1775

I – K – Historical Bristol Street Directory 1871
china tooling make maker
Image by brizzle born and bred
Mathews’ Bristol Street Directory 1871

Institution Avenue, bottom of Park Street

Island Court, Penn Street

Ivy Place, Chapel Street, St. Philips

Ivy Street, Green Street, Hotwells

J

Jacob Street, top of Old Market Street to Tower Hill

1. Samuel Carter, tailor
2. Zachariah Cann, mason and builder .
3. Edwin Lyddon, cabinet maker
4. Rhoda Griffths, hat trimmer
5. John Calloway, porter
6. Henry Bowditch
7. James Crook

William. J. Rogers, Jacob St. Brewery www.flickr.com/photos/20654194@N07/2056975868/in/photolis…

Samuel Hosegood, ale & porter stores
James Broad
Isaac Riddle
Thomas Sanders, carpenter & builder
Frederick Henry Ball, maltster
William Wellington
William Howe, painter
R. P. Forlong & Co., manure works
John L. Capenhurst, horse-hair seating manufacturer
Thomas Dean, engineer
John Dash, cooper
James Pollard
Bristol Sugar Refinery Co.
Jane Tyler, haulier
William Jackson
Emma Gould, grocer
William Henry Smith, cork cutter
William Jefferies, engineer, pump maker, etc
Samuel Whittaker, baker & grocer
John Leonard
John Hobbs, greengrocer, etc
John Allen, poulterer
George Williams, cork manufacturer

John H. Sanger vict, Golden Bowl (Ball) (pub) 1794. Sarah Emmett / 1806 – 16. John Easterbrook / 1820. Elizabeth Easterbrook / 1822 – 44. George Baker / 1847 – 55. James Carter 1856 to 1865. Samuel Tyler jnr / 1866 to 1868. George Hale / 1869 to 1878. John Hill Sanger / 1879 – 83. James Bird 1885 – 88. Emily Nash / 1889 to 1891. John Jeffery / 1892 – 1901. James Bowery / 1904. George Osborne / 1906. Mary Hannah Powell 1909. Frederick Wood / 1914 – 28. Joseph Showering / 1931. George Martin / 1935. Thomas Head / 1937 – 38. Doris May Masters 1944. Henry Fry / 1950 – 53. Leonard Davis. Samuel Tyler, who also traded as a haulier was declared bankrupt in 1865.

Joseph Cole, vict, The Good Intent (pub) 1867. Thomas Thomas / 1868 – 96. Joseph Cole.

John Llewellyn, vict, Three Compasses (pub) 1792 – 94. William Haynes / 1800. Abraham Kepple / 1806. William Woodland / 1816. Matthew Joseph / 1820 – 23. Richard Holt 1828 – 34. Thomas Prosser / 1837 – 44. John Easterbrook / 1847 – 48. John Wyatt / 1849. Eliza Wyatt / 1853 – 58. Samuel Curtis 1860 – 63. Samuel Llewellin / 1863 to 1876. John Llewellin / 1877 – 83. James Small / 1885. Alfred R. Bird / 1886. Thomas Taylors.

Jacob Street (New), top of Old Market Street to Tower Hill

Jacobs Wells, Hotwell Road to Berekley Place

(Berkeley Vale)

Mark Hookings, dairyman
Thomas Alfred King
W. Hardige, chimney sweeper
Merrick and How, hay & corn dealers
J. Hicks, greengrocer
T. Baker, shopkeeper, Devonshire house
Mary Hatton, shopkeeper
W. Hodges, boot maker
Bellvue Girl’s School
Fire Escape Station
John Mackrcll, shoeing forge
Mrs Hill
Thomas Brooks, haulier
E. Lovell, grocer
Ann Hodge, marine stores dealer
Charlotte Manley, grocer
Matthew Brice
David Jenkins
John Enwright
John Long
Mrs Chick
Isaac Chard
Thomas Morris
Mrs Gibbons, laundress
William Light
Mrs Sullivan, laundress
Thomas Dowling
Samuel Morris, haulier
Mrs Rowell
F. Winscombe, grocer
James Dunkerton
Robert A. Baynton, greengrocer
James Vivian, ale and porter store
Andrew Slaughter
W. Hayns, coal dealer, etc
Samuel Morgan
Mrs Turner
John Morgan
Thomas Fowles
Mitchell & Davis, ceiling lath makers
Brandon Hill Police Station
R. Rogers, gardener
G. Williams, boot maker

J. Morgan, vict, Hope & Anchor (pub) 1800. Philip Elliott / 1806 – 33. John Elliott / 1834. J. Osborne / 1837. C. Willett / 1839 – 48. Edward Rowe / 1849 – 51. F. Bowbeer 1851. Jane Banbier / 1853 – 54. John Burge / 1855 to 1860. James Hill / 1861 – 65. Elizabeth Hill / 1867 – 91. John Morgan 1892 – 99. Mary Webb / 1901 – 04. Mrs. M. Morse / 1906. William Lintern / 1909 – 14. Martha Lintern / 1921. Albert Blake 1925 – 31. Ellen Blake / 1935. Francis Pratt / 1937. Joseph Haberfield / 1938 – 53. John Griffiths / 1975. R. Swetman. The 1861 census lists Elizabeth Hill as victualler & chimney sweeper employing 2 men and 2 boys.

J. Hobbs, vict, White Hart (pub) This old inn was demolished in 1877 and in its place in 1882 was built St.Peters Church, which in turn was demolished in 1939. On the site to-day stands a block of flats named St.Peters House. White Hart Steps to the left remain today leading to Clifton Wood. www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/7335398024/

Edwin Rowland, grocer, vict, Royal Oak (pub) 1853. Susan Fry / 1857 – 74. Edwin Rowland.

George Milton, vict, Bath Arms (pub) 1853. Edwin Rowland / 1854 to 1855. William Hurford / 1856 to 1860. Edward Evans / 1861 – 63. Ann Evans / 1865 – 72. George Milton 1874 – 75. Alfred Crayford / 1876. Harriett Peters / 1877 – 79. Mary Ann Langdon / 1882 – 87. John Williams 1888 – 94. Christine Bray / 1896 – 1909. George Norman / 1914 – 17. Harry Thomas / 1921. Frank Cox / 1925 – 28. Thomas Herbert 1931 – 38. Margaret Herbert.

Richard Hayden, vict, King William IV (pub) 1832 – 34. William Dawe / 1837. Elizabeth Dawe / 1851. William Dolling / 1853. Elizabeth Dolling / 1857 – 66. John Enwright 1868 – 69. Charlotte Manley / 1871 – 72. Richard Hayden. Elizabeth Dolling was also the proprietor of the cold baths, Jacob’s Wells.

(Elliott’s Buildings)

Lewis Monkley, confectioner
Samuel Light, plumber & gasfitter
William Reece
Robert Meachim
John Spurlock
John Whaits, junior
Giles Hockey
George England
George Braybrook. shoeing forge
John Whaits, wheelwright & general smith

Jamaica Street, King Square to Hillgrove Street

William Cowling, general haulier, Cleve house
W. Wilmot, carver
William Dunn, lodging house
John Berry
Miss Gazard, ladies’ school
Elizabeth Simmons
William Hillier
Edwin Huggins
Henry Schusler
William Lewis
Joseph Offer
Thomas Shute
E. Green, tailor
Miss Evans, seminary
Thomas Jenkins, shipwright
William Hayward, carpenter
Mrs Hill
Ann Cole

John Jewell, vict, Crown Tavern 1764 Mary Williams / 1775 William Bryan / 1794 James Culverworth / 1800 – 06 Thomas Brown / 1816 – 34 Robert Webb 1837 Joseph Jackson / 1839 – 40 J. Bounds / 1842 – 44 George Harding / 1847 Henry Watkins / 1848 – 49 William Angus 1851 Thomas Boardman / 1852 Alfred Iles / 1853 Ann Brown / 1854 – 57 Alfred Pool / 1859 George Price / 1860 W. H. Balch 1861 John Guy / 1863 Henry Everett / 1865 Charles Brook / 1866 – 69 John Mills / 1871 – 74 John Jewell / 1875 John Nicholas 1877 – 79 James Nash / 1881 – 83 John Galliford / 1885 – 87 William Heather / 1889 – 1904 Maria Heather / 1906 – 09 Arthur Vaughan 1914 – 21 Jane Hillier / 1925 – 35 William Peters / 1937 – 38 Wilfred Webb / 1940 Edward Godwin / 1940 Thomas Dermald 1944 – 53 Thomas King.

John Leworthy, vict, Bell, Hillgrove Street (pub) Still trading, the Bell is situated in the stretch of Hillgrove Street between Jamaica Street and Dalton Square. bristolslostpubs.eu/page191.html

Horse & Groom, Hillgrove Street (pub) 1839 – 40 Thomas Gay.

Union Tavern, Hillgrove Street (pub) 1842 W. Snow / 1844 – 47 Hannah Snow / 1848 to 1856 William Powell / 1857 to 1867 Hannah Powell / 1867 Samuel Clark 1868 – 69 Alfred York / 1871 – 83 John Atwell / 1885 – 1906 Ellen Wilkins / 1909 S. Cleak / 1914 Mary Woodbury.

Jamaica Terrace, 12, Jamaica Street

James’ Back, Broadmead to Bridewell Street

James’ Back (Little), Broadmead to Pithay

James’ Court, Stillhouse Lane

James’ Place, Green Street, Hotwells

James’ Place, Union Road, Dings

James’ Place, Portland Street, Clifton

James’ Place, Kingsdown Parade

James’ Street, Ashley Road to Grosvenor Road

Edmund Bessell
Mrs Elizabeth Richards
Albert William
Augustus Garland
William Joseph Pike
Pike, Vigor & Co. loan office
Joseph Edmund Davis house
Thomas William Woodland
George Morris
Daniel Bray
John King
E. B. Wood
William Smith
Henry James Dyer
James Pearce Perry, reporter

James’ Street, Pennywell Road

James’ Street, Earl Street, St. James

Jarman’s Court, Horsefair

Jeffery’s Court, Host Street

Jenning’s Court, Kingsland Road

Jenning’s Court, Redcliif Hill

Jessamine Cottages, Brandon Hill

Jessamine Cottages, Stony Hill

John’s Bridge, Christmas Street

John’s Buildings, Dings

John’s Court, John Street, St. Philips

John’s Court, 6, (lower), Montague Street

John’s Lane, Totterdown, to bottom of Pylle Hill

John’s Lane, Ashley Hill

John’s Place, Lawrence Hill

John’s Steep, John Street to Bridewell Street

John Street, Broad Street to John’s Steep

Henry Vowles, tailors trimmings dealer
Henry Wimpenny, sewing machine depot
J. Weeks, copper-plate printer
Francis Tayler, hair dresser
J. Jones, perambulator & invalid chair manufacturer
Steadman & Co. wholesale boot manufacturer
James Adam Bethune, temp. hotel
Albert Pole, printer
Heaven and Bowman, solicitors
Harbour and Ross, law stationers
William Harrington Bush, solicitor
T. H. Bromly, sewing machinist, etc
Mrs Curry, school
John Francis, tailor, Arch house
F. Inman, boot maker
William Bennett, lithographer, etc
J. Hardwick, surveyor
Matthew H. Bessell, tax oflice
Hancock, Triggs & Co. accountants in bankruptcy
Edward Thelwell, barrister-at-law
Prideaux and Clark, solicitors
George Tonkin, tailor
Thomas Aplin, tailor
W. Glyde, solicitor
J. S. Pitt, accountant
Sarah Morris, tailor
James Crudge

Ann Hunt, vict, Bank Tavern (pub) The Bank Tavern is still trading, built around 1750 it was named to commemorate the opening of Bristol’s first bank which was on the corner of Broad Street and John Street. 1794 Mary Moore / 1800 William Gillett / 1822 W. Jones / 1823 – 28 Adam Barton / 1830 – 34 Henry Merry / 1837 – 39 William Brown 1840 Edwin Oliver / 1841 to 1849 William Merriman / 1849 to 1855 Evan Jenkins / 1856 William Coburn / 1859 – 66 John Wintle 1867 Delia Wintle / 1868 William Hawkins / 1869 J. Hunt / 1871 – 76 Ann Hunt / 1877 – 80 Joseph Harris / 1881 Augustus Simmons 1882 Michael Clune / 1883 Elizabeth Rice / 1885 – 89 Caroline Battle / 1891 Frederick Powles / 1892 to 1893 Edward Hartnett 1894 Caroline Battel / 1896 – 1901 Frederick Grigg / 1902 Ethel Mary Grigg / 1904 – 21 Frederick Jones / 1925 – 31 Leopold Painter 1935 – 53 Leonard Browne / 1975 M. A. Bond. Adam Barton also traded as a saw & tool maker in nearby All Saints’ Street.

John Street (Little), John Street to Tower Lane

John Street, Jacob Street to Broad Plain

James Wake, baker
William J. Rogers, maltster
John G. Usher
Timothy Freke, grocer

James John Shoat, vict, Three Crowns (pub) St.Philip & Jacob’s church which was just a stone’s throw from the Three Crowns. John Street ran from Jacob Street to Narrow Plain with Sloper‘s Lane leading through to St.Philip & Jacob’s church. This area was cleared in 1967 to make way for the Temple Way / Old Market roundabout scheme. bristolslostpubs.eu/page125.html

John Street, Upper Easton

George Heall, milliner & straw bonnet maker
George Willmot, grocer

Joseph Williams, baker, vict, Rising Sun (pub) 1874. James Johnson / 1878 – 93. Samuel Iles / 1899. William Sainsbury / 1904 – 35. Frederick Iles / 1937 – 50. Harold Perry 1953. William Tudgell.

Johny Ball Lane, Upper Maudlin Street to Lewins Mead

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Johnson’s Court, Broadmead

Jones’ Court, 78, Hotwell Road

Jones’ Court, Frogmore Street

Jones’ Court, Avon Street, Temple

Jones’ Court, Pipe Lane, Temple

Jones’ Lane, Redcliff Street

Joy Hill, Hope Square

(Jame’s Place)

John W. Savage
William Hardwick
Henry Hancock, Ivy cottage

Jubilee Buildings, Baptist Mills

Jubilee Court, Wilder Street

Jubilee Place, Redcliff Parade to Guinea Street

1. George Marshall, potato stores
2. Frederick Hodges
3. George Bevis, agent
8. William Blinkhorn, contractor

Jubilee Place, Baptist Mills

H. Castle, auction, vict, Duke of York (pub) (Botany Bay) 1828 – 33. James Baker / 1837 – 44. Edward Stretton / 1848 – 49. John Cook / 1851. Alfred Dumayne / 1853. B. Parker 1854 – 55. S.Turner / 1856. Thomas Harvey / 1858. Charles Collins / 1861. Hannah Young / 1863 – 68. George Wintle 1871 – 72. Henry Castle / 1874 – 77. Henry George Bishop / 1878. William Green / 1879. George Hows / 1882. W. Thomas 1883. Edwin Wright / 1888 – 1938. Samuel Roberts / 1944. Edward Sliney / 1950. John Sliney / 1953. Amelia Souls. listed in 1828 as the Duke Of York & Jubilee Tea Gardens.

Jubilee Place, North Street, Bedminster

Jubilee Plain, Baptist Mills

Jubilee Row, Baptist Mills

Jubilee Street, Horton Street

K

Kenilworth Terrace, Newtown, St. Philips

14. J. J. Bunnell
8. William Hedges
6. William Clark
5. Thomas Skinner
4. Henry Cock
2. James Pugsley
1. William Gillard

Kensington Place, Victoria Square

William Blinman Allen, Flora cottage
G. Dolman, Kensington mews
Mrs Sarah Holmes, Flora cottage
Mrs Ward, Newstead
Mrs Emma Jackson
Miss Sophia Phillpot
Lydia Lapham
Miss Margaret Sealey
Miss Jane Garnett
Miss Eliz. B. Fry, Kensington lodge
?. Caynham villa

Kensington Villas, Richmond Park

1. John Bush
2. Miss Emily Maltby

Kent Villas, Horfield

Kent’s Buildings, Frogmore Street

Keswick Buildings, Alma Road to Melrose Place, Whiteladies Road

Kilbon Street, Avon Street, St. Philip’s

Kilkenny Street, Upper Cheese Lane

King George Alley, Redcliff Hill

King Square, St. James

Edward Cooke Nunn, commercial school
John Cogan

Young Women’s Christian Association (YWCA) – Miss Savill, superintendent . The movement that resulted in the World YWCA began in England in 1855 in the midst of the Industrial Revolution and the Crimean War. Founded through the convergence of social activist Lady Mary Jane Kinnaird’s General Female Training Institute, and committed Christian Emma Robarts’ Prayer Union, it sought to be a social and spiritual support system for young English women.

T. C. Lloyd
William Derrick, house agent
Mrs Derrick, ladies’ school
Alfred Johnson, accountant
William Walter Stoddart
Charles Joseph Whittuck
Miss Mary James
Samuel Chappell
Charles Hick Greenly, surgeon
John Cutter
Edmund Humphries Tromp
Edward Nunn, school
Richard Faulkener Edgell
A. Whittaker, professor of music
George Cole, merchant & ship owner
T. J . Coe, wholesale boot manufacturer
John Sherrard Smart, dentist
Thomas Crocker, M.D. surgeon
W. E. Turner
William Ormond
John Sims Handcock, superintendent of police
Isaac Arrowsmith
J . Kendall
Robert Price Strong
John P. Challacombe, surgeon, M.D.
Mrs Charles Napier
Miss E. May

King Square Avenue, North Street to King‘ Square

Samuel Gerrish, butcher
Thomas Hoskins, brush maker
Mrs Jelfs, fruiterer
Henry Pritchard, collector of rates
George Harvey, saddler
George Henry Tovey, wine & spirit merchant
Isaac Payne, furniture broker
T. Edmunds, venetian blind maker
Henry Tregay
Joseph Mortlock
William Fewings, upper manufacturer (footwear)
Charles Lewis, tailor and draper
Robert Stenner, piano-forte maker
Edward J . Tucker, King Square mews
James Powell, sweet-shop & tobacconist
Miss Mary Humphreys, milliner (headwear)
R. Pearce and Sons, commission agents & money lenders

Susan Short, vict, Angel Inn (pub) 1861 – 65 Frederick Corfield / 1871 – 72 Susanna Short / 1874 Charles Smith / 1875 to 1876 Eliza Down / 1877 to 1878 Edward King 1879 to 1880 William Webber / 1881 to 1882 Alfred Osgood / 1883 H. S. Crinks / 1885 – 87 James Lucas / 1888 Herbert Howard Carr 1889 Robert Orchard / 1891 William Richardson / 1892 Isaac Flancinbaum / 1892 – 97 William Brayley / 1899 Frank Lucas 1901 – 02 James Gore / 1904 William Bartlett / 1906 Amelia Bartlett / 1909 Frank Harris / 1914 Ernest White / 1921 – 28 Mary Bryan 1931 – 38 Alfred Bryan / 1938 – 44 Dora Bryan / 1950 – 53 Clementine Whyatt. Dora Bryan’s tenancy commenced on the 3rd October 1938, the rent was £32 per annum, the landlords were the Bristol Brewery Georges & Co. Limited.

King Street, Welsh Back to Prince Street

King Street (Little), Queen Square

Coles and Fry, sack depot
T. E. Wookey, haulier
Wait and James, corn merchants
George B. Dyer, corn merchant
Alfred Pearce. bonded stores
William Henderson, seaman
Thomas Stephens, cooper & vat maker
R. C. Stephens, haulier
George Watson, carpenter
Ball and Skeates, wine merchants
Butterworth, McArthur, Bridges, & Co. iron merchants, etc

William Bass, vict, Odd Fellow’s Arms (pub) Little King Street (corner of Welsh Back) 1859 – 68 James Westall / 1869 Thomas E. Wookey / 1870 to 1871 William Bass / 1872 – 79 Jane Bass / 1882 – 99 Tom Rudman previously known as the Sailors’ Return.

John Fry, vict, St. Michael’s Arms (pub) 1863 Evan Symmons / 1865 – 78 John Fry / 1879 to 1891 Henry Coles / 1892 – 94 George Price.

King Street, Queen Square

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1. James Brown, grocer
2. William Aspland, basket maker
3. George Chapman, auctioneer, etc
4. Mrs Wookey, lodging house
Thomas Elkanah Wookey, haulier
4. Mrs Stephens, toy dealer

6. Michele Ansaldo, ship broker www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/5922416560/in/ph…

6. C. P. B. Howell, junr. timber merchant
7. Samuel Stevens, marine stores
7-8. www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/5922416644/in/ph…
8. Charles Neck, dock pilot
10. Frederick Hugh Jones, (compositor)
11-12. Budgett and James, general produce brokers
14-15. www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/5922416770/in/ph…

15. John Wetherman, junior, sole agent for Guiness’s porter

16. Abraham Champion and Sons, decorators, etc www.flickr.com/photos/20654194@N07/5921852765/in/photolis…

18. Timothy Flying, tailor
19. Edward, Ryan, egg merchant
25. Mrs Gready
26. John Jenkins, tailor
27. George Veal
29. William Veal, cabinet maker
31. Robert J. Oak, pump & block maker
Merchant’s Hall
Marine School, William Seaton, master

Merchants Seaman’s Almshouses www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/9600090200/in/se…

City Library, James Fawckner Nicholls, librarian

Ford and Canning, public bonded warehouse keepers www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/2129935885/

32, Burton Brewery Co. – Agent, Edward H. S. Wilkinson
35. ?. Westall

Theatre – James Henry Chute, lessee www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/2033009469/in/se…

Coopers’s Hall
C. F. Ivens & Co. merchants
Robert L. N. Espie, fruit broker
Joseph Abraham, wine merchant
William Pope, shopkeeper
45-46. Charles Turner, wholesale fruiterer
47. Evan Symmons, beer seller
F. Lewis, shopkeeper

Capt. T. Daniel, vict, Llandoger Trow (pub) Built in 1664 the Llandoger occupied the right hand gable in this rank of five, the second section from the left was once a tavern named the Goat. In the November blitz of 1940 the two gables at the left suffered severe bomb damage and were removed. The three remaining buildings were bought by Berni Inns in 1962 and converted into a pub/restaurant. To prevent the building from collapsing during the renovation, a steel frame was inserted supported by piles sunk to a depth of 43 feet. The Llandoger is still trading. www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/2097921024/in/se… bristolslostpubs.eu/page43.html

Thomas West, vict, Coopers’s Arms (pub) Nos. 7, 8 & 9 King Street, the Coopers’ Arms was at No.9 the right hand gable in this group. No.7 which was once the Royal Oak and No.8 are still standing but the Coopers’ Arms was taken down in 1899 to be replaced with warehousing, note the demolition work being carried out at No.10. bristolslostpubs.eu/page25.html

Royal Oak, King Street1752 Thomas Lock / 1755 – 62 Joseph Lock / 1775 William Knight / 1792 Elizabeth Martin / 1800 William pugh / 1816 James Brown see the Coopers’ Arms.

17. Richard Trapnell, vict, Royal Navy Volunteer (pub) 1861 – 74 Richard Trapnell / 1875 Ann Trapnell / 1876 Charles Clews / 1877 William St.Clair / 1878 F. Skinner / 1879 Isaac Gould 1881 Frederick J. Sampson / 1882 – 83 Philip Evans / 1885 – 87 Henry Pymm / 1888 – 89 Sarah Banwell / 1891 Henry Pymm 1891 Thomas Bradford / 1892 – 93 Charles Tuckfield / 1896 – 97 Louisa Tuckfield / 1899 – 1925 Alfred Williams / 1928 – 44 Albert Sims 1950 – 53 Edith Ann Sims / 1975 N. S. Hogan (manager) in the 1861 census Richard Trapnell is listed as a beer & lodging house keeper. The pub is still trading under the name of the ‘Famous Royal Navy Volunteer’ www.flickr.com/photos/20654194@N07/5922416950/in/photolis…

31. Ellen King, vict, Bunch of Grapes (pub) 1852 – 66 William King / 1869 – 80 Ellen King / 1881 John Croome / 1882 to 1886 E. Wilkinson / 1887 – 1909 Alfred Whitaker 1914 – 17 Frederick Webb / 1921 – 35 Jane Webb / 1937 – 38 Jane Arnold / 1941 – 53 Ellen Amelia Collins / 1975 Mrs Ross-Mackenzie. The tenancy of Ellen Collins commenced on the 11th February 1941, the rent was £30 per annum and the landlords were The Bristol Brewery Georges & Co. Limited, Ellen was previously at the Star in Cock & Bottle Lane which was bombed on the 24th November 1940. The Bunch of Grapes is still trading.

36. Robert Cottom, vict, Garricks Head (pub) Next door to the Theatre Tavern, pictured during a spell when both buildings were being used as public houses. The gable to the right was the entrance to the Theatre Royal which was rebuilt in 1903, the two old pub buildings were demolished shortly afterwards. bristolslostpubs.eu/page33.html

37. John Rowden, vict Theatre Tavern (pub) Next door to the Garrick’s Head, pictured during a spell when both buildings were being used as public houses. The gable to the right was the entrance to the Theatre Royal which was rebuilt in 1903, the two old pub buildings were demolished shortly afterwards. bristolslostpubs.eu/page67.html

48. Henry Robbins, vict Britannia (pub) 1775 John King / 1826 William Knapp / 1828 R. Canton / 1831 – 33 William Turner / 1834 John Shattock / 1837 William Jenkins 1840 – 41 Robert Canter / 1842 William Butson Pearse / 1844 Thomas Brown / 1845 to 1857 Joseph Henry Packer 1858 to 1859 William Simpkin / 1860 to 1866 Joseph Vowles / 1867 James Matthews / 1868 – 69 Clara Ann Young / 1871 Henry Robbins 1872 Mrs. R. Cotton / 1873 Robert Cotton / 1874 Richard Snook / 1875 to 1876 Samuel Tutton / 1877 Robert Cotton 1878 T. Watkins / 1879 to 1882 Jane Hale / 1883 to 1885 Ellen Dilke / 1886 T. Skinner / 1887 Mary Milden 1888 – 89 Stephen Barton Perrett / 1891 Thomas Davis / 1892 – 93 John Andrews / 1896 William Riley / 1897 David Smith 1899 Frederick Hussey / 1901 – 06 William Burton / 1909 – 17 Sarah Alice Burton / 1921 Edward Smethurst / 1925 Walter Gollop 1928 – 31 Thomas Ross / 1935 – 38 Kate Elizabeth Ross. (the Britannia was bombed in the war)

44. Edmund Ball, vict Old Duke (pub) previously named the Duke’s Head, the Old Duke is still trading. 1800 George Long / 1806 Joseph Martin / 1816 Thomas Martin / 1828 Joseph Martin / 1831 – 32 Elizabeth Martin 1833 – 42 Joseph William Smith / 1844 Jane Smith / 1847 John Johns / 1848 – 61 David Thomas / 1863 Christopher Peters 1865 – 67 James Rexworthy / 1868 Richard Bodley / 1871 Edwin Sellick / 1871 to 1888 Edmund Ball / 1889 Mary Ball 1890 Emily Jane Cullen / 1891 to 1892 Alfred Leach / 1892 to 1899 William Roberts / 1900 – 06 William Sainsbury 1909 – 17 Thomas Slocombe / 1921 – 38 William Slocombe / 1944 – 53 James Jones / 1960 T. A. Davies / 1975 K. Aniol.

King Street (Old), Broadmead to Barrs Street

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King‘ Street, Coronation Road

Thomas Hutton, marine stores
Charles Vowles
H. Byrt, cooper
John Lee
Amelia Handowell, shopkeeper
William Cole, paraflin oil dealer
Isaac Stephenson, grocer
John Easter, toy dealer
Charles Forsey, boot maker

James Hyman Willey, vict, Waterloo Inn (House) (pub) 1831. James Wyatt / 1837. William Watts / 1839. Ann Watts / 1844 – 52. John White / 1856. Thomas White 1863 – 69. Samuel Wreford / 1871. James Willey / 1874 – 79. Thomas White / 1881 – 83. Hannah White / 1885 – 88. Edwin Williams 1891. Harriet Hall / 1892 – 1901. Harriet Martin / 1904. Albert Martin / 1909. Edwin Lyddon / 1911. Abraham Chapple 1914 – 28. Walter Hale.

Thomas Withey, vict, The Green Man (pub) 1853. John Rich / 1857 – 58. Catherine Phipps / 1872 – 92. Thomas Withey / 1896. Mary Ann Withey / 1899. Frederick Graddon 1901 – 04. Henry Williams.

Elizabeth Hernaman, vict, Dove (pub) 1848 – 60. William Prosser / 1863. Elizabeth Prosser / 1865 – 66. William Prosser / 1867 to 1868. William Prosser & Elizabeth Herniman 1871 – 77. Elizabeth Herniman / 1878 to 1882. Mary Dashfield / 1883 – 89. Edward Westaway / 1891 – 1925. Alfred Turner 1928. Alfred Turner (jnr).

King Street, Pennywell Road

King Street, Redcliff Crescent

King William Avenue, Queen Square

King William Court, Wine Street

King William Place, Folly Lane

King William Place, Jacob Street

King William Sreet, Pylle Hill

King William Street, North Street, Bedminster

Kings Head Court, Wine Street

King’s Parade, Whiteladies, Durdham Down

Mrs Newman, lodging house
?. Ivy house
Miss Gay, ladies’ boarding school
Sharrock Dupen
Mrs Charles Paull
Mrs Lillington
Richard William Giles
George Washington Isaacs
William and Miss Goulstone, boarding school for young gentlemen
Mrs Chamberlain ,
Miss Snelling, ladies’ boarding school
Nicholas C. Hetherington, King’s parade mews

Kingsdown Avenue, Kingsdown Parade to St Matthew’s Road

Jane Baker, china and glass dealer
George Milsom, butcher
Mrs. Cottrell, livery stables, Kingsdown mews

Kingsdown Parade, Horfield Road to Fremantle Square

William Sargent, boot maker
Mrs Charles Gardiner, Montague villa
Francis J. Ball
Miss Birtill
George Griffiths, hair dresser, etc
Mrs Mary Whitmarsh
?. Walton lodge
Thomas Barribal
Solomon Fry
Walter Baker
Miss Neat
Mrs Bryan
George Dare, confectioner
James Tamlyn, gasfitter
James Hutchinson
John Henry Reed
John Fursier
Joseph Churchill, teacher of music
Robert Oxley
Frederick Corfield
George Towells
William Palmer, bookseller
Thomas Thomas
Mark P. Stephenson
Henry Newcombe
Charles Withers
Charles Smith
John B. Halford
Richard Waites
George Arnold
Richard Ivens
Capt. Thomas Smith
William Palmer
Alfred Short
Mrs A. J. Martin
Henry Johnson
Jabez Horne
Rev. William Rouch
Frank Tricks
William Hicks
Charles L. Elliott
Edward Greenfield Doggett
Daniel Williams
?. Sugden
Rev. Robert P. Macmaster
?. Prospect house
Mrs Phillips, preparatory school
Miss Williams
Rev. Joseph Morris
Augustus Ferris Morcom
Charles Williams
Francis James Dearlove
Thomas William Dufiett
Thomas Gay
Richard Rowe
Dr. Frederick W. Grifiin
Edward Watts
Miss M. Watts, ladies’ school
Thomas Durant
Mrs Mar Ayre
George Tayler Hooper
Mrs Jane Burland
John Blackmore
Mrs Sarah Day, ladies’ school
Ann Webb
Col. William Ledlie
Mrs Bentley
Edward John Skeates
William Pickering
Charles Lennox
Rev. Joseph Philip Cohen
Miss Hannah B. Smith
Henry Wethered, Devon
Mrs Elizabeth Dibbins
Mrs Emma Wallis
Henry John Gorton
Mrs C. Fedden
Rev James W. L. Bowley
Mrs Frances Parker
John Wanklyn James
Joseph Gadd, fly proprietor
Robert Iles Hewitt
Miss Matilda Woodman, Cleeve house
John Hewitt
Robert Henry Webb
Rev. William Hazledine (Temple)
Mrs Charles Thomas Lloyd
T. H. Clark, wine hooper
Miss Hannah Baker, Prospect cottage
William Mealing, grocer & confectioner
Miss Carlile, Tancredi house

John White, vict, Booth’s Hotel (Kingsdown Wine Vaults (pub) the Kingsdown Wine Vaults has also been known as the Star, Booth’s Hotel and White’s Hotel. 1867 Peter Leach / 1868 – 69 S. J. Booth / 1871 – 77 John White / 1877 – 79 William Millman / 1882 – 1909 Emily Millman 1914 George Norman / 1917 – 21 Mary Jane Norman / 1925 Alice Jane Bayntun / 1928 – 31 Sydney Whitewood / 1933 – 44 Lionel Nash 1950 – 53 Ada Nash / 1960 V. C. Harrison / 1975 Miss E. T. Harrison. (previously occupied by Solomon Fry, bed & mattress maker)

Mrs Eliz. Ward, vict, Montague Hotel (pub) The Montague was the first house to be built in Kingsdown around 1737 and was named after the Montagues who owned the estate that included Kingsdown. The Montague was pulled down after suffering severe bomb damage in the war, the site was never rebuilt and is now the green triangle at the top of Horfield Road. bristolslostpubs.eu/page194.html

Kingsland Court, Kingsland Road, St Philips

Kingsland Road, Batch to Marsh Lane, St. Philip’s

George Packer, grocer
John Newton, grocer and tea dealer
G. Read & Co. grocers
?. Marriott, potato dealer
John Donovan, oil and color man
James S. Clifford, draper and hosier
Henry Wetton, confectioner
George Cross, beer retailer and baker
Eli Stevens, grocer
J. Winter, confectioner
Mrs Potter, chemist and druggist
Kingsland Chapel and School – Rev. W. Knox
5 Charles Palser, chemist and dentist
James Hampson, beer retailer
Charles Dolan
Edward Holder, greengrocer
B. Collins
M. Hale
J. Boulter, baker
John Brooks
James Coates, grocer
William Horner, linen draper
John Bevan, butcher
T. E. Cartwright, grocer
Alfred Player, grocer
A. R. Adams, grocer & boot maker
Edwin Jones, butcher
James Coles, beer seller

Thomas Grifiiths, vict, Royal Oak (pub) 1834. W. Cummer / 1837 – 39. William Griffiths / 1851 – 53. John Dickinson / 1861 – 63. Charlotte Dickinson 1868 – 1901. Thomas Griffiths / 1904. H. R. Adams / 1906 – 09. Edith Ellen Merrick / 1914 – 21. Bertram Brown 1925 – 28. William Morgan.

Thomas Watkins, vict, Mail Coach (Royal Mail) (pub) 1831 – 37. John Jones / 1839 – 42. Joseph Earl / 1847 – 52. George Knight / 1853 – 69. Joseph Knight / 1871 – 74. Thomas Watkins 1875 – 78. Charles Knight / 1879. Mary Knight / 1881 – 85. Joseph Knight / 1888 – 94. William Edwin Bone 1896 – 1904. Joseph Weeks / 1906. Henry Webb / 1909 – 14. George Norris / 1921. Lily Dobson / 1925. David Griffiths.

Rachel Lord, vict, King’s Head (pub) 1847 – 48. John Lord / 1849 – 53. Richard Lord / 1854 – 72. Rachael Lord / 1874. William Hall / 1875 to 1888. James Hampson 1889 to 1891. Elizabeth Hampson / 1892. William Hampson / 1896. Walter Wood / 1899. William Parker / 1901. Frederick Hillman 1904. Henry Munden.

William Bailey, vict, Glass House (pub) situated by the railway bridge close to Princess Street. 1831 – 48. Samuel Hodges (jnr) / 1853. John Cowmeadow / 1858 – 60. T. Collings / 1861. Daniel Radford / 1863 – 69. Thomas Watkins 1871 – 74. William Bailey / 1875 to 1882. Elizabeth Bailey / 1883 to 1885. Samuel Wiltshire / 1886. T. Grainge / 1887. James Stoates 1888. Sarah Ann Pollard / 1889. William Smallbridge / 1891. George Bush / 1892 to 1893. Mary Ann Clark / 1894 to 1896. Thomas Cole 1897 – 1909. Henry Llewellyn Goodyear / 1914 – 28. Emily Davis.

Murder 1897 Last evening a shocking tragedy occurred in Kingsland Road St.Philip’s. A man called Thomas Coles, of no fixed abode, but formerly landlord of the Glass House, Kingsland Road, attempted, it is alleged, to take the lives of Mr and Mrs John Withey, confectioners, of 57, Kingsland Road, and subsequently took his own life. www.flickr.com/photos/20654194@N07/2040538980/in/photolis…

Samuel Hutchings, vict, Royal Exchange (pub) Marsh Lane, Kingsland Road. 1866 – 67. Thomas Woolf / 1868 to 1869. Joseph Gazzard / 1870. Henry Wookey / 1871. Samuel Hutchings / 1872. Joseph Stokes 1874 – 79. Robert Nutt / 1885 – 91. James Dobbs / 1892 – 14. Walter Hill / 1917 – 21. Eliza Hill / 1925 – 31. Walter Hill 1935. James Peters.

Susan Barter, vict, George (pub) The George was demolished in 2009. 1828. William Kent / 1830 – 44. Jane Passmore / 1847 – 92. Susan Barter / 1894 – 96. Charles Webb / 1897 – 1901. Samuel Wilshire 1904. A. Lloyd / 1906 – 44. Robert Charles Alden / 1950 – 53. Elizabeth Alden / 1975. S. G. Brown. (in 1936, the rent paid by Robert Alden was £78 per annum (£48 house, £30 stables) the landlords were The Bristol Brewery Georges & Co. Limited).

Kingsley Road Lower Cotham Road

Charles Baker, Somerset villa
Edward William Godwin, Dunloe villa
Charles Frederick Crapp, Fairlight villa
William Dubin, Glentry villa
Alfred Merchant, Sydney villa
Joseph Whittard, Clarence villa
Mrs Edward Grevile, Vesta villa
?. Kingsley villa
F. A. Lowle, Lynton villa
Walter Norgrove, Wortley villa

Kingston Place, Seymour Place, Stapleton Road

Kingston Villas, Stuart Street, Stapleton Road

Mrs Bath
?. Stocroft
Rev. T. Richardson
Henry Jenkins, commission agent
Benjamin Poad

Kingstone Buildings. 3, Leek Lane, Milk Street

Kington Buildings, Portland St and Cothain Rd South

Kington Cottages, Portland Street, Kingsdown

Kington Place, Cotham Road South

Kington Villas, Cotham Road South

Knights Cottages, Lower College Street

Knight’s Court, Old Bread Street

Knight’s Lane, Avon Street, St. Philip’s

Knowle Park, Wells Road

(Garibaldi Terrace)

Robert Cleeve
Henry Stevens
Henry Hughes
George Hughes
Joseph Hazell
George Richards
George Shell
Samuel Hilton Lee
William Venner
Richard Nash

(Garibaldi Buildings)

Henry Williams
Louisa Tucker
Mrs Tarver, monthly nurse
Miss Tarver, milliner & dressmaker
Michael Mapstone
Thomas Dolman
George Henry Hawkins

Knowle, above Iron Chapel

(Right Hand Side)

Edward B. Harding, Firfield villa
John Frost, Burnswark cottage
School – Mistress, Miss K. Frost
Thomas Sainsbury, Mile End cottage
James Dare, gardener
J . D. King, Knowle villa
James Paten, grocer
Josiah Dimond, baker, post office
John Stroud, Kings Hill house
Thomas Purkis, plumber
?. Trott
Joseph Ball
Alfred Rose
John Harris
James Grifiiths, lime burner
Thomas Harris, Queensdale farm

(Left Hand Side)

James Smith, Clifton villa
Edward Harding, Ashton villa
William Keen, Failand villa
William Biggs, Henley villa
Prof. Henry James, Dinder villa
T. D. Foxwell
John Harris, Ivy house
James Hardwick, farmer
George Phillips, Knowle house
Mrs A. Heal
Benj. Curtis
George Wickham Hall
Thomas Watson, Victoria house
Philip Rose, Park house

John J, O’Reilly, vict, Red Lion (pub) 1853 – 63. Mrs. Mary Ball / 1877 – 83. John O’ Reilly / 1886 – 87. Henry Beavan / 1899 – 1906. Thomas Gore 1909 – 53. William Weekes / 1960. E. T. Hogg. (in 1936 the annual rent paid by William Weekes was £208 (£200 hotel, £8 adjoining cottage) this was increased to £238 in March 1938, the landlords were The Bristol Brewery Georges & Co. Limited

Michael Cotter, vict, George Inn (pub) 1853. Richard Newick / 1856. Thomas Plummer / 1863. George Cox / 1872 – 78. Michael Cotter / 1879 – 86. Margaret Cotter 1888. Philip Foxwell / 1897. Walter Putnell / 1899 – 1904. George Driver / 1914 – 31. Alfred Clark / 1934 – 38. Amelia Clark 1941 – 44. May Clark / 1950 – 60. George H. J. Hill / 1975. M. S. Gerrish. (the tenancy of May Clark commenced on the 25th of August 1941, the rent was £100 per annum and the landlords were The Bristol Brewery Georges & Co. Limited).

John Hamblet, vict, Talbot (pub) The Talbot is now a restaurant. bristolslostpubs.eu/page272.html

Knowle Road, Totterdown

Albert Daniel Morton, Knowle house
Misses Wright, ladies’ boarding school, Somerset house
George Duck, Devonshire house
Rev. David A. Doudney, D.D. Carlisle house
Martin Pollard Rowe, 1, Park house
M. A. Puddy (customs) 2, Park house
William Pearce, Berkeley villa
Rev. F. W. Monck Berkeley villa
Rev. George Wood, Berkeley villa
R. C. Bartlett, Colston villa
P. Fox, Bellevue house
William Poole, Ruysdael house
John C. Wickham, Montpelier house
George Welchman, York house
S. Joyce, Stafford house
William Norris, undertaker, 2, Claremont villas
Richard Starkey, 1, Claremont villas
William Cott, Stancombe villa

L – Bristol Street Directory 1871

Latest China Plastic Tooling Maker News

Latest China Plastic Tooling Maker News

MakerBay in South China Morning Post cover
china plastic tooling maker
Image by cesarharada.com
Credits Christine Yeh
www.scmp.com/lifestyle/article/1901185/hong-kongs-makerba…

Cesar Harada , founder of MakerBay, with &quotProtei&quot, a revolutionary shape-shifting sailing robot utilised to explore and shield the ocean with Open Source Technologies.
It took inventors Cesar Harada and Shawn Frayne just a couple of days to generate their latest solution – an low-cost children’s creating toy consisting of colourful plastic rods with magnetised ends.

Each men’s core expertise lies elsewhere: Harada designs flexible robotic boats that can be employed on environmental missions Frayne launched a micro-wind device company and went on to run Looking Glass, a start-up making 3D displays.

Their collaboration came about due to the fact each are element of MakerBay, the shared production space Harada set up a tiny a lot more than a year ago in Yau Tong, where hobbyists and inventors alike can gather to tinker, build, invent – and discover from every other.

Cesar Harada, founder of MakerBay in Yau Tong. Photo: David Wong
Cesar Harada, founder of MakerBay in Yau Tong. Photo: David Wong

“The concept is a space like this exactly where collaboration happens organically and we can invent one thing rapidly. [Creating one thing] does not have to be a very lengthy journey. If you are in the correct place, with the appropriate individuals and a lot of tools, and you construct a network that supports these men and women, then the journey can be a lot more quickly,” Harada says.

Getting a maker adjustments the perception of the world. You don’t feel limited. You really feel that the planet can be changedCESAR HARADA
“We wanted to make a toy for youngsters with no cash, with out space, and a single that we can make really quickly. And so we made a drawing, found some straws in the kitchen and some magnets in the office and we place them together. We ordered more components from Taobao next day and in 48 hours we had the prototype.”

The maker movement, which former Wired magazine editor Chris Anderson described as “the internet generation generating physical things rather than just pixels on screens”, is a nascent a single in Hong Kong.

Dim Sum Labs in Sheung Wan, the 1st hacker space in the city, has been joined only by MakerHive, a tiny co-working space in Kennedy Town, and Harada’s MakerBay, which occupies a 6,500 sq ft space in an industrial constructing and gives tools from screwdrivers and soldering irons to laser cutters and 3D printers.

Tools at MakerBay positioned in an industrial building in Yau Tong. Photo: David Wong
Tools at MakerBay positioned in an industrial creating in Yau Tong. Photo: David Wong

But they bring with each other diverse talents. MakerBay has attracted hobbyists such as Andrew Pearce, a frequent traveller employing his remain in Hong Kong to generate his dream surfboard, as nicely as companies such as Frayne’s Looking Glass.

British ecologist and MakerBay member Andrew Pearce in the MakerBay workshop. Photo: David Wong
British ecologist and MakerBay member Andrew Pearce in the MakerBay workshop. Photo: David Wong

Originally based in Kwun Tong, the organization moved to MakerBay shortly right after it opened.

Alvin Lee Shiu-pong, an engineer at Seeking Glass, says he and his colleagues discover the co-functioning platform a great spot for building new products.

“We can meet a lot of like-minded folks and share our suggestions. The workshop is genuinely handy. Possessing our own tool lab would call for a big investment it’s significantly less costly if we can share the tools.”

Lee says the “volumetric” displays they specialise in would be beneficial for the medical world and beyond.

“Instead of dissecting bodies or hunting at 2D pictures from books, students can use a volumetric display to find out about human bodies,” he says, gesturing towards a transparent brick inked with a detailed 3D display of the structures inside a skull.

“All we want is to method the 3D info we’ve obtained [to kind the display] and assign colours according to the distinct densities identified – a greater density would indicate bone and decrease ones can be blood, flesh or tendon,” he explains.

The exact same method could be applied to find out about the structures of insects or even micro-organisms, adds Lee, whose team is refining the next big issue from Searching Glass – a cube which can display LED sequences based on code that a user has written.

British ecologistPearce shares his enthusiasm for the hacker space. Tired of paying hefty airline charges to ship his surfboards and of acquiring boards that do not meet his preferences, he decided to make his own. He has been producing very good use of the tools at MakerBay and selecting up skills at its workshops to experiment with various supplies and approaches of generating surfboards.

“It’s just a good way of studying things,” says Pearce. “It’s the first time I tried to make one thing. Right here, I’ve figured out how to make designs in 3D and make them with the laser cutter. I’ve done an induction workshop on woodworking, also. And if I managed somehow to get this new approach of creating down then I guess it can be a saleable concept.

“I do have a mini Simmons [surfboard] but I can not take it with me because of all the charges for the airline. You’ve got this limit on the MTR as effectively, which is even smaller – you can’t even take something as higher as your self. That’s why I have to design and style something that slots collectively, which is tough.”

L3D Cube.
L3D Cube.

Pearce might have picked up a handful of tips at the Maker Faire Hong Kong in November, when veteran model maker Chung King-yang showed a foldable canoe created from plastic foam and epoxy resin.

The two-day occasion, which drew entries from far more than 300 person makers and schools, was organised by Dr Choy Sze-tsan.

An assistant professor in the college of style at Polytechnic University, Choy previously sponsored a mini occasion run by the Hong Kong Makers’ Club. But following 3 years, he decided it was time to turn the faire into a larger event and involve more schools.

Harada presented his building toy at the event and the optimistic feedback has encouraged him to place it on the market place soon. As may well be anticipated, Dim Sum Labs was also present and ran soldering workshops.

Hong Kong traditionally is far more service- and finance-oriented. Men and women here are much less about creating items. They’re much more about transactionsJASON HSU
Visitors got the opportunity to test-drive underwater robots produced by German Swiss International School, get their hands on diverse maker products and, a lot more importantly, be inspired.

Although traditional fairs tend to be places to sell factors, Maker Faires are all about nurturing creativity and sharing of understanding, Choy says.

At its heart, design covers the broader intention to recognize issues and come up with solutions to improve our globe, which has a lot to do with the maker culture, he adds it’s not basically about enhancing aesthetics.

So even though some men and women may consider products featured at the show to be useless stuff, the tips could be the genesis of some thing far larger.

“A effective invention comes not overnight, but after tonnes of experimentations. At the Maker Faire, people can see so many various possibilities of solving problems creatively, it’s impossible for them not to get inspired,” Choy says.

“The maker culture is a excellent catalyst for folks to reconnect back to our physical world and discover by way of failures and trial and error. By way of producing and the uncertainties that arise from the method, we venture into the unknown. And if there’re glitches, it is OK since they keep us trying even harder.”

Harada agrees: “Everyone in their heart has the wish to do anything fascinating with their life and if you only perform on a laptop, there’re some limitations. But once you start off to make anything, you can create an object or adjust the environment.

“Being a maker alterations the perception of the planet. You don’t feel restricted. You feel that the globe can be changed and that’s true for almost everything from objects to buildings to politics.”

Some enthusiasts view the maker movement as holding the seeds to a third industrial revolution. Jason Hsu Yu-jen, founder of Taiwan’s MakerBar, goes so far as to say that our future may lie in the maker culture.Navigating a power drill kart produced by Wheel Thing Makers.
Navigating a power drill kart produced by Wheel Thing Makers.

“MakerBar is more than just a co-functioning space. It has evolved to become a international platform,” says Hsu, who was in Hong Kong last month to speak at a symposium organised by the Hong Kong Federation of Design Associations.

“Most people believe about makers as a company model. That’s incorrect. The maker culture is not just about [utilizing] 3D printing or laser cutters. [Being a] maker is a mindset. It’s a way to resolve problems creatively.

“What you see as the maker movement nowadays is what web or application was back in the early ’80s when Steve Jobs very first launched the Macintosh individual computers. In the future, simply because of de-monetisation and democratisation of technologies, the price for technology would be almost free of charge and you need to have to use your service to make income, not with the machine.

“The maker culture is important for its social engineering effect. It could be a new tool to adjust society, particularly in the establishing planet. In the countryside or farm communities in remote China, makers could be used as a hub to modify villagers’ life. It will alter villagers’ life the way e-commerce will modify China. That is my vision.”

Jason Hsu, of MakerBar Taipei. Photo: Jonathan Wong
Jason Hsu, of MakerBar Taipei. Photo: Jonathan Wong

Nevertheless, compared to the mushrooming maker spaces in Taiwan and Shenzhen, the movement in Hong Kong clearly has a lengthy way to go.

This lag is due to the fact “Hong Kong traditionally is a lot more service- and finance-oriented. Individuals here are significantly less about producing issues. They’re far more about transactions,” Hsu says.

The perception of creating as a non-profit activity is certainly a element in Hongkongers’ lack of involvement, Choy concedes. “But in reality, besides cultural and intellectual elements, there can be economic value,” he says. “Take Japan’s Maywa Denki, for instance. Their quirky musical inventions which they execute well-known shows with are their supply of revenue.”

MakerBay’s Harada says an additional explanation why the maker culture has been so slow to develop in the city is due to the fact “the mentality of Hong Kong has been educated too significantly towards competitors and not towards collaboration”.

“They have been trying more to take advantage of every other rather of helping every single other. This has to alter,” he says.

“In Silicon Valley this culture of maker space, sharing and superb innovation has been around for 15 years and this is why Silicon Valley is Silicon Valley. Folks young and old have to open their minds, be prepared to experiment and share the sources alternatively of maintaining issues to themselves.”