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The once beautiful Eudunda Railway Station in South Australia. The line opened to here in 1878. It is now terribly vandalised. What a pity and a shame on the government. Love the gables and air vents.
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Image by denisbin
Eudunda –German Settlers Town.
The Government extended the Kapunda railway to Eudunda in 1878. This provided a great boost to the newly settled town which had been surveyed in 1872. Eudunda was selected as a town site on the eastern side of the Mt Loft Ranges at 415 metres above sea level, with annual rainfall of 450 mm. To the east of Eudunda the rainfall drops sharply and at 250mm Goyder’s Line is crossed, which depicts the limit of reliable cereal cropping land. Eudunda is often one of the coldest places in SA during the winter months.

The town was established in 1872 a few years prior to the arrival of the railway and it was located near a permanent spring. A town water supply was always essential in the 19th century. Thus the name Eudunda is of aboriginal derivation, Ngadjuri meaning “sheltered water or spring.” This water supply was crucial for the sheep and cattle overlanders coming down from Morgan. In 1872 A & G Neumann erected a flour mill, and in 1874 Mr Appelt opened his general store, having also been appointed Postmaster. The earliest settlers were second generation Lutheran Germans moving on from the Barossa Valley. With the opening of the railway to the Adelaide in 1878 the district thrived. To complement their flour mill Laucke’s established a chaff mill in Kapunda Street and the Eudunda Bakery has been in operation for over 100 years. Eudunda foundries provided employment for many town dwellers, especially the Lutz Farm Machinery Foundry which operated 1892-1905 until it was taken over as Jansen’s Foundry (operated 1905-1951). This foundry survived until recently and was last being run by a Canadian company trading as Emco-Wheaton in the 1980s. It still employed 30 men in the 1980s. A new engineering firm established in Eudunda in 1985 called Buschutz Engineering. The company now employs 20 staff producing hay conditioners, water tanks, silos, fertilizer spreaders and under vine feeders. Edwin Davey the successful flour miller from Angaston later had a second flour mill built in Eudunda to complement his mills in Salisbury, Port Adelaide, Melbourne and Sydney. This second flour mill later became Laucke’s mill. It opened in 1879 and still stands in Kapunda Road.

But before the industry got under way the hotels opened! The first was the Eudunda Hotel which opened in 1873 (what we see today is the 1886 building) and the Royal Hotel which was built as a grand two storey structure in 1878. The first banking service operated from Appelt’s Store in 1877 with the first National Bank (a house type building) being erected in 1888. When it opened, all advertisements for its services were in German. Another indication of the strong German origins of the town was the establishment of the Eudunda Club in 1888 as a club for German workingmen, especially employees of the local foundry. The Club, like German schools etc was closed by Act of parliament in 1917 but it re-opened in 1919. It is still operating in Bruce Street. The Club built the Centenary Hall in 1900 which became the town Institute building when the Town Council took it over.

Police were stationed in Eudunda from 1877 but the first police station was not built until 1883. The town had an early fire station, and like most SA towns the hospital was not opened until the 1920s. It opened in 1922. The first government school opened for classes in 1878 in a large brick and stone Gothic style building. During World War One it became a Higher Primary School offering classes for year 8 and year 9 students. A new building was provided for the town in 1946 and opened as Eudunda Area School (which had been established in 1943) as around half a dozen outlying schools had been closed during the Second World War. From that time children were bussed into Eudunda Area School. At some stage the old 1878 school buildings were demolished. The Lutheran churches provided some early school classes but Emmaus Lutheran Church did not open a formal school until 1904 in Eudunda. The school was closed by state legislation in 1917 during World War One, but it re-opened in 1925 and still operates today with over 200 enrolments. Lutheran church services were mainly conducted in German until the 1920s. The last German language church services in the district were held at Point Pass Lutheran Church in 1939. The outbreak of World War Two finally stopped the German language services.

The history of the churches in Eudunda show the strong Lutheran heritage. Emmaus congregation formed a Lutheran Church in 1871 as the town began. They built a fine church in 1884 at a cost of £1,100. Another Lutheran congregation formed in 1885 and built a second Lutheran Church, St Paul’s in 1893. St Paul’s finally closed in 1979 and a new church for the combined congregations was erected in 1980 called St John’s. The Anglican Church was set up in 1889 when they purchased a former Lutheran Church. It is called St Hilda’s. The Methodist Church was opened in 1885. There is also a Catholic Church in Eudunda.

Commercially the big success of Eudunda was the establishment of Eudunda Farmers’ Cooperative in 1896. It was founded by Thomas Roberts who died at his North Adelaide home in 1922. Roberts used to purchase cut Mallee wood from farmers during the great droughts and depression of the 1890s, especially from the Murray Flats to the east of Eudunda. He formed a cooperative so that farmers could buy their groceries and grain seeds etc in bulk at reduced prices. The society was formed in 1896 with 100 member families based on the railway wood yards at Sutherlands, Bower and Mount Mary etc. Among the many successful businesses in Eudunda was Wiesner and Company timber and hardware merchants. Their impressive warehouse and store still remains in the town. The Wiesner family started a blacksmith and foundry business in Eudunda in 1884 which eventually employed 50 people. In 1905 they sold that business and opened the iron mongers and furniture store in large two storey premises to which they added. It became the largest hardware and furniture store outside of Adelaide. It sold everything from pianos, china, glassware and silver cutlery to iron, nails tools and timber and sewing machines. Johannes Wiesner and his son Adolph ran the business until it was sold in 1951 but they had downsized it in 1945 when they sold they sold part of the warehouse to the Masonic Lodge. Interestingly Adolph married an English girl Mary Cranston and he became a Methodist and his grandson became a Methodist Minister.

When the government extended the railway form Kapunda to Eudunda in 1878 they wanted to push it further across the Murray Flats to Morgan. Why, one might ask? Well, they wanted to tap into the lucrative river trade that came down from New South Wales. Wool was still shipped down the Darling and Murray, and supplies shipped up the river to many NSW properties. By having a railway to Morgan and extensive wharves there, the SA government could transport the wool to Port Adelaide for transhipping to Europe. The rise of Morgan, of course, was to mean the demise of the major shipping ports lower down the Murray such as Milang, Goolwa and Murray Bridge. Because this trade was so important economically the train line crossed the flat through Mount Mary to Morgan in 1878. During the 1890s a quarter of ALL wool exported from SA came from other colonies, mainly NSW but some also came from Queensland and Victoria. Once the South Australian Railways were making a profit (their first profits were in 1907) they also extended the railway from Eudunda to Robertstown in 1914. Passenger services to Robertstown ceased in 1962.

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Nottingham Council House – Old Market Square – lion
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Image by ell brown
Close up views of details of the Nottingham Council House in Old Market Square.

The building is Grade II* listed building.

Council House, Exchange Buildings and Adjoining Shops and Bank, Nottingham

NOTTINGHAM

646-1/20/459 OLD MARKET SQUARE
04-FEB-1988 OLD MARKET SQUARE
(East side)
COUNCIL HOUSE, EXCHANGE BUILDINGS AND
ADJOINING SHOPS AND BANK

GV II*

Also Known As: 4, 6 AND 8, HIGH STREET, OLD MARKET SQUARE
1 TO 15, CHEAPSIDE, OLD MARKET SQUARE
YORKSHIRE BANK, 11, SMITHY ROW, OLD MARKET SQUARE
3, 4, 7 AND 8, SMITHY ROW, OLD MARKET SQUARE
Council House with offices and shopping arcade, and adjoining shops and bank, forming a rectangular island block. 1924-29. By T. Cecil Howitt for Nottingham City Council. Sculptural decoration by Joseph Else and mural paintings by Denholm Davis, with collaborators. Bank 1927, by A N Bromley of Nottingham for the National Provincial Bank.

MATERIALS: Steel frame with Portland stone cladding and dressings, and lead roofs.

EXTERIOR: Baroque Revival style. The windows are mainly glazing bar casements with bronze frames and panels. It has a granite plinth, with channelled rustication to the ground floor, a dentillated main cornice, and pierced balustrade. 4 storeys; 9 bays. The main west front has a projecting centre of 7 bays, reached by steps flanked by statues of lions, with round-arched ground floor openings and 4 bronze bracket lamps. Above, an octastyle Ionic portico in antis, rising through 3 floors and topped with a pediment containing relief sculpture. Under the portico, regular fenestration with metal framed glazing bar casements. There are blank end bays with round-arched ground floor openings. Rising above the centre of the building is a drum with Ionic colonnades and sculpture groups in niches at 4 corners. Above it is a large lead dome topped with an ornate cupola. The right and left returns are identical, with projecting central round-arched entrances rising through 4 floors. On either side, a 5 bay facade with ground floor shop fronts is divided by Doric pilasters. The upper 3 floors are divided by Ionic three-quarter columns in antis, and have regular fenestration. The right return has an additional single entrance bay towards the rear. The rear facade, to the east, has a central round-arched opening rising through 3 floors, with Ionic columns in antis under a pediment. There are single flanking bays with pendant lamps and round-arched ground floor openings. Above them are single windows on each floor. Exchange Arcade has at the crossing a glazed dome with paintings of historical scenes on the pendentives. There is a frieze with a lengthy inscription dated 1929. The main east-west arcade is 5 bays, has renewed shop fronts divided by square pilasters, and above, tripartite windows with moulded surrounds, also divided by pilasters. To the east is a 4 bay arcade, narrower and lower, defined by a stone arch, with cross casements in moulded surrounds. The eastern bay is 3 storeys and has 2 windows on each floor. The shorter north and south arcades have large transomed windows. The adjoining corner block to the south-east, dated 1922, is ashlar in a stripped Classical style. There are end bays with pilasters, an angled corner bay, and cornice and parapet. 4 storeys; 5 x 9 bays, with metal framed casements. The ground floor shop fronts are divided by plain pilasters, and above, there is regular fenestration, with a pedimented central window to each front. The adjoining bank, to the north-east, dated 1927, is by A N Bromley of Nottingham. It is ashlar, in the Baroque Revival style. It has a moulded granite plinth, rusticated ground floor, dentillated main cornice, pierced balustrade. It is 3 storeys plus attics; 5 x 9 bays, with glazing bar sashes to the upper floors and metal framed casements below. There are pediments and keystones to the first floor. The rounded corner entrance bay has a Doric door case with cornice and crest with supporters. Above is a single window on each floor. In the attic there is a cartouche date stone with supporters, under a broken scrolled pediment. The return facades have round-arched ground floor openings with keystones, and the upper floors are divided by Ionic half-columns. The end bays project.

INTERIOR: The Council House has a main entrance hall with marble panelling and Doric columns, and a curving marble staircase with pierced balustrade. The first floor reception hall has full height Ionic columns and a coffered ceiling. The dining hall has wooden panelling and pilasters, and a coved plaster ceiling. The Lord Mayor’s parlour and waiting room, members’ room and library have panelling. The Lord Mayor’s private room has C17 oak panelling from Ashton Hall, Birmingham, and the Lady Mayoress’s parlour has Adam-style decoration. The Council chamber has pilaster panelling and a coffered ceiling, and original seating and galleries. The bank has pilastered walls and 2 Ionic columns carrying a cross beam ceiling with a central domed skylight on pendentives. The bank fittings were renewed in the late C20.

HISTORY: Nottingham’s original Exchange Hall was built between 1724-6 on the site of the present Council House and Exchange Buildings. Consideration was given to the construction of a new town hall from the 1850s onwards, but it wasn’t to be until the early 1920s that the council had acquired the other properties in the Exchange block so as to be in a position to build on the complete site. The Council House, Exchange Buildings and adjoining shops and bank were built between 1926 and 1929. The official opening of the complex was on the 22nd May 1929. As Elain Harwood outlines in the Nottingham Pevsner Guide ‘Howitt’s initial scheme of 1923-4 anticipated recovery of the council’s buildings for University College. He therefore proposed rebuilding the Exchange as a superior shopping arcade, modelled on Milan’s Galleria Vittorio Emanuele, with top-lit arcades’. In an appreciation to its architect, T.C.Howitt, published in The Times shortly after his death in 1968, the Council House was described as ‘probably still the finest municipal building outside of London’.

SOURCES:
Scoffham E R, A vision of the City: the architecture of T C Howitt, (1992) 18-21; E. Harwood, Nottingham: Pevsner Architectural Guides (2008) 46-49;
J. Beckett and K. Brand, The Council House Nottingham and Old Market Square (2004)

REASONS FOR DESIGNATION:
* The buildings are considered to be an exceptional example of early C20 civic architecture which have undergone little significant alteration since their completion in 1929.
* The buildings represent a rare example of a Corporation commissioning its principal building from its own architectural service.
* The buildings retain their original principal interiors and almost all of their original fixtures and fittings all of which are of a consistently high quality.
* The special interest of the buildings is enhanced by the consistently high quality of the decorative art found throughout, including sculpture, murals, glass and plasterwork and by the range and quality of the building materials used in its construction.
* The arrangement of civic facilities and commercial buildings is unusual for local government buildings of this date and adds considerable interest.

This text is a legacy record and has not been updated since the building was originally listed. Details of the building may have changed in the intervening time. You should not rely on this listing as an accurate description of the building.

Source: English Heritage

Listed building text is © Crown Copyright. Reproduced under licence.

Lion

Image from page 513 of “The Bell System technical journal” (1922)
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Image by Internet Archive Book Images
Identifier: bellsystemtechni18amerrich
Title: The Bell System technical journal
Year: 1922 (1920s)
Authors: American Telephone and Telegraph Company
Subjects: Telecommunication Electric engineering Communication Electronics Science Technology
Publisher: [Short Hills, N.J., etc., American Telephone and Telegraph Co.]
Contributing Library: Prelinger Library
Digitizing Sponsor: Internet Archive

View Book Page: Book Viewer
About This Book: Catalog Entry
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Click here to view book online to see this illustration in context in a browseable online version of this book.

Text Appearing Before Image:
orig-inally ground along the fin left by the semi-positive mold and thenbuffed. The operation was not only expensive but tended to grindoff a large portion of the surface of the handle. This removed theresin-rich surface and tended to expose the filler of the phenol plasticmolding compound, thus reducing the appearance life of the handle.The more recent product of the Bell System is being grooved alongthe die parting line. This removes the fin, a minimum of the resin- 490 BELL SYSTEM TECHNICAL JOURNAL rich surface and does not detract from the appearance of the handset.Automatic grooving machines were developed for this purpose. Figure4 shows a grooved handset handle. It has been found necessary to pay close attention to the design inorder that die parting lines, ejector pin marks, gate marks and the likewill appear at points where they may be readily eliminated by simpletrimming and grooving operations, or where they may be left withoutobjection to appearance or function of the part.

Text Appearing After Image:
Fig. 4—Grooved handset handle. General Test Methods and Requirements The most satisfactory test is one that can be applied to the finishedpart to measure the ability of that part to perform its function satis-factorily in service. This ideal is seldom realized, not only because ofthe difiiculty of defining the service requirements but of finding teststhat are wholly representative of service conditions. It is customary,therefore, to apply a series of tests whose sum total will approach theideal as nearly as practicable. Molded organic plastic parts aredifferent from parts made from most other materials in that themolding process may modify them and render them quite differentfrom the raw material. In the case of thermosetting compoundsthis is particularly true. Tests are in the main applied, therefore, to a molded part of repre-sentative specimen of the fabricated material. In the telephone plantthe items that are of most importance are strength, both transverseand impact, permanenc

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Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: View of south hangar, such as B-29 Superfortress “Enola Gay”, a glimpse of the Air France Concorde, and many other people
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Image by Chris Devers
Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Boeing B-29 Superfortress &quotEnola Gay&quot:

Boeing’s B-29 Superfortress was the most sophisticated propeller-driven bomber of World War II and the first bomber to residence its crew in pressurized compartments. Despite the fact that created to fight in the European theater, the B-29 discovered its niche on the other side of the globe. In the Pacific, B-29s delivered a variety of aerial weapons: standard bombs, incendiary bombs, mines, and two nuclear weapons.

On August six, 1945, this Martin-built B-29-45-MO dropped the initial atomic weapon used in combat on Hiroshima, Japan. 3 days later, Bockscar (on display at the U.S. Air Force Museum near Dayton, Ohio) dropped a second atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Japan. Enola Gay flew as the advance weather reconnaissance aircraft that day. A third B-29, The Fantastic Artiste, flew as an observation aircraft on both missions.

Transferred from the United States Air Force.

Manufacturer:
Boeing Aircraft Co.
Martin Co., Omaha, Nebr.

Date:
1945

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
General: 900 x 3020cm, 32580kg, 4300cm (29ft six 5/16in. x 99ft 1in., 71825.9lb., 141ft 15/16in.)

Components:
Polished all round aluminum finish

Physical Description:
Four-engine heavy bomber with semi-monoqoque fuselage and high-aspect ratio wings. Polished aluminum finish all round, common late-World War II Army Air Forces insignia on wings and aft fuselage and serial quantity on vertical fin 509th Composite Group markings painted in black &quotEnola Gay&quot in black, block letters on lower left nose.