Nice Plastic Mould Made In China photos

Nice Plastic Mould Made In China photos

A few nice plastic mould made in china images I found:

Image from page 402 of “China : a history of the laws, manners and customs of the people” (1878)
plastic mould made in china
Image by Internet Archive Book Images
Identifier: chinahistoryofla02grayuoft
Title: China : a history of the laws, manners and customs of the people
Year: 1878 (1870s)
Authors: Gray, John Henry, 1828-1890 Gregor, William Gow
Subjects: China — Social life and customs
Publisher: London : Macmillan
Contributing Library: Robarts – University of Toronto
Digitizing Sponsor: MSN

View Book Page: Book Viewer
About This Book: Catalog Entry
View All Images: All Images From Book

Click here to view book online to see this illustration in context in a browseable online version of this book.

Text Appearing Before Image:
garded as a proof of a hostile disposition.On passing through the streets, however, the Chinese began tomake remarks, and to call out one to another, Beware ofthat foreigner, he will club some of you I As my friend hada habit of swinging his stick about when walking, the excite-ment increased as we progressed. Eventually a large crowdgathered, and becoming exceedingly angry, attacked us, andforced us to seek refuge in a pottery, whence we were witliditficulty conveyed through back streets to our boat. In various parts of China the manufacture of fiat clay tiles,which resemble flags, is carried on. At Pak-hin-hok, nearCanton, and at other places in the vicinity, these tiles are madein large quantities. The plastic clay of which they are formedis brought to Canton from the neighbouring counties or districtsof Toong-koon and Pun-yu respectively. As rivers and creeksare the highways of Kwang-tung, the clay is conveyed to thetile-yards i)i Pak-liin-hok in boats. It is ])ih^(l up in stacks.

Text Appearing After Image:
xxviii.] TILF:S AND BRICKS. 245 from which it is taken as roquired, and placed on a threshing-floor to be kneaded or tempered by being trodden by the feet.Tiles are made of the clay thus tempered by means of moulds,according to the size and pattern required. The kilns in whichthe tiles are baked are very large, and the process of bakinge>vtends, I believe, over nine or ten days. They are not removed,however, from tlie kihi until the sixtli day after the fire isextinguished. In many parts of this vast empire bricks are now, and forcenturies past have been, made in great numbers. They aremade in the following manner: the surface soil, or encallow, asit is termed by brickmakers, is first removed. The clay is thentempered or kneaded by the feet of buffaloes, which for this pur-pose are led or driven over it by bo}s, backwards and forwardsfor several hours. At the town of You-tou, however, which isnear Woo-see Hien, the clay is trodden Ijy men. In Persia also,I may observe in passing, a

Note About Images
Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability – coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.

Cool China Inner Part Mould images

Cool China Inner Part Mould images

Some cool china inner part mould images:

Image from page 166 of “The manufacture of rubber goods : a practical handbook for the use of manufacturers, chemists, and others” (1919)
china inner part mould
Image by Internet Archive Book Images
Identifier: manufactureofrub00heil
Title: The manufacture of rubber goods : a practical handbook for the use of manufacturers, chemists, and others
Year: 1919 (1910s)
Authors: Heil, Adolf Esch, W. (Werner), b. 1878 Lewis, Edward W. (Edward Watkin)
Subjects: Rubber Rubber industry and trade
Publisher: London : C. Griffin & Company
Contributing Library: Claire T. Carney Library, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth
Digitizing Sponsor: Claire T. Carney Library, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth

View Book Page: Book Viewer
About This Book: Catalog Entry
View All Images: All Images From Book

Click here to view book online to see this illustration in context in a browseable online version of this book.

Text Appearing Before Image:
ulcanised in French chalk, and subsequently cut to the 1 See also the article , Kombinierte hydraulische Kesselpresse Id theGummi-Zeitung, 1905, vol. xix. p. 1001. MANUFACTURE OF SOFT-RUBBER ARTICLES. 155 proper size by means of an eccentric punch, holes being at thesame time punched in them. The matrix which holds the knifeand the punch can be adjusted to take all sizes. One man canpunch on an average 8000 flat pedals in a day. Curved brake-rubbers with a hard-rubber inner layer are run on the machine inthe two different qualities, joined together by means of solution,cut up into pieces of the proper size, and vulcanised in Frenchchalk. The curved surface is buffed into shape on the lathe, bymeans of a shaped emery-wheel. Complicated rubbers must bemade up and vulcanised in moulds. Solid bicycle-tyres are run on the tube machine and then vulcan-ised in moulds (fig. 70) under the hydraulic vulcanising press, endlesstyres being made in suitable closed moulds, as also are cushion tyres.

Text Appearing After Image:
Fig. 70. Perambulator tyres are also machined, and are then joined up andvulcanised in chalk in the open, or in moulds under the press. 9. Manufacture of Soft-Rubber Surgical Goods, etc.—The manu-facture of air-cushions, water-cushions, mattresses, hot-water bottles,and also of gas-bags, constitutes another department of the industry,to which it is now proposed to direct the readers attention. The three chief factors for success in this branch are: (1) clean,dense mixings, free from grit; (2) calendered sheet of uniformthickness, and fabric closely proofed; (3) careful hand labour. The mixings in most frequent use are white ones. For cushions, e.g., the following mixings may be recommended:— Mozambique . 10,000 gras. China-clay 3,500 gms Sulphur . 1,200 „ Ceresin . 200 „ Zinc white . . 6,500 ,, Magnesia usta. 200 „ The mixing is in part run into lengths of doubled sheet on thecalenders, and made up into cushions with cloth-impression; and in 156 RUBBER MANUFACTURE. part made

Note About Images
Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability – coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.

Image from page 131 of “Illustrated catalogue of the remarkable collection of ancient Chinese bronzes, beautiful old porcelains, amber and stone carvings, sumptuous eighteenth century brocades, interesting old paintings on glas and fine old carpets, rugs
china inner part mould
Image by Internet Archive Book Images
Identifier: illustratedcatal00yama
Title: Illustrated catalogue of the remarkable collection of ancient Chinese bronzes, beautiful old porcelains, amber and stone carvings, sumptuous eighteenth century brocades, interesting old paintings on glas and fine old carpets, rugs and furniture, from ancient palaces and temples of China comprising the private collection of a Chinese nobleman of Tien-Tsin
Year: 1914 (1910s)
Authors: Yamanaka & Company Carroll, Dana H
Subjects: Art objects, Chinese Art, Chinese
Publisher: New York, American art association
Contributing Library: New York Public Library
Digitizing Sponsor: MSN

View Book Page: Book Viewer
About This Book: Catalog Entry
View All Images: All Images From Book

Click here to view book online to see this illustration in context in a browseable online version of this book.

Text Appearing Before Image:
with acool but rich, luxuriant and brilliant green glaze, with fine andall-pervading crackle, the glaze applied also to the inner part ofthe foot, and in lighter tone covering the interior of the vessels.The color, infrequently met with in the multiplicity of Celestialgreens, is known to the Chinese as watermelon-green. Height, iy^ inches. 234—YRrrERs Brish-hoi.df.r (Cliien-hnig) Cylindrical, in the form of a section of a bamboo tree of smalldiameter and glazed in a delicate yellow-brown or tan color;upper and lower edges finely pricked in imitation of the bamboofiber. Ornamented under the glaze with relief modelings ofShou-lao with attendants and a spotted stag and flying bats. Hrif/ht, 4% inches. 235—MoTTEED Lapis-isi.ie Ovoid Bowi, (Cliien-hing) Exterior and interior covered with a glaze of speckled or mottledlapis-blue, infrequently found. Dkimcler, iY^ inches. 236—Short Bottle-shaped ^.ASE {Kniig-hsi) Witli thickened, protruding, molded lip Covered witli a uniform minutely

Text Appearing After Image:
and low foot. iellia-1crackled. camellia-leaf green glaze HiUjht. 514 Inches. 237—Rose-di-Baery Coupe ( Yung Cheng) Modeled in low form on a short circularfoot, its brief body expanding or bulbousand finishing with a wide mouth. Purewhite, dense, resonant porcelain, investedwith an even, smooth glaze of the meltcd-rose hue with lavender-pink suggestionswhich is known as rosc-du-Barrif. IikiiixIi r. A:% inches. 238—Roiiixs-EGc: Souffle Gallipot (Chicn-liiiig) Bulbous body with full shoulder, thecontour slightly recurving at the foot. Covered with a char-acteristic robins-egg sonfjic glaze, in which the malachite tone predominates. UeKjht. 6/, inches. 239—Irox-rist :Iktai.li(-luster Vase (Chien-hiiig) In inverted-pear sha))e on a narrow foot which a thickened glazemakes slightly bulbous, and having a short neck witli a whiterinL Covered with a glaze in the rusty hue of disintegratingiron, with innumerable metallic fleckings, the rust-brown glazecontinued on the interior of the ne

Note About Images
Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability – coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.

Cool China Once Used Mould images

Cool China Once Used Mould images

Check out these china once used mould images:

Image from page 708 of “American cookery” (1914)
china once used mould
Image by Internet Archive Book Images
Identifier: americancookery19unse_4
Title: American cookery
Year: 1914 (1910s)
Authors:
Subjects:
Publisher: New York [etc.] : Whitney Publications [etc.]
Contributing Library: Boston Public Library
Digitizing Sponsor: Boston Public Library

View Book Page: Book Viewer
About This Book: Catalog Entry
View All Images: All Images From Book

Click here to view book online to see this illustration in context in a browseable online version of this book.

Text Appearing Before Image:
DISHES THAT MEN LIKE WE are always looking for dishes that will please the masculine taste — dishes which once eaten oftenreappear by special request. In these Perfection Salad and Snow Pudding recipes you willfind such dishes, for they have won universal favor with the men wherever they have been served —and I know they have been favorites in my own home for years. Not only will the masculine members of your family appreciate these dishes, but you will likethem too, because they are easy to make and may be made with syrup in place of sugar, when thatprecious article soars in price or is impossible to get.

Text Appearing After Image:
PERFECTION SALAD 2 cup sugar or Yt cupful of syrup 1 teaspoonful salt 1 cup cabbage, finely shredded Yi cup mild vinegar2 cups boiling water2 cups celery, cut small2 tablespoonfuls lemon juice 14, can sweet red peppers orfresh peppers finely cut 1 envelope KNOX SparklingGelatine Yl cup cold water Soak the gelatine in cold water five minutes; add vinegar, lemon juice, boiling water, sugar and salt; stir until dissolved.Strain and when beginning to set add remaining ingredients. Turn into mold, first dipped in cold water, and chill. Serveon lettuce leaves with mayonnaise dressing, or cut in dice and serve in cases made of red or green peppers; or the mixturemay be shaped in molds lined with pimentoes.In my recipes no special molds are required; — any vegetable, china or glass dish will mold them nicely. NOTE: Use fruits instead of vegetables in the above recipe and you have a delicious fruit salad. SNOW PUDDING Yi envelope KNOX Sparkling Gela- s/i cup sugar or tine % cup of syrup i c

Note About Images
Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability – coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.

I use scrap wood. I use anything that doesn’t burn in the wood stove
china once used mould
Image by Jim Surkamp
Pots Thru Time With Joy Bridy – This is local clay dug up from around the foundation of my house and I’m going to process it in this old bath tub, and before I process it, I break it up in little pieces and screen it through some hardware cloth, which helps to get any stones, weeds, detritus out of it. This clay does not have high plasticity which means it is a little harder to work with. plasticity definition: Capable of being formed into a shape or moulded without cracking. It might break and crack as I work with it, but that’s probably what I like about it. It adds character, instead of plasticity. It’s also reddish brown stoneware, not real white like a porcelain and not super iron-rich. It won’t be black sort of an orangish color when it’s fired. It will have some porousness. I fire it to a high enough temperature that it’s useful as functional ware as well as sculptural. This clay is also local clay and I’ll break it up into small marble-size pieces and slake it down in water in which I’ll run my hands through it for about ten or fifteen minutes (per) each bucket to get any rocks and stones and grass out. Then I’ll process this clay – once it’s wet – by drying it out slowly on top of bed sheets in the sun – so it’s a nice working consistancy. After I make the pieces I bisque fire them once. Then I’ll glaze and fire them in my wood kiln. (This is my wood kiln here). This is my wood kiln. I designed and built it five years ago. It’s a very old and traditional style and it’s fueled one hundred per cent with wood. I don’t know what the process would have been in the early eras of Weis pottery – if they would have used wood (They used wood and they used groundhog kilns). Ahh groundhog kilns are the type of kiln that I’m trained in. They tend to be long and flame-like, and very low and in the ground; and they fire for a similar amount of time as this kiln. When I fired this kiln, it fires for three days around the clock and Weis pottery would have done a very similar thing. Once you start a firing, you can’t leave it alone. You have to stay with it the whole time. Pots fill the chamber all the way up to the top, from the side wall, all the way up to the bagwall which you can see on the inside. The flame comes in from the fire box into the ware chamber, brings heat and ash and deposits- ash on the pots – leaves flame markings on the pots – then leaves through the exit flues into the chimney and straight up. My kiln reaches 2400 degrees, which is a high, (for) stoneware temperature. Traditionally, I think, kilns were fired a little cooler, probably 2000-2100 degrees. But wood can reach any temperature you would like depending on your combustion zone, your ware chamber, and your chimney. A fifth generation potter Davis P. Brown observed: “Speaking of firing, lots of people think red’s HOT. Red-hot ain’t even hot; when it’s HOT and you look in them, it’s like looking into the sun.” I use scrap wood. I use anything that doesn’t burn in the wood stove and anything that I would burn in a bonfire. So lots of limbs. The skinny limbs have the most minerals so you get the most interesting deposits and they allow for the most flexibility in gaining heat. And it’s all scrap. (I did some research, Joy, showing the data about the Weis’ pottery operation in 1850. And they reported that they spent seven hundred period dollars for a year’s work and they used six hundred cords of wood and a whole lot of lead. what does that signify to you, as a potter?). Six hundred cords of wood is a lot of wood! For me a cord of wood is eight foot by eight foot by four foot, and in a firing I go through maybe two cords of wood. With the groundhog style kiln, they were very inefficient. So they were stoking wood constantly and a lot of that fuel was leaving the kiln as smoke. Nowadays we know a little more on how to capture that fuel better. “A,” it tells me that we had a lot of wood in this area. Six hundred cords of wood is a huge amount of wood. And “B,” the lead is interesting because a lot of our local clays makes a really wonderful “slip,” that also makes a glaze on the inside of the pot. (A slip?) A slip is like a watered down clay. So a “paint” or a “glaze.” A lot of people use the terms back and forth. It would be what you would glaze with. So if they were using lead, it would be very bad for their health. They probably didn’t live long. and “B” it’s expensive. Even then it was expensive, but it was what people thought they needed to do. Nowadays we know that we can use all these natural things, and the styles that I work in are much more akin to what the Weis potters could have been doing in that I use a lot of local clays. I mix my glazes out of ashes and clay bodies. So I have a very low overhead compared to what they did in that I’m not buying any lead, I’m not buying any expensive colorants that they would have done. My studio is similar to the way they would work in that I have a closed system. My water comes from a rain barrel. I don’t have any running water. My kiln is fired with wood. I don’t fire a gas kiln which a lot of people do nowadays. And my clay is closed-cycle: whatever clay comes into my studio I keep recycling until it turns into pots. And, anything I don’t like I “slip” back down and make clay out of it again, which would have been a practice during their time. So everything stays within the studio. (So in many ways, you’re doing a traditional method that the Weises did, but with greater efficiency). It may have been an aesthetic choice for them in that they chose to do specifically what they were doing. As it is now, I could use a very expensive overhead, using porcelain from China and Europe and using glazes that I buy pre-mixed that have expensive rare earth elements in them. But I prefer the more elementary approach in that I like using clay. I like the variables that come into play with wood firing, and with using ash glazes and with mixing a lot of my own ingredients. This my kiln. This is the firebox of my Bourry box wood kiln. It’s different from a groundhog style in that the groundhog style kilns would have been in the ground. You would have had to crawl to get in them. You would have entered only through the front through a very small opening and had to load everything while on your knees. This is the front. This is the fire box. This is where the fire starts. I load it through the ware chamber door which then gets bricked up with rows of bricks. This side is the firebox where the actual fire occurs, and it starts in the bottom. Once the fire hits about eleven hundred degrees, I can close up this door. (How long does that take Joy?) . It takes a day and a half. Then I can open the side-stoking doors on both sides and start stoking across the top, which allows me to reach a temperature of twenty-four hundred degrees inside the chamber. It’s hotter in the firebox, but that’s the chamber temperature. (What type of design is this called?) This is called a “bourry” box – B-O-U-R-R-Y. It’a an Australian design. What it does – it’s a very efficient, wood-burning kiln because the wood is burning up here and the coal bed is down below. Air comes in. It burns the wood, but then all the smoke and the waste products that would be going up the chimney burn off over the coal bed. So I get what we refer to as a “double burn cycle:” getting heat during the first burn of the wood and extra heat as the smoke and gasses burn off. So it’s very efficient. I get no smoke and no waste product in that way, and I use half as much wood that I would in a kiln of this size without the Bourry box fire. It’s a crossed-dressed kiln because the fire box is here and then everything goes up into the chamber and then back down across from the firebox. It’s more to the flame pattern. Groundhog kilns are often called updraft although they are kind of a hybrid, because if you imagine a flame-shaped kiln it’s also going uphill. So your firebox is down below and you’re stoking the wood, and then the kiln goes up and the chimney’s at the top. So it has a little different pull to it. The chimney is always the engine of the kiln. It’s always what’s pulling the heat and flame through the kiln. This is called “wedging” the clay and what it does is it increases plasticity, which means that as you’re working with it, it will stretch a little easier. It also removes air bubbles and makes it smoother to work with in general. Every piece I make has to go across the wedging board. (This is the process they would do back in the 1800s?). This is as old as it gets: with a heavy round wheel at the bottom and a small light round wheel at the top. It’s been done in every culture across the globe. My rims are probably thin compared to theirs (Weises), because I’m used to a more contemporary look and feel. Theirs probably would have been a little beefier, easier to grab, easier to use. (Somebody made the comment that they were like the fiesta ware of their period) um-hm. Yeh. That’s all they had. And they’re all remarkably similar no matter where you go, especially in the Appalachian foothills. If you did/do the kick wheel, you can’t be in a hurry. This would have been a relative of a classic crock form, which would have been useful in every kitchen across the county during the years the Weis family was in operation. It would have been their bread and butter literally. And their tools would have been extremely similar: a wooden stick, some kind of sponge. Something with a point just in case. And for decoration: a fingernail; everybody would have their decoration around here (side of crock), seems to have been some fingernail marks. We can do another one on the electric. This is starting to center the clay on the wheelhead, and before I can actually make the piece, the clay has to be in the center of the wheel completely. These are all different techniques that help make that happen. This is called wedging on the wheel, where I squeeze it up and then lean it back down, and it also helps to align the particles. I have a modern-day wheel here. This is an electric wheel, which is silent, which is really nice. I center the clay if it comes closer to the starting shape that I want. And the first thing that I do to actually throw the pot is called “opening.” I sink my thumbs into the middle and start to create the “inside” versus the “outside.” Now I’m setting the bottom. Without compressing the clay, you end up getting cracks and flaws in the bottom. Using the pressure of my fingers against the wheelhead, compressing the clay between the two makes for a strong, useful pot. Next, I’ll actually pull up the walls of the vessel. This is the part that looks fun – and IS fun. As the pot gets closer to the form that I want, I fine-tune it with different tools. All of them could have been used in any era. This a wooden rib, and, again, it compresses the clay particles. What I’m looking for is a wall that’s even – thin, but not too thin. I want it to be sturdy when it’s used, but not too heavy. So I dance in between thin versus sturdy. At this point where the wall feels good, that I start to think about the form. I find one of the most important parts is the rim. It has to look good, but it also has to be compressed, because it is very common to bang it on a kitchen sink and it would chip if it wasn’t compressed very well. So it’s important to spend a little extra time, making sure that functional pots actually work. (Is that maybe why the Weises had kind of a strong lip?) Yes. A little extra clay at the foot, because that’s also a spot. I’m lucky enough to come out of the tradition of functional pottery throughout history, when I was in Pennsylvania I used to visit the groundhog kiln sites there. What became of the Wise family? Wrote Mary Bedinger Mitchell of her early years in Shepherdstown in the 1850s: “The town was thriving. There was a brick kiln and a very interesting primitive manufactory of the glazed crocks or earthen pots so much in use. It was carried on by an old man in the old house and had quite a medieval flavor.” After the Weis men would dig up and load the low-plasticity, red-burning clay on the outer bend in the Potomac nearby, they would bring it by wagon back to their worksite. To children like Mary the clay mill “was of absorbing interest, and they hoped for a ride on the long wooden shaft or tongue, to which the gentle horse was hitched along going round and round in a prescribed circle, as it patiently ground the clay into a fine smooth powder. A stone burr working on the same principle as a flour mill did the work. Time progressed and tastes changed in favor of the blue glazed crocks and jugs and the Weis manufactory went into a long, slow decline through the rest of the 19th century, the family finally selling their home to George Beltzhoover. Ever faithful at St. Peter’s Lutheran Church, William Weis’ burial site was graced with a stunning urn – so stunning that vandals threatened it. So, today the urn and Weis’ pots bear witness on a secure shelf at St. Peters, just as others bear witness at the Shepherdstown Historic museum, The County Visitors Center, the Jefferson County Museum, and there is the effort to preserve their memory by Pam and Ren Parziale. To this their traditional skills are also kept fresh by Joy Bridy in her modern pottery, but also keeping the ways of the Weises close at hand, literally.

Thanks to Joy Bridy at joybridy.com

Made possible with the generous, community-minded support of American Public University System (apus.edu)

Researched, written, produced by Jim Surkamp.

Primary References:

Weis Pots courtesy St. Peter’s Lutheran Church, Shepherdstown, WV; Jefferson County Museum, Charles Town, WV; and Historic Shepherdstown Museum.
wikiclay.com
heat-work.blogspot.com
ceramica.wikia.com
wvculture.org
wikipedia.org
nlm.nih.gov
studiopottery.com
wvgeohistory.org

Barber, E. A. (1893). “The Pottery and Porcelain of the United States.” New York, NY: G.P. Putnam’s & Sons.

Bourry, Emile; Wilton P. Rix. (1901). ”Treatise on Ceramic Industries: A Complete Manual for Pottery, Tile and Brick Works.” London, UK: Scott & Greenwood & Co.

POTTERY-EARTHENWARE-KILN-TOOLS
Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (Encyclopaedia, or a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Crafts). 1751. edited by Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d’Alembert Paris, Fr: André le Breton, publisher.

Kenamond, A. D. (1963). “Prominent Men of Shepherdstown, 1762-1962.” Charles Town, WV: Jefferson County Historical Society.

Mitchell, Mary B. “Memories.” edited by Nina Mitchell. Shepherd University Library.

Moler, Mrs. M. S. R.(1940). “George Weis and His Pottery.” Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society Vol. 6. pp.16-17.

Morton, Clyde D. (1987). “The Weis Pottery and the Genealogy of the Potters.” Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society Vol. 52. pp. 48-55.

Parziale, Reynolds and Pamela. (1981). “Pottery in the 1800s. The Weis Pottery, Shepherdstown, West Virginia.” Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society Vol. 47. pp. 23-29.

Rice, A. H.; John Baer Stoudt. (1929). “The Shenandoah Pottery.” Strasburg, VA: Shenandoah Publishing House, Inc.

Sanderson, Robert; Coll Monigue. (2000). “Wood-fired Ceramics: Contemporary Practices.” Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 10-14.

Sweezy, Nancy. (1994). “Raised in Clay: The Southern Pottery Tradition.” Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.

Timbrell, John. (2005). “The Poison Paradox: Chemicals as Friends and Foes.” Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Print.

Weaver, Emma. (1967). “Artisans of the Appalachians.” Photos by Edward L. Dupuy. Asheville, North Carolina: Miller Printing Co.

1860 U.S. Federal Census – Population – National Archive and Records Administration (NARA).

William Weis’ burial site was graced with a stunning urn
china once used mould
Image by Jim Surkamp
Pots Thru Time With Joy Bridy – This is local clay dug up from around the foundation of my house and I’m going to process it in this old bath tub, and before I process it, I break it up in little pieces and screen it through some hardware cloth, which helps to get any stones, weeds, detritus out of it. This clay does not have high plasticity which means it is a little harder to work with. plasticity definition: Capable of being formed into a shape or moulded without cracking. It might break and crack as I work with it, but that’s probably what I like about it. It adds character, instead of plasticity. It’s also reddish brown stoneware, not real white like a porcelain and not super iron-rich. It won’t be black sort of an orangish color when it’s fired. It will have some porousness. I fire it to a high enough temperature that it’s useful as functional ware as well as sculptural. This clay is also local clay and I’ll break it up into small marble-size pieces and slake it down in water in which I’ll run my hands through it for about ten or fifteen minutes (per) each bucket to get any rocks and stones and grass out. Then I’ll process this clay – once it’s wet – by drying it out slowly on top of bed sheets in the sun – so it’s a nice working consistancy. After I make the pieces I bisque fire them once. Then I’ll glaze and fire them in my wood kiln. (This is my wood kiln here). This is my wood kiln. I designed and built it five years ago. It’s a very old and traditional style and it’s fueled one hundred per cent with wood. I don’t know what the process would have been in the early eras of Weis pottery – if they would have used wood (They used wood and they used groundhog kilns). Ahh groundhog kilns are the type of kiln that I’m trained in. They tend to be long and flame-like, and very low and in the ground; and they fire for a similar amount of time as this kiln. When I fired this kiln, it fires for three days around the clock and Weis pottery would have done a very similar thing. Once you start a firing, you can’t leave it alone. You have to stay with it the whole time. Pots fill the chamber all the way up to the top, from the side wall, all the way up to the bagwall which you can see on the inside. The flame comes in from the fire box into the ware chamber, brings heat and ash and deposits- ash on the pots – leaves flame markings on the pots – then leaves through the exit flues into the chimney and straight up. My kiln reaches 2400 degrees, which is a high, (for) stoneware temperature. Traditionally, I think, kilns were fired a little cooler, probably 2000-2100 degrees. But wood can reach any temperature you would like depending on your combustion zone, your ware chamber, and your chimney. A fifth generation potter Davis P. Brown observed: “Speaking of firing, lots of people think red’s HOT. Red-hot ain’t even hot; when it’s HOT and you look in them, it’s like looking into the sun.” I use scrap wood. I use anything that doesn’t burn in the wood stove and anything that I would burn in a bonfire. So lots of limbs. The skinny limbs have the most minerals so you get the most interesting deposits and they allow for the most flexibility in gaining heat. And it’s all scrap. (I did some research, Joy, showing the data about the Weis’ pottery operation in 1850. And they reported that they spent seven hundred period dollars for a year’s work and they used six hundred cords of wood and a whole lot of lead. what does that signify to you, as a potter?). Six hundred cords of wood is a lot of wood! For me a cord of wood is eight foot by eight foot by four foot, and in a firing I go through maybe two cords of wood. With the groundhog style kiln, they were very inefficient. So they were stoking wood constantly and a lot of that fuel was leaving the kiln as smoke. Nowadays we know a little more on how to capture that fuel better. “A,” it tells me that we had a lot of wood in this area. Six hundred cords of wood is a huge amount of wood. And “B,” the lead is interesting because a lot of our local clays makes a really wonderful “slip,” that also makes a glaze on the inside of the pot. (A slip?) A slip is like a watered down clay. So a “paint” or a “glaze.” A lot of people use the terms back and forth. It would be what you would glaze with. So if they were using lead, it would be very bad for their health. They probably didn’t live long. and “B” it’s expensive. Even then it was expensive, but it was what people thought they needed to do. Nowadays we know that we can use all these natural things, and the styles that I work in are much more akin to what the Weis potters could have been doing in that I use a lot of local clays. I mix my glazes out of ashes and clay bodies. So I have a very low overhead compared to what they did in that I’m not buying any lead, I’m not buying any expensive colorants that they would have done. My studio is similar to the way they would work in that I have a closed system. My water comes from a rain barrel. I don’t have any running water. My kiln is fired with wood. I don’t fire a gas kiln which a lot of people do nowadays. And my clay is closed-cycle: whatever clay comes into my studio I keep recycling until it turns into pots. And, anything I don’t like I “slip” back down and make clay out of it again, which would have been a practice during their time. So everything stays within the studio. (So in many ways, you’re doing a traditional method that the Weises did, but with greater efficiency). It may have been an aesthetic choice for them in that they chose to do specifically what they were doing. As it is now, I could use a very expensive overhead, using porcelain from China and Europe and using glazes that I buy pre-mixed that have expensive rare earth elements in them. But I prefer the more elementary approach in that I like using clay. I like the variables that come into play with wood firing, and with using ash glazes and with mixing a lot of my own ingredients. This my kiln. This is the firebox of my Bourry box wood kiln. It’s different from a groundhog style in that the groundhog style kilns would have been in the ground. You would have had to crawl to get in them. You would have entered only through the front through a very small opening and had to load everything while on your knees. This is the front. This is the fire box. This is where the fire starts. I load it through the ware chamber door which then gets bricked up with rows of bricks. This side is the firebox where the actual fire occurs, and it starts in the bottom. Once the fire hits about eleven hundred degrees, I can close up this door. (How long does that take Joy?) . It takes a day and a half. Then I can open the side-stoking doors on both sides and start stoking across the top, which allows me to reach a temperature of twenty-four hundred degrees inside the chamber. It’s hotter in the firebox, but that’s the chamber temperature. (What type of design is this called?) This is called a “bourry” box – B-O-U-R-R-Y. It’a an Australian design. What it does – it’s a very efficient, wood-burning kiln because the wood is burning up here and the coal bed is down below. Air comes in. It burns the wood, but then all the smoke and the waste products that would be going up the chimney burn off over the coal bed. So I get what we refer to as a “double burn cycle:” getting heat during the first burn of the wood and extra heat as the smoke and gasses burn off. So it’s very efficient. I get no smoke and no waste product in that way, and I use half as much wood that I would in a kiln of this size without the Bourry box fire. It’s a crossed-dressed kiln because the fire box is here and then everything goes up into the chamber and then back down across from the firebox. It’s more to the flame pattern. Groundhog kilns are often called updraft although they are kind of a hybrid, because if you imagine a flame-shaped kiln it’s also going uphill. So your firebox is down below and you’re stoking the wood, and then the kiln goes up and the chimney’s at the top. So it has a little different pull to it. The chimney is always the engine of the kiln. It’s always what’s pulling the heat and flame through the kiln. This is called “wedging” the clay and what it does is it increases plasticity, which means that as you’re working with it, it will stretch a little easier. It also removes air bubbles and makes it smoother to work with in general. Every piece I make has to go across the wedging board. (This is the process they would do back in the 1800s?). This is as old as it gets: with a heavy round wheel at the bottom and a small light round wheel at the top. It’s been done in every culture across the globe. My rims are probably thin compared to theirs (Weises), because I’m used to a more contemporary look and feel. Theirs probably would have been a little beefier, easier to grab, easier to use. (Somebody made the comment that they were like the fiesta ware of their period) um-hm. Yeh. That’s all they had. And they’re all remarkably similar no matter where you go, especially in the Appalachian foothills. If you did/do the kick wheel, you can’t be in a hurry. This would have been a relative of a classic crock form, which would have been useful in every kitchen across the county during the years the Weis family was in operation. It would have been their bread and butter literally. And their tools would have been extremely similar: a wooden stick, some kind of sponge. Something with a point just in case. And for decoration: a fingernail; everybody would have their decoration around here (side of crock), seems to have been some fingernail marks. We can do another one on the electric. This is starting to center the clay on the wheelhead, and before I can actually make the piece, the clay has to be in the center of the wheel completely. These are all different techniques that help make that happen. This is called wedging on the wheel, where I squeeze it up and then lean it back down, and it also helps to align the particles. I have a modern-day wheel here. This is an electric wheel, which is silent, which is really nice. I center the clay if it comes closer to the starting shape that I want. And the first thing that I do to actually throw the pot is called “opening.” I sink my thumbs into the middle and start to create the “inside” versus the “outside.” Now I’m setting the bottom. Without compressing the clay, you end up getting cracks and flaws in the bottom. Using the pressure of my fingers against the wheelhead, compressing the clay between the two makes for a strong, useful pot. Next, I’ll actually pull up the walls of the vessel. This is the part that looks fun – and IS fun. As the pot gets closer to the form that I want, I fine-tune it with different tools. All of them could have been used in any era. This a wooden rib, and, again, it compresses the clay particles. What I’m looking for is a wall that’s even – thin, but not too thin. I want it to be sturdy when it’s used, but not too heavy. So I dance in between thin versus sturdy. At this point where the wall feels good, that I start to think about the form. I find one of the most important parts is the rim. It has to look good, but it also has to be compressed, because it is very common to bang it on a kitchen sink and it would chip if it wasn’t compressed very well. So it’s important to spend a little extra time, making sure that functional pots actually work. (Is that maybe why the Weises had kind of a strong lip?) Yes. A little extra clay at the foot, because that’s also a spot. I’m lucky enough to come out of the tradition of functional pottery throughout history, when I was in Pennsylvania I used to visit the groundhog kiln sites there. What became of the Wise family? Wrote Mary Bedinger Mitchell of her early years in Shepherdstown in the 1850s: “The town was thriving. There was a brick kiln and a very interesting primitive manufactory of the glazed crocks or earthen pots so much in use. It was carried on by an old man in the old house and had quite a medieval flavor.” After the Weis men would dig up and load the low-plasticity, red-burning clay on the outer bend in the Potomac nearby, they would bring it by wagon back to their worksite. To children like Mary the clay mill “was of absorbing interest, and they hoped for a ride on the long wooden shaft or tongue, to which the gentle horse was hitched along going round and round in a prescribed circle, as it patiently ground the clay into a fine smooth powder. A stone burr working on the same principle as a flour mill did the work. Time progressed and tastes changed in favor of the blue glazed crocks and jugs and the Weis manufactory went into a long, slow decline through the rest of the 19th century, the family finally selling their home to George Beltzhoover. Ever faithful at St. Peter’s Lutheran Church, William Weis’ burial site was graced with a stunning urn – so stunning that vandals threatened it. So, today the urn and Weis’ pots bear witness on a secure shelf at St. Peters, just as others bear witness at the Shepherdstown Historic museum, The County Visitors Center, the Jefferson County Museum, and there is the effort to preserve their memory by Pam and Ren Parziale. To this their traditional skills are also kept fresh by Joy Bridy in her modern pottery, but also keeping the ways of the Weises close at hand, literally.

Thanks to Joy Bridy at joybridy.com

Made possible with the generous, community-minded support of American Public University System (apus.edu)

Researched, written, produced by Jim Surkamp.

Primary References:

Weis Pots courtesy St. Peter’s Lutheran Church, Shepherdstown, WV; Jefferson County Museum, Charles Town, WV; and Historic Shepherdstown Museum.
wikiclay.com
heat-work.blogspot.com
ceramica.wikia.com
wvculture.org
wikipedia.org
nlm.nih.gov
studiopottery.com
wvgeohistory.org

Barber, E. A. (1893). “The Pottery and Porcelain of the United States.” New York, NY: G.P. Putnam’s & Sons.

Bourry, Emile; Wilton P. Rix. (1901). ”Treatise on Ceramic Industries: A Complete Manual for Pottery, Tile and Brick Works.” London, UK: Scott & Greenwood & Co.

POTTERY-EARTHENWARE-KILN-TOOLS
Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (Encyclopaedia, or a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Crafts). 1751. edited by Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d’Alembert Paris, Fr: André le Breton, publisher.

Kenamond, A. D. (1963). “Prominent Men of Shepherdstown, 1762-1962.” Charles Town, WV: Jefferson County Historical Society.

Mitchell, Mary B. “Memories.” edited by Nina Mitchell. Shepherd University Library.

Moler, Mrs. M. S. R.(1940). “George Weis and His Pottery.” Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society Vol. 6. pp.16-17.

Morton, Clyde D. (1987). “The Weis Pottery and the Genealogy of the Potters.” Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society Vol. 52. pp. 48-55.

Parziale, Reynolds and Pamela. (1981). “Pottery in the 1800s. The Weis Pottery, Shepherdstown, West Virginia.” Magazine of the Jefferson County Historical Society Vol. 47. pp. 23-29.

Rice, A. H.; John Baer Stoudt. (1929). “The Shenandoah Pottery.” Strasburg, VA: Shenandoah Publishing House, Inc.

Sanderson, Robert; Coll Monigue. (2000). “Wood-fired Ceramics: Contemporary Practices.” Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 10-14.

Sweezy, Nancy. (1994). “Raised in Clay: The Southern Pottery Tradition.” Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.

Timbrell, John. (2005). “The Poison Paradox: Chemicals as Friends and Foes.” Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Print.

Weaver, Emma. (1967). “Artisans of the Appalachians.” Photos by Edward L. Dupuy. Asheville, North Carolina: Miller Printing Co.

1860 U.S. Federal Census – Population – National Archive and Records Administration (NARA).

Cool High Quality Plastic Mould images

Cool High Quality Plastic Mould images

A few nice high quality plastic mould images I found:

Image from page 178 of “William Shakespeare; poet, dramatist, and man” (1901)
high quality plastic mould
Image by Internet Archive Book Images
Identifier: williamshakespe00mabi
Title: William Shakespeare; poet, dramatist, and man
Year: 1901 (1900s)
Authors: Mabie, Hamilton Wright, 1846-1916
Subjects: Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616
Publisher: New York : The Macmillan company London, Macmillan & co., ltd.
Contributing Library: University of California Libraries
Digitizing Sponsor: MSN

View Book Page: Book Viewer
About This Book: Catalog Entry
View All Images: All Images From Book

Click here to view book online to see this illustration in context in a browseable online version of this book.

Text Appearing Before Image:
hadbecome a well-defined and highly developed nationalspeech when Shakespeare began to use it, but wasstill the language of life rather than of literature;its freshest and most beguiling combinations ofsound and sense were still to be made; it was stillwarm from the moulds in which it had been cast; itwas still plastic to the touch of the imagination.The poet had learned its most intimate familiar APPRENTICESHIP 135 symbols of homely, domestic, daily life among thepeople at Strat-ford ; he haddrunk of itsancient classi-cal springs inthe grammarschool; and, inLondon, amongmen of gift,quality, andknowledge ofthe world, hecame quickly tomaster the vo-cabulary of themen of action,adventure, andaffairs. Thedrama as a liter-ary form was atthe same criti-cal stage ; itwas well de-fined, its mainlines were dis-tinctly marked,but it had nothardened into wiluam shakespeare. final fnv TY-i c ^^^ J ^ ^ ^^■^ statue, which stands at the entrance to thellliai iOrmS. jVIall, central Park, New York.

Text Appearing After Image:
136 WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE The genius of Marlowe had brought to Its de-velopment the richness of diction and the imagi-native splendour of great poetry. It remained forShakespeare to harmonize both language and artwith the highest individual insight and gift of song,and to blend in forms of ultimate beauty and powerthe vitality of his age, the quality of his genius, agreat philosophy of life, and the freedom and flexi-bility of a language of noble compass both ofthought and music. The stage offered both the form and the field fora great popular literature ; a literature capaciousenough to receive and conserve the largest thoughtconcerning human destiny, to disclose and to employthe finest resources of poetry, and yet to use a speechwhich was part of every Englishmans memory andexperience. The drama was the one great oppor-tunity of expression which the age offered, andShakespeare turned to it instinctively. The meas-ure of his orenius was the measure of his sensitive-ness, and his imagin

Note About Images
Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability – coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.

Image from page 168 of “William Shakespeare; poet, dramatist, and man” (1901)
high quality plastic mould
Image by Internet Archive Book Images
Identifier: williamshakespea01mabi
Title: William Shakespeare; poet, dramatist, and man
Year: 1901 (1900s)
Authors: Mabie, Hamilton Wright, 1846-1916
Subjects: Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616 Dramatists, English
Publisher: New York, The Macmillan company London, Macmillan & co., ltd.
Contributing Library: The Library of Congress
Digitizing Sponsor: The Library of Congress

View Book Page: Book Viewer
About This Book: Catalog Entry
View All Images: All Images From Book

Click here to view book online to see this illustration in context in a browseable online version of this book.

Text Appearing Before Image:
ombined, hadbecome a well-defined and highly developed nationalspeech when Shakespeare began to use it, but wasstill the language of life rather than of literature;its freshest and most beguiling combinations ofsound and sense were still to be made; it was stillwarm from the moulds in which it had been cast; itwas still plastic to the touch of the imagination.The poet had learned its most intimate familiar APPRENTICESHIP 135 symbols of homely, domestic, daily life among thepeople at Strat-ford ; he haddrunk of itsancient classi-cal springs inthe grammarschool; and, inLondon, amongmen of gift,quality, andknowledge ofthe world, hecame quickly tomaster the vo-cabulary of themen of action,adventure, andaffairs. Thedrama as a liter-ary form was atthe same criti-cal stage ; itwas well de-fined, its mainlines were dis-tinctly marked,but it had nothardened into william shakespeare. £• 1 r The J. Q. A. Ward statue, which stands at the entrance to the inailOrmS. Mall, central Park, New York.

Text Appearing After Image:
136 WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE The genius of Marlowe had brought to its de-velopment the richness of diction and the imagi-native splendour of great poetry. It remained forShakespeare to harmonize both language and artwith the highest individual insight and gift of song,and to blend in forms of ultimate beauty and powerthe vitality of his age, the quality of his genius, agreat philosophy of life, and the freedom and flexi-bility of a language of noble compass both ofthought and music. The stage offered both the form and the field fora great popular literature ; a literature capaciousenough to receive and conserve the largest thoughtconcerning human destiny, to disclose and to employthe finest resources of poetry, and yet to use a speechwhich was part of every Englishmans memory andexperience. The drama was the one great oppor-tunity of expression which the age offered, andShakespeare turned to it instinctively. The meas-ure of his genius was the measure of his sensitive-ness, and his imagina

Note About Images
Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability – coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.

Nice China Mould Produce photos

Nice China Mould Produce photos

Check out these china mould produce images:

Stalinorgel. Stalin’s Organ. Сталинский орган.
china mould produce
Image by Peer.Gynt
Katyusha multiple rocket launchers (Russian: Катюша) are a type of rocket artillery first built and fielded by the Soviet Union in World War II. Compared to other artillery, these multiple rocket launchers deliver a devastating amount of explosives to an area target quickly, but with lower accuracy and requiring a longer time to reload. They are fragile compared to artillery guns, but inexpensive and easy to produce. Katyushas of World War II, the first self-propelled artillery mass-produced by the Soviet Union,[1] were usually mounted on trucks. This mobility gave Katyushas (and other self-propelled artillery) another advantage: being able to deliver a large blow all at once, and then move before being located and attacked with counter-battery fire.

Katyusha weapons of World War II included the BM-13 launcher, light BM-8, and heavy BM-31. Today, the nickname is also applied to newer truck-mounted Soviet multiple rocket launchers—notably the common BM-21—and derivatives.

The nickname

Initially, the secrecy kept their military designation from being known by the soldiers who operated them. They were called by code names such as Kostikov Guns (after the head of the RNII), and finally classed as Guards Mortars.[2] The name BM-13 was only allowed into secret documents in 1942, and remained classified until after the war.[3]

Because they were marked with the letter K, for Voronezh Komintern Factory,[3] Red Army troops adopted a nickname from Mikhail Isakovsky’s popular wartime song, Katyusha, about a girl longing for her absent beloved, who is away performing military service.[4] Katyusha is the Russian equivalent of Katie, an endearing diminutive form of the name Katherine: Yekaterina →Katya →Katyusha.

German troops coined the sobriquet Stalin’s organ (German: Stalinorgel), after Soviet leader Joseph Stalin for its visual resemblance to a church musical organ and alluding to the sound of the weapon’s rockets. They are known by the same name in Sweden. [4]

The heavy BM-31 launcher was also referred to as Andryusha (Андрюша, “Andrew”, endearing diminutive).[5]
Katyushas of World War II

Katyusha rocket launchers were mounted on many platforms during World War II, including on trucks, artillery tractors, tanks, and armoured trains, as well as on naval and riverine vessels as assault support weapons.

The design was relatively simple, consisting of racks of parallel rails on which rockets were mounted, with a folding frame to raise the rails to launch position. Each truck had between 14 and 48 launchers. The 132-mm diameter M-13 rocket of the BM-13 system was 180 centimetres (70.9 in) long, 13.2 centimetres (5.2 in) in diameter and weighed 42 kilograms (92 lb). Initially, the caliber was 130 mm, but the caliber was changed (first the designation, and then the actual size), to avoid confusing them with regular artillery shells[3]. It was propelled by a solid nitrocellulose-based propellant of tubular shape, arranged in a steel-case rocket engine with a single central nozzle at the bottom end. The rocket was stabilised by cruciform fins of pressed sheet steel. The warhead, either fragmentation, high-explosive or shaped-charge, weighed around 22 kg (48 lb). The range of the rockets was about 5.4 kilometres (3.4 mi). Later, 82-mm diameter M-8 and 310-mm diameter M-31 rockets were also developed.

The weapon is less accurate than conventional artillery guns, but is extremely effective in saturation bombardment, and was particularly feared by German soldiers. A battery of four BM-13 launchers could fire a salvo in 7–10 seconds that delivered 4.35 tons of high explosives over a four-hectare (10 acres) impact zone.[2] With an efficient crew, the launchers could redeploy to a new location immediately after firing, denying the enemy the opportunity for counterbattery fire. Katyusha batteries were often massed in very large numbers to create a shock effect on enemy forces. The weapon’s disadvantage was the long time it took to reload a launcher, in contrast to conventional guns which could sustain a continuous low rate of fire.

The sound of the rocket launching also was unique in that the constant "woosh" sound that came from the firing of the rockets could be used for psychological warfare. The rocket’s devastating destruction also helped to lower the morale of the German army.

Development
Katyushas of World War II

Katyusha rocket launchers were mounted on many platforms during World War II, including on trucks, artillery tractors, tanks, and armoured trains, as well as on naval and riverine vessels as assault support weapons.

The design was relatively simple, consisting of racks of parallel rails on which rockets were mounted, with a folding frame to raise the rails to launch position. Each truck had between 14 and 48 launchers. The 132-mm diameter M-13 rocket of the BM-13 system was 180 centimetres (70.9 in) long, 13.2 centimetres (5.2 in) in diameter and weighed 42 kilograms (92 lb). Initially, the caliber was 130 mm, but the caliber was changed (first the designation, and then the actual size), to avoid confusing them with regular artillery shells[3]. It was propelled by a solid nitrocellulose-based propellant of tubular shape, arranged in a steel-case rocket engine with a single central nozzle at the bottom end. The rocket was stabilised by cruciform fins of pressed sheet steel. The warhead, either fragmentation, high-explosive or shaped-charge, weighed around 22 kg (48 lb). The range of the rockets was about 5.4 kilometres (3.4 mi). Later, 82-mm diameter M-8 and 310-mm diameter M-31 rockets were also developed.

The weapon is less accurate than conventional artillery guns, but is extremely effective in saturation bombardment, and was particularly feared by German soldiers. A battery of four BM-13 launchers could fire a salvo in 7–10 seconds that delivered 4.35 tons of high explosives over a four-hectare (10 acres) impact zone.[2] With an efficient crew, the launchers could redeploy to a new location immediately after firing, denying the enemy the opportunity for counterbattery fire. Katyusha batteries were often massed in very large numbers to create a shock effect on enemy forces. The weapon’s disadvantage was the long time it took to reload a launcher, in contrast to conventional guns which could sustain a continuous low rate of fire.

The sound of the rocket launching also was unique in that the constant "woosh" sound that came from the firing of the rockets could be used for psychological warfare. The rocket’s devastating destruction also helped to lower the morale of the German army.

Combat history
BM-13 battery fire, during the Battle of Berlin, April 1945, with metal blast covers pulled over the windshields

The multiple rocket launchers were top secret in the beginning of World War II. A special unit of the NKVD secret police was raised to operate them.[2] On July 7, 1941, an experimental artillery battery of seven launchers was first used in battle at Orsha in Belarus, under the command of Captain Ivan Flyorov, destroying a station with several supply trains, and causing massive German Army casualties. Following the success, the Red Army organized new Guards Mortar batteries for the support of infantry divisions. A battery’s complement was standardized at four launchers. They remained under NKVD control until German Nebelwerfer rocket launchers became common later in the war.[6]
A battery of BM-31 multiple rocket launchers in operation

On August 8, 1941, Stalin ordered the formation of eight Special Guards Mortar regiments under the direct control of the General Headquarters Reserve (Stavka-VGK). Each regiment comprised three battalions of three batteries, totalling 36 BM-13 or BM-8 launchers. Independent Guards Mortar battalions were also formed, comprising 36 launchers in three batteries of twelve. By the end of 1941, there were eight regiments, 35 independent battalions, and two independent batteries in service, holding a total of 554 launchers.[11]

In June 1942 Heavy Guards Mortar battalions were formed around the new M-30 static rocket launch frames, consisting of 96 launchers in three batteries. In July, a battalion of BM-13s was added to the establishment of a tank corps.[12] In 1944, the BM-31 was used in Motorized Heavy Guards Mortar battalions of 48 launchers. In 1943, Guards Mortar brigades, and later divisions, were formed equipped with static launchers.[11]

By the end of 1942, 57 regiments were in service—together with the smaller independent battalions, this was the equivalent of 216 batteries: 21% BM-8 light launchers, 56% BM-13, and 23% M-30 heavy launchers. By the end of the war, the equivalent of 518 batteries were in service.[11]
[edit] Katyushas since World War II
Russian forces use BM-27 rocket launchers during the Second Chechen War

The success and economy of multiple rocket launchers (MRL) have led them to continue to be developed. During the Cold War, the Soviet Union fielded several models of Katyushas, notably the BM-21 launchers fitting the stereotypical Katyusha mould, and the larger BM-27. Advances in artillery munitions have been applied to some Katyusha-type multiple launch rocket systems, including bomblet submunitions, remotely-deployed land mines, and chemical warheads.

With the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russia inherited most of its military arsenal including the Katyusha rockets. In recent history, they have been used by Russian forces during the First and Second Chechen Wars and by Armenian and Azerbaijani forces during the Nagorno-Karabakh War. Georgian government forces are reported to have used BM-21 or similar rocket artillery in fighting in the 2008 South Ossetia war.[13]

Katyushas were exported to Afghanistan, Angola, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, East Germany, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, North Korea, Poland, Syria, and Vietnam. They were also built in Czechoslovakia[14], People’s Republic of China, North Korea, and Iran.[citation needed]

Katyushas also saw action in the Korean War, used by the Chinese People’s Volunteer Army against the South and United Nations forces. Soviet BM-13s were known to have been imported to China before the Sino-Soviet split and were operational in the People’s Liberation Army.

Israel captured BM-24 MRLs during the Six-Day War (1967), used them in two battalions during the Yom Kippur War (1973) and the 1982 Lebanon War, and later developed the MAR-240 launcher for the same rockets, based on a Sherman tank chassis. During the 2006 Lebanon War, Hezbollah fired between 3,970 and 4,228 rockets, from light truck-mounts and single-rail man-portable launchers. About 95% of these were 122 mm (4.8 in) Syrian-manufactured Katyusha artillery rockets, which carried warheads up to 30 kg (66 lb) and had a range of up to 30 km (19 mi).[15][16].[15][17][18] Hamas has launched 122-mm “Grad-type Katyusha” rockets from the Gaza Strip against several cities in Israel,[19] although they are not reported to have truck-mounted launchers.

Katyushas were also allegedly used by the Rwandan Patriotic Front during its 1990 invasion of Rwanda, through the 1994 genocide. They were effective in battle, but translated into much anti-Tutsi sentiment in the local media.[20]

It was reported that BM-21 launchers were used against American forces during 2003 invasion of Iraq. They have also been used in the Afghanistan and Iraq insurgencies. In Iraq, according to Associated Press and Agence France-Presse reports, Katyusha rockets were fired at the Green Zone late March 2008.[21][22]

NYC – Metropolitan Museum of Art: Astor Court – Cold Spring Pavilion
china mould produce
Image by wallyg
Historically, the finest scholars’ gardens of China were in Suzhou (soochow), a serene city inland from Shanghai. The design of the Astor Court is based on a courtyard in the Garden of the Master of the Fishing Nets (Wangshi Yuan) in Suzhou. Like its model, this court has three typical garden structures: a covered walkway, a small reception hall, and a half-pavilion along the west wall. Cold Spring Pavilion, identified by a tile plaque set in the wall, takes its name from the nearby pool. The exuberant upsweep of the roof corners is characteristic of Chinese architecture in the south.

Gray terracotta was a popular building material in Chinese gardens. In this court, the bricks are arranged in alternating sets of four; the large suqare floor tiles the doorframes, the low balustrades, and the trim along the tops of the walls are all low-fired unglazed ceramic specially produced for the Astor Court at an eighteenth-century imperial kiln near Suzhou. The granite slabs and the wood elements were also crafted in China ccording to traditional techniques. The components were installed by a team of twenty-seven Chinese engineers and craftsmen who worked at the Museum from January through May 1980.

The Ming’s Scholar’s retreat, a garden court and reception hall, was the concept of Brooke Russell Astor and became a reality because of her steadfast and generous support.

**
The Metropolitan Museum of Art‘s permanent collection contains more than two million works of art from around the world. It opened its doors on February 20, 1872, housed in a building located at 681 Fifth Avenue in New York City. Under their guidance of John Taylor Johnston and George Palmer Putnam, the Met’s holdings, initially consisting of a Roman stone sarcophagus and 174 mostly European paintings, quickly outgrew the available space. In 1873, occasioned by the Met’s purchase of the Cesnola Collection of Cypriot antiquities, the museum decamped from Fifth Avenue and took up residence at the Douglas Mansion on West 14th Street. However, these new accommodations were temporary; after negotiations with the city of New York, the Met acquired land on the east side of Central Park, where it built its permanent home, a red-brick Gothic Revival stone "mausoleum" designed by American architects Calvert Vaux and Jacob Wrey Mold. As of 2006, the Met measures almost a quarter mile long and occupies more than two million square feet, more than 20 times the size of the original 1880 building.

In 2007, the Metropolitan Museum of Art was ranked #17 on the AIA 150 America’s Favorite Architecture list.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art was designated a landmark by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission in 1967. The interior was designated in 1977.

National Historic Register #86003556

Nice Injection Mould Made In China photos

Nice Injection Mould Made In China photos

Some cool injection mould made in china images:

“Sensible A/C Outlet position” #nerds #opinions / SML.20130110.IP3.SQ.AC.PowerOutlet.Opinions
injection mould made in china
Image by See-ming Lee 李思明 SML
“Sensible A/C Outlet position” #nerds #opinions

I bought the 500W 110 to 220 voltage converter (1) to power the Denon DN-X800 digital/analog mixer (pictured) and the Denon DN-2600F DJ CD player (not shown)—two pieces of 110V electronics which I bought in the US. The cords of the Denon units are not very long so I put the converter on the shelves (2).

Turns out that this is the best position for all electronics so even though I don’t need to convert the voltage for 100-240V electronics e.g. the iPad / iPhone, I now also plug the charger into the converter because it saves me time scrambling on the floor looking for outlet.

I think that I am going to make a rack mount unit and just create rows of outlet on desk level as that makes the most sense to me.

# Notes
1. I bought mine at Sham Shui Po (SSP 深水埗) for HK0 (US).
2. Doron Lachisch’s Cubitec Shelving (2008) combines the exceptional strength and stability of injection-molded polypropylene with simple, modular design. Available at Design Within Reach dwr.com — highly recommended. I bought mine in 2009. Looks new til this day because it is easily cleanable.

/ SML.20130110.IP3.SQ.AC.PowerOutlet.Opinions
/ #smlopinions #ccby #smlmusic #smluniverse #smlchaos #smlprojects
/ #AC #voltage #converter #electronics #outlet #opinions #nerds #geeks #Denon #X800 #Cubitec #shelving #organization #DoronLachisch #design
/ #馬鞍山 #MaOnShan #香港 #HongKong #中國 #中国 #China
/ #smlrec 攝影 摄影 photography IP3 SQ 2013 201301 20130110 power iPad iPhone charger

Numerous Types of Strategies for Manufacturing the Very best Plastic Mould China

Through this article, readers will come to know a lot more about Plastic Mould China and numerous sorts of molding procedures. You need to have to stick to the ones, matching your company variety.
If you commence browsing via the internet, you will come across distinct kinds of molding techniques and procedures. Among so numerous choices accessible, injection molding, rotational molding, compression molding and blow molding are the most prominent objectives, offered so far. Even so, in order to get in touch with the best and most prominent option, you want to get a full knowledge on the plastic molding theory from authorities and experts. Plastics are produced on a synthetic manner, with the aid of non-metallic compounds.

Far more about the major raw material
Plastics can be easily molded into any type and can be hardened into any shape. Folks can make any type of day-to-day solution with the aid of premium quality raw components. For a standard idea, the plastic is liquefied in a molten plastic shape and inserted into the pre-set molding shape. Then, it will be given appropriate time to cool and then the mold will be removed in order to reveal the precise mold of your selection. Plastic molding theory is placed in a variety of custom created designs, with a wide plethora or plastic elements.

Stick to the blow molding process
The field of blow molding is much more or much less comparable to the injection process. The only exception is that hit type of liquid plastic is poured out from the barrel and inside a molten tube. Then, the mold closes on the segment and forces it to move on an outward direction, with the main aim to conform the shape of the inside mold. Soon after the cooling process is done, the hollow segment is formed. You need to take support of dependable Plastic Mould China, in order to get the greatest result.

Injection molding procedure
Amongst so several molding objectives, Plastic Injection Moulding Companies constantly play a pivotal part. These are forced inside the mold cavity, by way of the specialized injection process. Soon after the cooling process is over, the mold can be removed, with ease. The plastic molding segment relates with the mass production or any other kind of prototyping options of the primary product. It was early in the year 1930s, when the use of this injection molding process, became a popular choice. This strategy was used in order to meet up with the mass production objectivity.

Other choices accessible
Apart from blow molding and injection molding procedures, dependable manufacturing units, stick to some of the other molding procedures, too. Some of these are film insert, compression molding, gas assists, structural foam, rotational molding and thermoforming. You need to have to be conscious of the significant technical method, which can suit your company sort. If you want, you can even opt for the Plastic Mould Factory, where professionals are ready to help you with some of the most current procedures, on the block.

This write-up is written by Jacob Williams on behalf of HQMOULD. His information in plastic moulding market has observed him contribute to and write many articles on subjects like China Mould Manufacturer, Plastic Mould China, Plastic Injection Moulding Companies, Plastic Mould Manufacturer and Plastic Mould Factory and so forth.
China Mould Manufactures and Their Objectives

China Mould Manufactures and Their Objectives

china mould produce
by ttstam

Plastic moulds are moulds made of plastic pallets to produce a desired form for utilizes in numerous industries. Plastic is an artificially produced synthetic compound that can be provided any shape or size, based on needs. Plastic is an essential portion of our everyday life and is extensively used in different industries for domestic as nicely as commercial usage. Plastic moulding is a approach where the plastic polymer is fed into a machine, heated to liquefy, and poured into custom made rigid moulds to get a preferred kind. Later, soon after cooling, the plastic becomes hard and the moulds are removed to get the plastic moulds.
Different industries appear for plastic moulds as it is far much more reasonable and handy to use plastic as an alternative of metals and alloys. Plastic is regarded to be much more tough, corrosion-cost-free, low upkeep and light weighted. Also, it doesn’t wear out or react with air or moisture present in the atmosphere. It saves a lot of energy and manpower as well. So, plastic became an obvious option for industries looking for for bulk production of custom created moulds for numerous purposes.

Pipe fitting mould is a plastic mould that is formed to meet the needs of the pipe fitting market. It also caters to the requirements of numerous other industries like automotive, furnishings and fixtures, building, healthcare and household equipments so on and so forth. There are a number of distinct processes of plastic moulding. For pipe fitting mould to create, the blow moulding method is adapted. In this procedure, the liquid polymer is poured from a barrel into a hollow tube to give the plastic the similar kind. When cooled, the plastic gets the shape of the hollow tube. This approach requires more equipments and infrastructure than injection moulding. It also calls for skilled labor and expertise to carry out the processes successfully.

China mould producers are regarded as the most competitive lot of suppliers to create and provide very good quality plastic moulds at a pocket-friendly price. Thinking about the large competitors amongst makers and suppliers, each and every China mould manufacturer spends a lot of time and funds to adopt the newest strategies and state of the art equipments. Their prime concentrate is to supply the best top quality products at competitive rates and preserve a good relationship with the buyers. As word of mouth plays an essential part in this market to acquire new clients, the suppliers from China are customer friendly with a strong inclination towards top quality.

The suppliers are also aware of the environmental hazards and overall health risks concerning plastic manufacturing and processing. So, they take specific care in recycling and waste management to stop the factory emissions and wastes to pollute the atmosphere.

This write-up is written by Jacob Williams on behalf of HQMOULD. His expertise in plastic moulding market has seen him contribute to and create several articles on subjects like Plastic Mould, Pipe Fitting Mould, China Mould Manufacturer, plastic mould china and plastic mould factory and so on.
Cool Mould Generate Solutions images

Cool Mould Generate Solutions images

Some cool mould produce services images:

Best shot of Booloominbah erected 1888 in Armidale. Now the University of New England.
mould produce services
Image by denisbin
The University of New England was the first Australian university established outside of a capital city. It started life as the New England University College in 1938 as a college of the University of Sydney. Several local people worked hard for the College to become an independent university and they were successful in 1954. In 1989 it subsumed the Armidale College of Advanced Education (previously the Armidale Teachers’ College.) The main campus is 5 kms from the city centre with central administration in Booloominbah House. From its inception it has always catered for distance education students and those wanting to study agriculture. It is the largest distance education university in Australia with around 15,000 external students. It has faculties of law, education, arts, science, medicine, the environment etc. It has wide research foci but it cooperates with the CSIRO on agriculture and science research and it is well known for its agricultural business research and farm animal genetics research. It has around 700 research students enrolled for a PhD at any one time. The Vice Chancellors have included some well known Australians including former Governor General Sir Zelman Cowen. The well known graduates include: Dean Brown (Premier of SA); Bernie Fraser (former Governor Reserve Bank); Barnaby Joyce (Australian Senator); Tony Windsor (current Independent in Parliament). The UNE also has a well developed residential college network with the most famous being Drummond and Smith as around half of it students reside on campus. Drummond was the NSW Education Minister who established the Armidale Teachers College. This College used Smith House on Central Park for many years. It has about 200 residents. The college began in Girrahween House in 1928 for students attending the Armidale Teachers College. When the University merged with the Teachers College, Drummond and Smith Residential Colleges went to the University. The college crest is depicted above the door of Girrahween House which was built in 1889. The University has several other campuses in Armidale the main one being Newling campus, now the Conservatorium of Music. It was the former Armidale Teachers College. UNE has a mosque on campus.

The Dixson Library.
The heart of any university is its library. It is near Booloominbah and the Museum of Antiquities. In 1938 the university library was a room in Booloominbah. Then Sir William Dixson donated a large grant for a purpose built library in 1961. Dixson’s wealth was based on the tobacco industry and his family operations included Adelaide in the 19th century. William’s father was a devout Baptist and donated to many organisations including Sydney Medical Mission, Ryde Home for Incurables, the YMCA, the University of Sydney, the Baptist Church etc. William Dixson (1870-1952) was a collector of Australiana and rare books. He donated many rare manuscripts and books to the Mitchell Library in the 1920s, then he decided to found the UNE library.

Booloominbah.
As visitors we can enter the house and have lunch there. The Brasserie opens at noon. There is also a court yard café and bar. This will provide an opportunity to explore some areas of the house and view the wonderful stained glass windows. Remember the house is noted for its wooden panelling, windows, fine joinery etc.

The Museum of Antiquities.
This is a rare regional antiquities museum for Australia. Its collections began in 1959 when the university established its Department of Classics. It has antiquities from the Middle East, the Mediterranean, South East Asia, and the Pacific. Entry is free.

Trevenna House.
Trevenna is the residence of the Vice Chancellor and it was designed by John Horbury Hunt in the Canadian style. It was built in 1892 (Hunt died 1903) as another house besides Booloominbah for members of the White family. Mrs Eliza Jane White occupied Trevenna. The three storey house of mixed materials, wood and plaster was gifted to the University of New England by Mrs. Florence Wilson in 1960. Since then it has been the Vice Chancellor’s home. There is no public access to the house or the gardens. It is not visible from the road. The gardens include sweeping lawns, dry stone walls, herb gardens, hedges, ponds and English trees such as Horse Chesnuts, London Planes etc. Trevenna’s gardens were featured in a Woman’s Weekly special in 1971.

Schools.
The first Anglican school opened in Armidale in 1847 with the first Catholic school following in 1856. A public school opened in 1861 and survived with various name changes until it became Armidale City Public School. In the 1850s, 1860s and 1870s state aid to church schools prompted more schools to start up in Armidale but few survived. The new Education Act of 1880 which removed any state aid led to the demise of many church schools and the rise of the state public school system in NSW. But Armidale has always been an education centre providing schools, and often boarding facilities for country children. The main private and state secondary schools in Armidale are:
•St. Ursuline College for girls, 1882 and De La Salle Catholic College for boys which was founded in 1906. The two amalgamated in 1975 to form O’Connor Catholic High School. It is no longer a boarding school. It has an enrolment of around 450 students.
•The Armidale School – TAS. TAS was founded in 1891 as the New England Proprietary School with it opening for enrolments in 1894.The local Anglican Bishop, Tyrrell had promoted the idea of an Anglican boys school for the sons of the New England gentry. The school adopted the name TAS in 1896. It has extensive grounds (44 acres), excellent facilities and several historic buildings including the chapel. For many years it was run by the Diocese of Armidale but it is now a company limited by guarantee. The Armidale School has approximately 620 students, including 200 boys boarding there. Well known architect John Sulman designed the original boarding house. Influenced by William Morris he used Armidale blue bricks and Flemish bond brick work. The chapel as designed by Cyril Blacket who also designed the Gothic University of Sydney. The TAS Gothic style Chapel opened in 1902 also using Armidale blue bricks in the Flemish bond pattern.
•Presbyterian Ladies College Armidale, is an independent Presbyterian girls boarding school which was founded in 1887.New England always had a large Scottish and Presbyterian population. It is affiliated with PLC in Sydney. In the early years it was run by several principal owners and it started out as New England Ladies College. It began in Smith House near Central Park in 1887. It was next known as Hilton College before being purchased by the Presbyterian Church in 1938. It moved to a new 70 acre site on the edge of Armidale in 1945. It has an enrolment of 400 girls with almost 100 boarders. Due to financial difficulties it was merged with PLC Sydney in 2005 and the one principal now runs both schools.
•NEGS, New England Girls School. This is an independent Anglican girls’ boarding school which was established in 1895 at almost the same time as the TAS school for boys. In 1907 NEGS was purchased by the Diocese of Armidale and run as a church school. It has always had an excellent academic reputation. It has an enrolment of around 310 students with almost half or 150 being boarders. In 2006 due to financial difficulties a merger with PLC was considered. Old scholars and parents raised millions to keep the school Anglican and independent. Australia’s well known poet Judith Wright attended NEGS.
•Armidale High School. This state high school as established in 1920. It has over 650 students.
•Duval High School. This state high school was established in 1974. It was named after one of the assigned convict stockmen who worked on William and Henry Dumaresq’s Saumarez and Tilbuster stations in the 1830s. It has an enrolment of around 800 students.

The Development of Armidale. What is so special about Armidale? Well it is a cathedral city with both Anglican and Catholic cathedrals; it is a wealthy city with a prosperous hinterland and many mansions; it is Australia’s highest city with a bracing English style climate; it is an education city with a university and several prestigious boarding schools; it was one of a number of sites considered for the Australian capital city site after Federation; it has been one of the centres wanting to secede from the rest of NSW; and it has an interesting history with a squatting phase, mining phase, agricultural phase etc. It is also a regional capital and has always been considered the “capital” of the New England region – a distinctive Australian region defined by rainfall, altitude, etc. And it has always been on the main inland route between Sydney and Brisbane but that is no longer of importance in this aviation transport era.

The origins of Armidale district go back to Henry Dumaresq when he squatted on land here and took out leaseholds on Saumarez and Tilbuster stations in 1834. He and other squatters soon displaced the local aboriginal people after a period of considerable violence. The turning point in terms of the city came in 1839 when George Macdonald was appointed Commissioner for Crown Lands for the New England District. He arrived with a small police force and he set about building a house and office headquarters. The site he chose is now Macdonald Park. NSW land regulations allowed the government to set aside reserves for future towns or to resume leasehold land for the creation of towns. Macdonald immediately surveyed the local landowners of which there were 37 in New England, giving it a population of 422 people. But this was the convict era of NSW and half of the population were assigned convicts. They provided the brawn to develop the stations, build the shepherd’s huts, dig the wells and dams, and fell the timber and clear the land. Of the original 422 people in New England only 10 were females, probably wives of shepherds or convict women who were cooks etc. Most stations had between 8 and 12 assigned convicts. Saumarez for example, had 11 convicts and 8 free male workers in 1839. In 1841 convicts still accounted for 42% of the population of New England and as they completed their seven year terms, many stayed on to become the founders of towns like Armidale. Transportation of convicts to NSW ceased around 1843 and so convict assignees gradually declined in the region, but ex-convicts remained.

Macdonald named the town site Armidale after the Armadale estate on the Isle of Skye. Macdonald had barracks built for the police men, stables, a store shed, his own house and he enclosed some paddocks for the growing of wheat and vegetables. His first years were often taken up with writing reports about Aboriginal massacres and deaths including the Bluff Rock Massacre on the Everett brothers’ run at Ollera near Guyra. Macdonald seldom investigated reports of Aboriginal deaths closely. He was a pompous little man, just 4 feet 10 inches tall with a deformed hunched back. But he was meticulous in most matters. In 1841 he was jilted just before his proposed wedding to a local woman. He remained in Armidale until 1848 overseeing the early development of the town.

By 1843 a small town had emerged with a Post Office and a Court House, blacksmith, wheelwright, hotel, general store etc. The town provided government and commercial services to the surrounding pastoral estates. But the town reserve included other lands that were sold or leased to farmers- agriculturists who grew wheat. By 1851 Armidale had two flour mills. The long transport route to Newcastle and on to Sydney meant all wheat had to be converted to flour before it was transported to the markets. The old dray route down to the coast was also used for the transport of the region’s major product- wool. The official town was surveyed and the streets laid out in 1849. Many of the early pastoralists were commemorated in street names – Beardy, Dumaresq, Dangar, Marsh, Faulkner and Rusden to name a few.

In 1851 Armidale also had local industries for the regional population- two breweries, general stores, chemist, butcher etc. In the early 1850s the churches began to erect their first buildings and the town became “civilised” with more and more women living there. Then gold discoveries near Uralla and towards the eastern escarpment boosted the town’s population and services. A newspaper was founded, a hospital was built and the population reached 858 in 1856. A gaol was built on South Hill in 1863, the town became a municipality in 1864, and the Robertson’s Land Acts (1861) were introduced throughout NSW to break up the big pastoral estates for ‘selectors” or small scale farmers on 320 acre blocks. This boosted the total population of the Armidale region but as noted elsewhere the pastoralists also used this era to buy up large lots of land freehold for themselves by the process of “dummying”- using relatives and employees to buy small parcels of land which they sold on to the large land owners. But the early years of growing wheat around Armidale collapsed in the 1870s as the wheat lands of South Australia opened up and cheap SA imports destroyed the New England wheat industry. Other forms of agriculture were then taken up in New England.

Another key factor in the growth of Armidale in the late 1870s and into the 1890s was its English style climate. In 1885 Armidale was proclaimed a city. It had a population of 3,000 residents – a remarkable achievement for a locale so far from the coast. This was of course boosted further with the arrival of the railway in Armidale in 1883. The line soon reached the Queensland border with a connection on to Brisbane. But the railway was not all good news as the city of Armidale could then receive beer and other supplies on the railway from Newcastle or Sydney and some local industries closed down with the arrival of the railway. By the 1880s the boom years were apparent as large mansions and prominent commercial buildings were erected in the growing city.

The fact that Armidale is equidistant from Sydney and Brisbane was one of the factors considered in its application to become the new Federal capital. The fact that Armidale had nearby reservoirs and a large water supply big enough for a large capital city was also an important consideration. The new Federal government was considering the site of the capital city after a long drought so access to water supplies was a major concern. As we known the site of Canberra near Yass was finally selected despite its lesser supply of water but it was closer to Sydney.

Regional Art gallery and Aboriginal Art Centre.
This gallery is one of the regional galleries funded by the NSW government. It is especially noted for its outstanding collection of Australia Art which was donated to the gallery by Howard Hinton (1867-1948.) Hinton was a company director and art collector. Despite poor eyesight he travelled the world looking at galleries and he befriended several artists. In Sydney he met and lived with noted Australian painter such as Tom Roberts, Arthur Stretton and Julian Ashton. He made his first donation of art to the National Gallery of NSW in 1914. Over the years he gave 122 paintings to that gallery. He was a trustee of the National Gallery of NSW from 1919-1948. He was knighted in 1935 for his services to art. In 1928 when the National Gallery of NSW refused some of his donations he decided to endow the relatively new Teachers’ College at Armidale with a collection of art. The Director of Education who was in charge of the College concurred with the idea and the first paintings were received in Armidale in 1929. He later gave over 1,000 paintings to the Teachers’ College and over 700 art books for its library. His collection illustrated the development of Australian art in particular from the 1880s through to the 1940s. The artist Norman Lindsey described the collection as the only complete collection of Australian art. A portrait of Howard Hinton is held by the former Armidale College of Advanced Education which is now part of the University of New England. The art collection has been transferred on to the Armidale Regional Art Gallery. The Hinton Collection is partially on display always. The Persian Love Cake in the Art Gallery café is to die for!

Teachers College and the Education Museum.
In the 19th century most school teachers were untrained but a few were trained in Fort Street Normal School in Sydney from 1848. The first teachers college was not established until 1912 in some temporary buildings. The college opened in new premises in 1920 which were not completed until 1924. But Armidale got the second teachers college in NSW in 1928 with its first proper building being constructed in 1930 at the height of the Great Depression. Why was this so? The answer is political. New England was in the midst of a secession movement in the late 1920s and New England was the home to several Country Party politicians with great influence. The Country Party came to power in NSW in 1927 and the new Minister for Education, David Drummond was the local member for New England. Drummond favoured a second teachers college because the staff at Sydney Teachers College had complained that country students coming to Sydney to be trained were being seduced by the ways of the sinful city and they seldom wanted rural school postings after a stint in Sydney! A Teachers College in Armidale would stop the debauchery! Although Armidale Teachers’ College was the first, the government made plans for additional teachers colleges in Bathurst and Wagga Wagga which eventually were established. The 1863 gaol in Armidale was closed in 1920 and was demolished to make way for the new teachers college building. As one commentator said at the time “a new Parthenon on the hill was to replace the penitentiary on the hill”!

The government appointed Cecil Bede Newling (1883-1975) as the principal of the new college. Today the old Teachers College building is named the Newling building. Newling had gone out as a probationary teacher in 1899 before attending courses at Fort Street Normal School from 1904. He later described his teacher training as dull. He was first appointed head teacher at Cootamundra in 1923, and then inspector at Broken Hill in 1925. He had a rapid rise in the Education Department. By 1925 he had also been awarded a BA and a MA from the University of Sydney. As first principal of the Armidale Teachers College he influenced everything. He had a forceful personality and took interest in all aspects of the College from the grounds and gardens to the curriculum and to the health of the students. During World War Two he became secret custodian of priceless art and written materials from the Mitchell Library and the National Gallery of NSW. He retired in 1947 with his “college on the hill” well established and valued. It is open weekday afternoons from 2 to 4 pm to members of the public.

Central Park Historical Walk and Nearby Structures.
The buildings of significance around Central Park are the old Wesley Methodist Hall and the now Uniting Church- just off the Park in Rusden Street; St. Paul’s Presbyterian Church and Hall; St. Peter’s Anglican Cathedral, Deanery and Parish Hall; and St. Mary’s Catholic Cathedral. Nearby along Faulkner Street is the Town Hall( just off Faulkner), the Post Office, the Court House, and the entrance to the Mall.
•Masonic Building. The Lodge here in Armidale purchased this land in 1860 and had a lodge built by a local builder Frederick Nott. A new severe classical style Lodge was erected in 1924 to replace the earlier one.
•Lindsay House is at 128 Faulkner Street and it dates from the mid 1920s. It is a mock Tudor house with exposed beams and woodwork on the exterior and stucco areas. This “English” style of house was popular in New England at this time. It is a typical “gentleman’s “house and it was built for a local doctor. In 1972 the former Armidale College of Advanced Education purchased the house for staff accommodation and they renamed it Lindsay House. Today it is a luxury bed & breakfast establishment.
•Southall is a fine 1888 residence at 88 Barney Street oppopsite Central Park. At one stage it was called Girrawheen Boarding House as it provided accommodation for the girls enrolled at New England Ladies College. This house was purchased in 1928 by the Armidale Teachers’ College for accommodation for female teaching students. It was linked to Smith House, next door, in 1960 and then became a university residential college but it is now a backpackers complex. Apart from wrought iron lace work it features two toned brick work on the quoins and the bricks are done in Flemish bond pattern.
•Catholic Cathedral and Convent. See next page.
•Anglican Cathedral and Deanery. See next page.
•St. Paul’s Presbyterian Church. The foundation stone dates the building to 1881. Its Gothic style, tall steeple, wrought iron decorations and lancet windows add considerably to the appearance of Central Park. The white painted masonry quoins, window surrounds etc contrast sharply with the dark coloured bricks.
•Old Wesley Methodist Hall and Church. The Old Wesley Church was erected in 1864 and is one of the oldest still standing churches of Armidale. It was replaced by a new Methodist Church in 1893 and it then became the church hall. The Old Wesley Church also has Red Cedar joinery inside.
•The Folk Museum. This is housed in the old School of Arts and Mechanics Institute building of 1863. Such places were crucial education centres in the 19th century. It was used as the town library for many years and is now a museum.
•Armidale Town Hall. This impressive structure was completed in 1883 just before Armidale became a city in 1885. It has many decorative features including pilasters (flat columns), scroll work, a central triangular pediment above the main entrance, a niche like entrance with a curved upper balcony and balustrade. In 1990 the City decorated the interior in Art Deco style!
•The Armidale Post Office. The first PO was established in 1843. This building was constructed in 1880. The beautiful arched veranda and upper balcony were added in 1897. It is still the city Post Office.
•Lands Board building now the Lands Office. This elegant building with its filigree lace work on the upper balcony and the lower veranda originally had a slate roof and slate chimney pots. The symmetry of this building is superb. It was designed by the same architect who did the government Post Office next door and the style would date it to the same period -1880.
•Opposite are the architectural plans for the amazing Imperial Hotel. It was built in 1890 William Miller who was of the original discoverer of gold at Hillgrove. He made his fortune on the gold fields and then erected the finest hotel in Armidale. It is noted for its proportions, classical style, ornate parapets along the roof line and filigree caste iron. The urns atop the “floating” triangular pediments are wonderful. It demonstrates how important the travelling public were to early hoteliers like William Miller. Miller began life as a poor farmer at Saumarez Ponds. It is run down today.
•On the opposite corner is the current Westpac Bank. It was formerly the Bank of NSW and it was put up in 1938 in classical style. The 1817 on the parapet refers to the founding of the Bank of NSW by Mary Reibey, a former convict, depicted on our note. Along from this is the marvellous AMP building with its statute on top.
•Armidale Court House in the Mall. This imposing building with a classical Greek façade with columns, and wrought iron gates was built in 1859. It was extensively altered in 1870 when the two side wings were attached. The clock tower was added in 1878. Inside the joinery is all Australian Red Cedar. Note the cobblestoned courtyard. At the rear of the Court House is the original Sheriff’s Cottage (1870) which was originally a “lock up “for prisoners!
•Hanna’s Arcade in Barney Street. See the leadlight mural, wooden arcade, and fine department store.

Catholic Cathedral and building.
The first Catholic priest to arrive in Armidale came in 1853. He took services in a small wooden Catholic Church that had opened in 1848. The priest then built a parsonage which became part of De La Salle College, now O’Connor High School. It has since been demolished. In 1862 the Catholic Diocese of Armidale was established but it was 1869 before the first bishop, Bishop O’Mahony, settled in Armidale. He was consecrated as bishop in 1871 at the same time as the commissioning of the cathedral. It was dedicated in 1872 but replaced by the current cathedral in 1912. When Bishop O’Mahony left he was replaced by Bishop Torreggiani who was replaced by Bishop O’Connor in 1904.

The new cathedral of St. Mary and St. Joseph was built in Pyrmont stone from Sydney and Armidale polychrome (or multi- coloured) bricks. Such brick work was popular in the 1880s but out of fashion by 1912. Brown, cream and red bricks were used for the cathedral to highlight its architectural features. It is a much larger structure than the Anglican cathedral and dominates the townscape around Central Park. The brickwork was used for quoins, cross banding and other feature work. It was designed in Gothic style by Sherrin and Hennessy in Sydney and constructed by a local builder Frederick Nott. It has a turreted tower with a needle spire on top with louvre windows. It has the original slate roof and fine marble work inside and outside in the form of fine marble statues. The interior is also noted for its fine hammer beam ceiling. The pipe organ was made in 1900 in England and rebuilt here in 1912. Like the Anglicans, the Catholics divided the New England diocese in 1887 when the Diocese of Grafton was established.

Near the cathedral but further along Barney Street is the Merici House which was built as a Catholic School and convent very early in 1882. Angela Merici was the founder of the Ursuline Order of Nuns who began teaching at that school in 1883. The Ursulines arrived from London in 1882 to do missionary work in Armidale. Their order was established in Italy in 1534. The Ursulines in Armidale established their mother house here and sent nuns out to many other communities across NSW and Qld from Armidale. But in Armidale they set up St. Ursulines College from their small origins in Merici House near the Catholic Cathedral. It was erected as a fine two storey house for a local businessman in 1877. He sold it to the Ursuline Order in 1882. St. Ursuline College operated from 1882 until it merged with the Catholic boys’ school, La Salle College (established 1906 by Bishop O’Connor) in 1975. The amalgamated school was renamed O’Connor High School after Bishop O’Connor. O’Connor High School operates on a different site in the city of Armidale to the north east of the town.

Anglican Cathedral and associated buildings.
Bishop Broughton conducted the first Anglican service in Armidale in 1845 with the first church opening in 1850, followed by a parsonage for Rev. Tingcombe who was the first minister arriving in 1846. Armidale was part of the Diocese of Newcastle. Then in 1869 the diocese of Grafton and Armidale was established. The founding Bishop was James Turner from Norfolk, England. His diocese was the size of England! He started with 10 clergy and 21 churches. He appointed John Horbury Hunt to design and oversee the building of a suitable cathedral in Armidale. The foundation stone was laid in 1873 and the cathedral opened in 1875 as St. Peter’s. Hunt designed a relatively small cathedral of brick, his favourite building medium, rather than stone. Turner continued as Bishop until 1893. Before he left the diocese of Armidale he had the Christ Church Cathedral erected in Grafton in 1884 and a new Grafton diocese created. Bishop Turner also used John Horbury Hunt for cathedral that we saw in Grafton. By the time Turner left he had 2 diocese and 58 churches.

The Anglican Cathedral was made of Armidale blue bricks with clay taken from Saumarez station. The vestry was added in 1910 according to Hunt’s design (he died in 1903) and the tower, again according to Hunt’s design in 1936. The cathedral features Gothic arches, a square tower, small pyramids on top of buttresses, moulded bricks for special areas and interesting English bonds and patterns. Uralla granite was used for keystones and the foundations. The Deanery was also designed by Hunt and built of the same Armidale blue bricks in 1891. Hunt was known to make great demands on the brickies as he was a perfectionist and supervised all the intricate brickwork very closely. The result was an outstandingly fine cathedral. Note the band of green tiles above the main door included by Hunt. Note also the fine stained glass windows, and one is a memorial to Bishop Turner’s wife who died in 1879. The cathedral has a fine timber ceiling. Hunt even selected the pulpit and lectern to suit his design. The pulpit has an effigy of St. Peter carved in the sandstone. Some of Hunt’s original plans can be viewed in the Tower Room.

Mansions of Armidale.
Many of the mansions of Armidale were constructed in its economic boom period of the 1890s- 1910 when Hillgrove gold mine was at its peak. There are almost 70 buildings in Armidale on the Register of the National Estate. Some are churches or commercial buildings but most are significant houses, especially on the south hill behind the centre of Armidale. But the beautiful gardens hide many of these mansions from any passersby.
•Bishopscourt, (on the town outskirts of the way to Uralla) was built in 1934 as the home of the Anglican Bishop which it still is. It has acres of lawns and gardens.
•Akaroa, now part of New England Girls School was built in 1896. It has many Queen Anne style features including a rounded section. It is not visible from the road.
•Roseneath in Roseneath Lane is one of the oldest houses in Armidale as it was erected in 1854 as a veranda shaded Victorian house with louvre shuttered French windows to the veranda. Privately owned, in poor condition and with no suitable access for a coach.
•Mallam dates from 1869 as one of the last examples of a steep roofed house with dormer windows in the English style (94 Rusden Street). Mallam was the town’s chemist in the 1870s but was in investor in a flour mill, shops and others houses. He paid £1,200 to erect Mallam House. Note the chimney pots.
•The Armidale School. Notes to be provided later.
•Opawa House is in Mann Street at no 65. It was erected in 1915 and it features, wood, brick, and gables typical of that era.
•Trelawny at 84 Brown Street is fine residence built in 1904. It has a curved wrought iron lace work veranda with a prominent gable.
•Birida built in 1907 is typical of that era and is located at 108 Brown Street on the corner of Marsh Street. Note the slate roofed tower porch.
•The Railway Station. Built in 1882 ready for first train in 1883. Lace work done in the foundry in Uralla.
•Lindon Hall at 146 Mann Street is a late 19th century house from 1890. It has fine wrought iron lace work on the balcony. It is a single storey house.
•Teringa is located at 108 Mann Street. It dates from 1894 and is a typical Italianate style two storey house.
•Uloola at 160 Faulkner Street is another gentleman’s residence dating from 1908. It has an English “air “and depicts the Arts and Crafts movement house features.
•The Turrets is located at 145 Mossman Street. It was built in the 1860s and is known for its turrets.
•Highbury House built in 1910 is sited at 177 Faulkner Street. It has bay windows, a round window, arches etc
•The Arts and Crafts style house called Cotswold is located at 34 Marsh Street. It was built in 1918. It is now part of a motel. Next door is another fine house.
•Eynsford, 109 Jeffery St. Another Tudor revival two storey home from the 1920s. Stucco, lead light windows, with a beautiful garden.

Booloominbah.
This grand house is one of the gems designed by architect John Horbury Hunt who produced a number of buildings in Sydney and the country for the White family. One was even a French inspired castle! Frederick White commissioned this house which as built between 1883-88. But at Booloominbah Hunt used the ideas of the Arts and Crafts movement along with his Canadian heritage which meant he used a lot of wood features. When built Booloominbah was the focus of a 20,000 acres sheep property and it was designed for grand livening. Frederick White almost behaved as the “squire” of Armidale as he was already a wealthy man and had properties in the Hunter Valley as well as New England. Booloominbah was his headquarters,but not his head station. The house is overloaded with features; gables, verandas, leadlight windows, wood panelling, impressive staircases, chimneys, a tower, arches, with an overwhelming asymmetrical façade. The house had grand drawing rooms, billiard room, servant’s quarters, service rooms etc. It had almost 50 rooms when built. It was surrounded by grand gardens to complete the picture of local importance. Below is the great stained glass window of Booloominbah commissioned by Frederick White. It depicts the life of General Gordon and his efforts in Sudan as Governor General of the Sudan. Gordon died during the year long siege of Khartoum in 1885 when he was beheaded by his Muslim nemesis. Frederick White was still an Englishman at heart and he was still committed to the glories of the Empire and this allowed him to relive this glory in his own house!

The house was named from a local Aboriginal word but its appearance was decidedly Canadian and English. Frederick White did not live in the house for long as he died in 1903 (when his nephew Francis White took over as leader of the White family in New England.) But Frederick’s widow lived on in Booloominbah for another thirty years. When she died in 1933 the contents were sold and Booloominbah left vacant until a son-in-law (he had married White’s daughter Kate) bought the house. Thomas Richmond Forster then donated the house to the University of Sydney to encourage them to establish the New England University College which the university did in 1938. The house came with about 180 acres of land and cost Forster around £30,000. Forster was a successful businessman and an Anglican layman and benefactor in Armidale. He had been campaigning for a university in Armidale since 1924. Booloominbah became the main administrative and first teaching area of the university and Forster became one of the leaders of the first University Advisory Council. Forster was also the major shareholder in The Armidale School (TAS.) Since the 1940s the university has restored Booloominbah to its former glory. It remains an iconic building of the former sheep pastoral area of New England.

Saumarez.
Henry Dumaresq from the Channel Islands, Jersey, named Saumarez after a property in Jersey. He squatted on land at Saumarez Ponds in 1834. Dumaresq sent his stockmen up here but always lived himself at Muswellbrook on the Hunter River. Saumarez was his head station in New England and he soon had over 100,000 acres of land under leasehold which included Tilbuster Station upon which the city of Armidale now stands. The runs extended from Uralla to beyond Armidale. In 1856 Dumaresq sold his run on to Henry Thomas. He held the run during the period when the government land acts were trying to break p the big runs and open up the land for closer settlement. Thomas took this opportunity to acquire freehold land on his Saumarez run and soon had 12,000 acres freehold. Thomas built a modest three roomed brick house on the run in the 1850s which is still standing. It is near the six roomed timber cottage that Henry Dumaresq built at Saumarez in the 1830s. In fact Henry Dumaresq had his assigned convicts build the cottage as they did most other early structures on Saumarez. In 1874 the nature of Saumarez property changed as it was sold to Francis White, the second son of James White of Edinglassie at Muswellbrook. Francis White took on a property of 20,000 freehold acres. He had properties in the Hunter, at Armidale, Guyra, in Queensland and the Northern Territory.

In 1886 Francis White was doing well, he had paid off the mortgage on the property and so he decided to build a mansion homestead on Saumarez for his residence. A single storey residence was completed in 1888 by a local Armidale builder. After his Uncle Frederick White of Booloominbah died in 1903 Francis decided he needed to entertain on a grander scale to maintain the White family prominence around Armidale. So whilst his wife and daughters were on a holiday in Europe had had a second storey added to the house in 1905/6. The new storey incorporated many Art Nouveau stylistic features. The White family lived in the house until it was donated to the National Trust in 1984 but they only donated the house. The White family still own the Saumarez property of around 6,000 acres. Saumarez House is surrounded by 5 acres of gardens. The house itself is gabled but with symmetrical facades and verandas. The house is built around a courtyard with one side for the Whites and the other for the servants and services such as the kitchens, laundries, butter rooms etc. The family wing contains two large drawing rooms and an elaborate Edwardian stair case. Front entrances were designed to impress visitors. The Whites used Saumarez for official functions, garden parties, tennis parties etc. The house walls are of Flemish bond brick work. The interior joinery on doors, windows, fireplace surrounds etc is Red Cedar. Native flowers are used on the stained glass work including Flannel flowers, waratah, native Lillies etc. Whites three daughters made much carved wooden work for the house.