Cool Household Tooling Made In China images

Cool Household Tooling Made In China images

Some cool household tooling made in china images:

That Was the Year That Was – 1979
household tooling made in china
Image by brizzle born and bred
1979 For the first time in history in 1979 a woman Margaret Thatcher is elected Prime minister in the UK. As technology becomes smaller Sony released the Walkman a worldwide success costing 0 which at that time was a significant amount of money. Also the first Snowboard is invented in the USA. The bombing by the IRA in England continues with Lord Mountbatten and three others assassinated. Following the return of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini Iran becomes an Islamic Republic and 63 Americans are taken hostage in the American Embassy in Tehran on 4th November.

1979 the Britain Thatcher Inherited

The Conservative Party appointed her as their leader on 11 February 1975. She was the first woman to head a British political party, and went on to become the country’s first female Prime Minister in 1979.

Britain wasn’t a country gagging for modernization in 1979 so much as one in a state of nostalgia-tinged denial: a country still traumatized by the retreat from empire and the loss of its global economic clout, symbolized by its humiliation at the hands of the International Monetary Fund three years earlier. A generation on, and the political and economic debate is still tinged as much by the nostalgia as the modernization.

In the “Winter of Discontent” in 1979, almost half of the hospitals in the U.K. were accepting only emergency patients. Household rubbish collection stopped. Petrol shortages loomed as flying pickets of transport workers blocked refineries. And it was the coldest winter in 20 years to boot.

One of Margaret Thatcher’s first political battles after becoming Prime Minister in 1979 was with the unions and Red Robbo in Birmingham.

The British Leyland era at Longbridge became a byword for wildcat walkouts, union militancy and industrial chaos – and helped clear the path to political power for Margaret Thatcher. Just two years after the arrival of hardliner Michael Edwardes, the diminutive South African car chief who took on Red Robbo and the unions at Longbridge, she was voted in as Britain’s first woman Prime Minister. The former Communist works convenor was drummed out of Longbridge after 38 years in November 1979 – within six months of Thatcher’s ascent to power.

The mood of the country had changed dramatically.

Robinson was sacked by BL for putting his name to a pamphlet that had criticised the BL management. A strike ballot opposing the dismissal was held but was thrown out by an overwhelming 14,000 against to just 600 in favour. It was the end of the road for Red Robbo at Longbridge and a watershed in industrial relations in the West Midlands car industry. Significantly, in her memoirs, Thatcher later described Robinson as a ‘notorious agitator’.

The BBC had once claimed that between 1978 and 1979 Robinson was credited with causing 523 walkouts at British Leyland, costing an estimated £200 million in lost production. The BL-style disruption had spread across the nation, and the so-called Winter of Discontent in 1978-79 saw 29.2 million working days lost, with bodies left unburied following a gravediggers’ strike and uncollected rubbish piled high in the frozen streets, when dustbin workers walked out.

It was in that climate of lingering industrial chaos that Margaret Thatcher came to power the following spring.

In his last newspaper interview at the time of the closure of MG Rover in April 2005, Robinson, who is now in his 80s, told the Mail: “Edwardes wanted to reduce it to a small motor company and closed 13 factories, but he never made a profit. “I grew up with the company, joining as a toolmaker at 14 in 1941 and loved my time, both as an ordinary worker and then convenor. “But when Edwardes took over the writing was on the wall. Shutting plants down was not the way to go.”

He described his Red Robbo tag as a badge of honour.

The backdrop to the industrial climate which saw Sir Michael Edwardes – and his spiritual political leader at Number 10, Mrs T – defeat Red Robbo is described in Gillian Bardsley and Colin Corke’s history of the famous Birmingham car factory, Making Cars at Longbridge. The authors wrote: “The formation of British Leyland in 1968 created the fourth biggest motor manufacturer in the world, a formidable player in terms of jobs, finance and exports, something no Government could afford to ignore.

“BL dominance of the home market evaporated as Ford strengthened and imports grew in volume, including the rapidly improving products of Japan.

“The company changed its name to Rover Group in 1986, officially banishing the last vestiges of British Leyland, though it would prove more difficult than this to wipe these words from the British consciousness. “Margaret Thatcher, the Conservative Prime Minister elected in 1979, would certainly not be fooled by a change of name. Nevertheless in 1988 she sold the Government’s unwanted shareholding in Rover Group to British Aerospace.”

Lord Kumar Bhattacharyya, head of the WMG manufacturing arm of Warwick University, who was an industrial adviser to Mrs Thatcher for much of her period in office, said: “She came to the fore at a time when the perception of Britain as an economic entity was very low.

“I can’t think of anyone else in recent history who was so single-minded in her determination to turn Britain round. Today we are enjoying the fruits of what she put in place. “She gave power to young people and the working class. She ensured that Britain escaped the image of being strike ridden and suffering a lack of competitiveness.”

All had disappeared forever by the time Mrs. Thatcher left the stage in 1990, many of them succeeded by privatized versions of the same companies that have come to be every bit as bitterly resented, for various reasons.

1979

Population: 56.27 million

Gross domestic product: £199.22bn

Average household income per week: £248.96

Average house price: £83,169

Life expectancy: men, 70.33 years; women, 76.41 years

Britain in 1979

The average house cost £13,650, and inflation was 17%. Sony launched a portable cassette player called a Walkman, marketed in the US at 0, and McDonalds introduced Happy Meals. Mother Theresa won the Nobel peace prize, China ordered its citizens to have no more than one child, and smallpox was eliminated.

Britain’s trade unions entered 1979 in a state of deep discontent at Jim Callaghan’s attempt to control soaring inflation by limiting pay. But while graveyards were locked and civic squares piled high with uncollected rubbish, popular culture offered merciful release. Britons watched home-grown favourites Are You Being Served and Last of the Summer Wine, and indulged in the comparative glamour of American imports Dallas and Charlie’s Angels . For most of 1979 they were unable to read the Times, which did not appear for almost a year owing to an industrial dispute.

The Clash released London Calling and Pink Floyd released The Wall, while Off the Wall became Michael Jackson’s breakthrough solo album. 1979 was also the year the performer had what is thought to be his first cosmetic surgery, after breaking his nose while dancing.

The release of the Sugarhill Gang’s Rapper’s Delight in October 1979 was credited with heralding the birth of hip-hop. Sid Vicious died of a heroin overdose while on bail for the murder of his girlfriend Nancy Spungen. Kramer vs Kramer was the year’s top-grossing movie in the US, and Alien and Apocalypse Now were also in the top 10, with The Muppet Movie.

Punk and new wave dominated the music scene, with Ian Dury & The Blockheads’ ‘Hit Me With Your Rhythm Stick’ and Blondie’s ‘Heart Of Glass’ two of the year’s first number one singles. Joy Division’s debut album Unknown Pleasures – an aptly dark, brooding picture of despair – was released in June. Amid the gloom, the television schedules were packed with what would become Britain’s most affectionately remembered comedy series. New episodes of Fawlty Towers, Yes, Minister, Terry and June, Minder, and To The Manor Born were all screened throughout the year. The two Hollywood blockbusters Alien and Mad Max proved hits in cinemas, propelling their stars Sigourney Weaver and Mel Gibson into the 1980s A-list.

1979 was a unique year for Top of the Pops, which saw the show record its highest audience of 19 million viewers and in which physical format singles sales hit an all-time high of 79 million. 1979 is maybe the most diverse year ever for acts on Top of the Pops with disco at its peak, new wave, 2 Tone, reggae, rock, folk and electro records all making the top five.

Original interviews with Gary Numan, Nile Rodgers, Woody from Madness, Jah Wobble, Chas and Dave, Janet Kay, Linda Nolan, Jim Dooley, Secret Affair, the Ruts, Legs and Co and many others tell the story of an exceptional year.

In the year that the ‘winter of discontent’ saw continuing strikes black out ITV and TOTP reduced during a technicians strike to a narrator introducing videos, the show also found itself the site of conflict backstage. TOTP’s old guard of 70s MOR acts had their feathers continually ruffled by new wave bands, as the Skids spat at the Nolan Sisters backstage and Generation X urinated off the roof onto the Dooleys.

Elsewhere in the corridors of TV Centre, in preparation for playing their single Death Disco, Public Image Ltd demanded their teeth were blacked out in make-up to appear ugly while Gary Numan remembers the overbearing union presence which prevented TOTP artists moving their own microphones without a union technician and the Musicians Union trying to ban him from the show for his use of synthesizers.

The most popular musical styles of 1979 were 2 Tone, reggae and disco. The latter saw Nile Rodgers, the man of the year, score four hits with Chic as well as writing and producing a further four hits with Sister Sledge, Sheila B Devotion and Sugarhill Gang, who appeared with what would prove to be the first ever rap hit.

Jamaican and UK reggae artists scored continual hits through the year and then watched as the Police notched up three hits with white reggae and the label 2 Tone revived the 60s reggae style known as ska. In November, in what is remembered as the 2 Tone edition, all three of the label’s new acts – Madness, Specials and Selecter – appeared on one historic night and took the show by storm, with Madness capping off their performance of One Step Beyond by leading a ‘nutty train’ conga through the studio.

The Murder of Earl Mountbatten

2015 – The Irish police have been accused of failing to fully investigate IRA terror suspects responsible for the Mountbatten killings in 1979, along with other terror attacks. A Westminster source has made clear his suspicion that the Irish authorities were fully aware of who caused the death of Earl Mountbatten of Burma, the Queen’s cousin. But the source continued that the motivation to investigate past terrorist attacks had dissipated following the signing of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998.

The agreement gave those suspected of attacks an amnesty, the source told the Sunday Telegraph, in a secret deal for peace. The source added that ‘of course’ the Irish knew who had committed the murders, as they were ‘very good at gathering intelligence’ but were not successful when it came to taking the cases to court.

The revelations have emerged in the lead up to the ground-breaking first official visit by the Prince of Wales – the murdered Earl’s great-nephew – to the site of the attack, to be made this week. Prince Charles will visit the scene of the murder in the fishing village Mullaghmore, Co Sligo, as part of a four-day tour of the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.

Only one man has ever been convicted over the Mountbatten killings, the now 67-year-old bomb-maker Thomas McMahon. But as he was 70 miles away in police custody – and therefore unable to detonate the bomb – when the boat was blown up it is clear that at least one accomplice managed to escape justice. A bomb packed with 50lb of explosives was stashed aboard the Earl’s boat, Shadow V, in August 1979.

The bomb was detonated when the boat was about 200 yards from Mullaghmore harbour, as it was being taken out to sea. It is certain that the bomb was detonated by an accomplice keeping watch, and not by an automatic timer, because it was not certain when the group of passengers would board the boat. Two teenage boys were also killed in the explosion, the Earl’s 14-year-old grandson Nicholas Knatchbull and 15-year-old Paul Maxwell, a local boat hand.

The 83-year-old Dowager Lady Brabourne – who was also aboard the boat – died from shock and internal injuries the day after the attack. Mountbatten’s daughter Lady Brabourne and her husband Lord Brabourne were both injured but survived the blast, as did their son Timothy, Nicholas’ twin brother. McMahon served 18 years before being released in 1998 under the Good Friday peace agreement. But a spokesman for the Irish police – known as the Garda – has insisted that the case remains open while urging any members of the public who may have information about the killings to come forward.

Onlookers have insisted that the Westminster sources claims, along with the upcoming visit of Prince Charles, should inspire a renewed urgency within the investigation.

The source insisted that the Garda was in fact aware of names of those suspected of carrying out the Mountbatten bombing, as well as other terror attacks. But he continued that they failed to act on that knowledge as a result of an ‘amnesty’ struck up as a result of the Good Friday Agreement, signed by the British and Irish governments.

IRA suspects received what have become known as ‘comfort’ letters from the British government, it has previously been revealed. The letters reassured suspects who had not yet been prosecuted and were ‘on-the-run’, that they were not being pursued for any specific offence. The ‘comfort’ letter controversy emerged after the trial of John Downey collapsed last year. Downey had been charged with the murder of four soldiers in the Hyde Park bombing in 1982, but had received a ‘comfort’ letter while he was on the run.

The source insisted that as a result of this covert amnesty, the authorities did not pursue those suspected of carrying out these notorious attacks. Although Charles’ visit comes 36 years after the bombing, it is believed that he has wanted to visit the village for some time. The Prince of Wales – accompanied by the Duchess of Cornwall – will arrive on Tuesday, when they fly to Galway for a reception at the city’s university to celebrate the area’s links with Britain.

They will later attend a private dinner hosted by the Irish president, Michael D. Higgins, in Lough Cutra Castle in South Galway. On Wednesday they will attend a service of peace and reconciliation at Drumcliffe church in Sligo.

Car bomb kills Airey Neave

Shadow Northern Ireland Secretary Airey Neave killed by a car bomb as he left the House of Commons car park. The bomb, said to be highly sophisticated, exploded as Mr Neave began driving up the exit ramp shortly before 1500GMT. Emergency services were on the scene in minutes. The 63-year-old Conservative MP, known for his tough line on anti-IRA security, was taken to Westminster Hospital where he died from his injuries. So far two groups, the Provisional IRA and the Irish Natonal Liberation Army, have claimed they carried out the killing.

It is not yet known when the bomb was attached to his car but investigators believe a timing device and trembler – which detonates the bomb through movement – were used to ensure the bomb went off as Mr Neave was leaving the Commons. The area around Parliament Square was immediately closed as police began a full-scale search of the premises. Despite increased threats to the safety of MPs not all cars are checked fully as they enter the car park. Gilbert Kellard, assistant commissioner of the Metropolitan Police said Mr Neave was aware of the dangers and was "happy and content" with his security.

Conservative leader Margaret Thatcher led tributes to Mr Neave saying: "He was one of freedom’s warriors. Courageous, staunch, true. He lived for his beliefs and now he has died for them." Prime Minister James Callaghan said: "No effort will be spared to bring the murderers to justice and to rid the United Kingdom of the scourge of terrorism."

The killing is thought to have been timed to coincide with the start of the election campaign which was announced yesterday. Mr Neave was a close adviser to Mrs Thatcher, he led her campaign to become the Conservative Party leader and headed her private office.

Teacher dies in Southall race riots

A 33-year-old man has died from head injuries after a bloody battle broke out between police and demonstrators in Southall. The fighting began when thousands of protesters gathered to demonstrate against a National Front campaign meeting. The extreme right-wing organisation had chosen Southall Town Hall to hold its St George’s Day election meeting. The area has one of the country’s biggest Asian communities.

Police had sealed off the area, and anti-racism demonstrators trying to make their way to the town hall were blocked. In the confrontation that followed, more than 40 people, including 21 police, were injured, and 300 were arrested. Bricks and bottles were hurled at police, who described the rioting as the most violent they have handled in London. Among the demonstrators was Blair Peach, a New Zealand-born member of the Anti-Nazi League. A teacher for special needs children in east London, he was a committed anti-racism activist.

During an incident in a side street 100 yards from the town hall, he was seriously injured and collapsed, blood running down his face from serious head injuries. He died later in hospital. Witnesses said his injuries were caused by police baton blows. Martin Gerrald, one of the protestors, was nearby Mr Peach at the time. "Mr Peach was hit twice in the head with police truncheons and left unconscious," he said. "The police were wielding truncheons and riot shields. It was a case of the boot just going in – there was no attempt to arrest anybody."

Another witness, 24-year-old Parminder Atwal, took the injured teacher into his house and called an ambulance. He said, "I saw a policeman hit a man on the head as he sat on the pavement. The man tried to get up, fell back and then reeled across the road to my house." The Anti-Nazi League claim Mr Peach bore the brunt of a "brutal" and "excessively violent" police baton charge.

A spokesman for Scotland Yard said it was impossible to comment on the death until a full-scale inquiry had been completed.

Thorpe cleared of murder charges

Former Liberal Party leader Jeremy Thorpe has walked out of the Old Bailey a free man, after a jury cleared him of the attempted murder of Norman Scott.
Mr Thorpe, who resigned as leader in 1976 amid allegations that he had had a homosexual affair with Mr Scott, hailed his acquittal as "a complete vindication".

Mr Thorpe and three other men were charged with conspiracy to murder, after the bungled assassination attempt of Mr Scott on a deserted moor in Southern England.

All were found not guilty. It took the jury 15 hours of deliberation spread over three days to reach its verdict. Mr Thorpe was also acquitted on a charge of inciting one of his co-defendants, David Holmes, to murder Mr Scott.

The trial lasted 31 days but Mr Thorpe’s ordeal began when he was charged last August. Although he was found not guilty, the case has probably ruined Mr Thorpe’s political career. As the verdict was read out he sat motionless. Afterwards he leant over to give his wife a long kiss.

Speaking later he said: "I have always maintained that I was innocent of the charges brought against me and the verdict of the jury, after a prolonged and careful investigation by them, I regard as totally fair and a complete vindication."

He added that he would be taking "a short period of rest" away from the glare of publicity.

Jeremy Thorpe’s political career was indeed ruined by the case.

Mr Thorpe had risen to prominence in 1967 when he became leader of the Liberal Party, but stepped down in 1976 as Norman Scott’s allegations about their relationship surfaced. At the May general election, shortly before the trial began, the voters of north Devon threw him out of the Parliamentary seat he had held for 20 years.

In 1999, two decades after disappearing from public life, Mr Thorpe published his memoirs in which he asserted that he never had any doubt about the acquittal of all the defendants on trial. Not long after the trial, Thorpe was diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease and retired from public life. For many years, the disease was at an advanced stage. In 1997 he visited the Liberal Democrat party conference, where he was given a standing ovation, and he attended the funeral of Roy Jenkins in 2003.

In 1999, Thorpe published his memoirs, In My Own Time, describing key episodes in his political life. He did not shed any light on the Norman Scott affair and never made any public statements regarding his sexual orientation.

On 4 December 2014, Thorpe died at his home in London of Parkinson’s disease, aged 85.

David Steel, who succeeded him as party leader, said: "He had a genuine sympathy for the underprivileged – whether in his beloved North Devon where his first campaign was for ‘mains, drains and a little bit of light’ or in Africa, where he was a resolute fighter against apartheid and became a respected friend of people like President Kaunda of Zambia."

1979 The Yorkshire Ripper Murders

4 April – Josephine Whitaker, a 19-year-old bank worker, is murdered in Halifax; police believe that she is the 11th woman to be murdered by the Yorkshire Ripper.

Police found in the wounds of Josephine Whitaker traces of milling oil used in engineering shops. Unfortunately, they also found traces of a similar oil on one of the envelopes from Sunderland sent by a man claiming to be the Ripper, but who turned out to be a hoaxer. This gave the letters an added credibility to the claims contained in them. They also found pinhead traces of metal particles in Josephine Whitaker’s wounds (possibly from when Sutcliffe sharpened the screwdriver into a bradawl). The police thought the killer might be a skilled machine tool-fitter, or an electrical or maintenance engineer, or a skilled or semi-skilled worker with engineering or mechanical connections.

2 September – Police discover a woman’s body in an alleyway near Bradford city centre. The woman, 20-year-old student Barbara Leach, is believed to be the 12th victim of the mysterious Yorkshire Ripper mass murderer.

Barbara Leach’s roommates were concerned when she still had not returned late Sunday night and called the police. The following day at 3:55 pm, while engaged in a police search of the area to find the missing student, Police Constable Simon Greaves found her body where Sutcliffe had hidden it in Back Ash Grove, about 200 yards from where she had left her friends. Her wounds, similar to the wounds received by Josephine Whitaker, clearly indicated to the police that the Yorkshire Ripper had struck again, and as in the previous murder, not in a red-light area.

1979 Timeline

5 January – Lorry drivers go on strike, causing new shortages of heating oil and fresh food.

10 January – Prime Minister James Callaghan returns from an international summit to a Britain in a state of industrial unrest. The Sun newspaper reports his comments with a famous headline: "Crisis? What Crisis?"

15 January – Rail workers begin a 24-hour strike.

22 January – Tens of thousands of public-workers strike in the beginning of what becomes known as the "Winter of Discontent".

1 February – Grave-diggers call off a strike in Liverpool which has delayed dozens of burials.

2 February – Sid Vicious, the former Sex Pistols guitarist, is found dead in New York after apparently suffocating on his own vomit as a result of a heroin overdose. 21-year-old London-born Vicious (real name John Simon Ritchie) is on bail for the second degree murder of his girlfriend Nancy Spungen, who was found stabbed to death in a hotel room on 12 October last year.

9 February – Trevor Francis signs for Nottingham Forest in British football’s first £1 million deal.

12 February – Over 1,000 schools close due to the heating oil shortage caused by the lorry drivers’ strike.

14 February – "Saint Valentine’s Day Concordat" between Trades Union Congress and Government, The Economy, the Government, and Trade Union Responsibilities, marks an end to the "Winter of Discontent".

15 February – Opinion polls show the Conservatives up to 20 points ahead of Labour, whose popularity has slumped due to the Winter of Discontent.

22 February – Saint Lucia becomes independent of the United Kingdom.

1 March – Scottish devolution referendum: Scotland votes by a majority of 77,437 for a Scottish Assembly, which is not implemented due to a condition that at least 40% of the electorate must support the proposal.

Welsh devolution referendum: Wales votes against devolution.

Conservative candidate David Waddington retains the seat for his party in the Clitheroe by-election.

National Health Service workers in the West Midlands threaten to go on strike in their bid to win a nine per cent pay rise.

17 March – Nottingham Forest beat Southampton 3-2 at Wembley Stadium to win the Football League Cup for the second year running.

18 March – An explosion at the Golborne colliery in Golborne, Greater Manchester, kills three men.

22 March – Sir Richard Sykes, ambassador to the Netherlands, is shot dead by a Provisional Irish Republican Army member in The Hague.

28 March – James Callaghan’s government loses a motion of confidence by one vote, forcing a General Election.

29 March – James Callaghan announces that the General Election will be held on 3 May. All of the major opinion polls point towards a Conservative win which would make Margaret Thatcher the first female Prime Minister of Britain.

30 March – Airey Neave, World War Two veteran and Conservative Northern Ireland spokesman, is killed by an Irish National Liberation Army bomb in the House of Commons car park.

31 March – The Royal Navy withdraws from Malta.

April – Statistics show that the economy shrank by 0.8% in the first quarter of the year, largely due to the Winter Of Discontent, sparking fears that Britain could soon be faced with its second recession in four years.

4 April – Josephine Whitaker, a 19-year-old bank worker, is murdered in Halifax; police believe that she is the 11th woman to be murdered by the Yorkshire Ripper.

23 April – Anti-Nazi League protestor Blair Peach is fatally injured after being struck on the head probably by a member of the Metropolitan Police’s Special Patrol Group.

1 May – The London Underground Jubilee line is inaugurated.

4 May – The Conservatives win the General Election by a 43-seat majority and Margaret Thatcher becomes the first female Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Liberal Party leader Jeremy Thorpe is the most notable MP to lose his seat in the election. Despite losing the first General Election he has contested, James Callaghan is expected to stay on as leader of a Labour Party now in opposition after five years in government. Among the new members of parliament is John Major, 36-year-old MP for Huntingdon and Thatcher’s successor.

8 May – Former Liberal Party leader and MP Jeremy Thorpe goes on trial at the Old Bailey charged with attempted murder.

9 May – Liverpool win the Football League First Division title for the 12th time.

12 May – Arsenal defeat Manchester United 3-2 in the FA Cup final at Wembley Stadium, with Alan Sunderland scoring a last gasp winner in response to two United goals inside the last five minutes which had seen the scores level at 2-2.

15 May – Government abolishes the Prices Commission.

21 May – Elton John becomes the first musician from the west to perform live in the Soviet Union.

Conservative MPs back Margaret Thatcher’s proposals to sell off parts of nationalised industries. During the year, the Government will begin to sell its stake in British Petroleum.

24 May – Thorpe Park at Chertsey in Surrey is opened; it becomes one of the top three most popular theme parks in the country.

25 May – Price of milk increases more than 10% to 15 pence a pint.

30 May – Nottingham Forest F.C. defeat Malmö FF, the Swedish football league champions, 1-0 in the European Cup final at Olympiastadion, Munich. The only goal of the game is scored by Trevor Francis.

7 June – European Parliament election, the first direct election to the European Parliament; the turnout in Britain is low at 32%. The Conservatives have the most MEPs at 60, while Labour only have 17. The Liberals gain a 12.6% share of the vote but not a single MEP, while the Scottish National Party, Democratic Unionist Party, Social Democratic and Labour Party and Official Ulster Unionist Party all gain an MEP each.

12 June – The new Conservative government’s first budget sees chancellor Geoffrey Howe cut the standard tax rate by 3p and slashing the top rate from 83% to 60%.

18 June – Neil Kinnock, 37-year-old Labour MP for Islwyn in South Wales, becomes shadow education spokesman.

22 June – Former Liberal Party leader Jeremy Thorpe is cleared in court of the allegations of attempted murder which ruined his career.

5 July – The Queen attends the millennium celebrations of the Isle of Man’s Parliament, Tynwald.

12 July – Kiribati (formerly Gilbert Islands) becomes independent of the United Kingdom.

17 July – The athlete Sebastian Coe sets a record time for running a mile, completing it in 3 minutes 48.95 seconds.

23 July – The government announces £4 billion worth of public spending cuts.

1 August – Following the recent takeover of Chrysler’s European division by French carmaker Peugeot, the historic Talbot marque is revived for the range of cars previously sold in Britain as Chryslers, also taking over from the Simca brand in France.

9 August – A nudist beach is established in Brighton.

10 August–23 October – The entire ITV network in the UK is shut down by a technicians’ strike. But Channel Television remains unaffected.

14 August – A storm in the Irish Sea hits the Fastnet yacht race. Fifteen lives and dozens of yachts are lost.

Disgraced ex-MP John Stonehouse is released from jail after serving four years of his seven-year sentence for faking his own death.

24 August – The Ford Cortina receives a major facelift.

27 August – Lord Mountbatten of Burma, his nephew and a boatboy are assassinated by a Provisional Irish Republican Army bomb while holidaying in the Republic of Ireland, the Dowager Lady Brabourne dying the following day in hospital of injuries received. He was an admiral, statesman and an uncle of The Duke of Edinburgh.

Warrenpoint ambush: eighteen British soldiers killed in Northern Ireland by IRA bombs.

30 August – Two men are arrested in Dublin and charged with the murder of Lord Mountbatten and the three other victims of the bombing.

2 September – Police discover a woman’s body in an alleyway near Bradford city centre. The woman, 20-year-old student Barbara Leach, is believed to be the 12th victim of the mysterious Yorkshire Ripper mass murderer.

5 September – The Queen leads the mourning at the funeral of Lord Mountbatten of Burma.

Manchester City F.C. pay a British club record fee of £1,450,000 for Wolverhampton Wanderers midfielder Steve Daley.

8 September – Wolverhampton Wanderers set a new national transfer record by paying just under £1,500,000 for Aston Villa and Scotland striker Andy Gray.

10 September – British Leyland announces that production of MG cars will finish in the autumn of next year, in a move which will see the Abingdon plant closed.

14 September – The government announces plans to regenerate the London Docklands with housing and commercial developments.

21 September – A Royal Air Force Harrier jet crashes into a house in Wisbech, Cambridgeshire killing two men and a boy.

25 September – Margaret Thatcher opens the new Central Milton Keynes Shopping Centre, the largest indoor shopping centre in Britain, after its final phase is completed six years after development of the huge complex first began.

October – Statistics show a 2.3% contraction in the economy for the third quarter of the year, sparking fresh fears of another recession.

11 October – Godfrey Hounsfield wins the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine jointly with Allan McLeod Cormack "for the development of computer assisted tomography".

23 October – All remaining foreign exchange controls abolished.

27 October – Saint Vincent and the Grenadines gains independence.

28 October – Chairman Hua Guofeng becomes the first Chinese leader to visit Britain.

30 October – Martin Webster of the National Front is found guilty of inciting racial hatred.

November – British Leyland chief executive Michael Edwardes wins the overwhelming backing of more than 100,000 of the carmaker’s employees for his restructuring plans, which over the next few years will result in the closure of several plants and the loss of some 25,000 jobs.

1 November – The government announces £3.5 billion in public spending cuts and an increase in prescription charges.

5 November – The two men accused of murdering Lord Mountbatten and three others go on trial in Dublin.

9 November – Four men are found guilty over the killing of paperboy Carl Bridgewater, who was shot dead at a farmhouse in the Staffordshire countryside 14 months ago. James Robinson and Vincent Hickey receive life sentences with a recommended minimum of 25 years for murder, Michael Hickey (also guilty of murder) receives an indefinite custodial sentence, while Patrick Molloy is guilty of manslaughter and jailed for 12 years.

11 November – Last episode of the first series of the sitcom To the Manor Born on BBC1 receives 23.95 million viewers, the all-time highest figure for a recorded programme in the UK.

13 November – The Times is published for the first time in nearly a year after a dispute between management and unions over staffing levels and new technology.

Miners reject a 20% pay increase and threaten to go on strike until they get their desired pay rise of 65%.

14 November – Vauxhall launches its first-ever front-wheel drive car – the Astra range of hatchbacks and estates – to compete in the growing family hatchback sector. It replaces the traditional rear-wheel drive Viva saloon, which had been produced in three incarnations since 1963. Initial production of the Astra will take place at the Opel factory in West Germany, with production set to be transferred to Britain by 1981.

15 November – Minimum Lending Rate reaches an all-time high of 17%.

Art historian and former Surveyor of the Queen’s Pictures Anthony Blunt’s role as the "fourth man" of the ‘Cambridge Five’ double agents for the Soviet NKVD during World War II is revealed by Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher in the House of Commons; she gives further details on 21 November.

21 November – Six months after winning the General Election, the Conservatives are five points behind Labour (who have a 45% share of the vote) in an MORI opinion poll.

23 November – In Dublin, Ireland, Irish Republican Army member Thomas McMahon is sentenced to life in prison for the assassination of Lord Mountbatten.

4 December – The Hastie Fire in Hull leads to the deaths of 3 boys and begins the hunt for Bruce George Peter Lee, the UK’s most prolific killer.

7 December – Lord Soames appointed as the transitional governor of Rhodesia to oversee its move to independence.

10 December – William Arthur Lewis wins the Nobel Prize in Economics with Theodore Schultz "for their pioneering research into economic development research with particular consideration of the problems of developing countries".

Daredevil Eddie Kidd performs an 80 ft jump on a motorcycle.

14 December – Doubts are raised over the convictions of the four men in the Carl Bridgewater case after Hubert Vincent Spencer is charged with murdering 70-year-old farmer Hubert Wilkes at a farmhouse less than half a mile away from the one where Carl Bridgewater was murdered.

The Clash release post-punk album London Calling.

20 December – The government publishes the Housing Bill which will give council house tenants the right to buy their homes from the following year. More than 5 million households in the United Kingdom currently occupy council houses.

Inflation rises to 13.4%.

The largest number of working days lost through strike action since 1926.

Dame Josephine Barnes becomes first woman president of the British Medical Association.

The first J D Wetherspoon pub is established by Tim Martin in the London Borough of Haringey.

The band Spandau Ballet begin to play under this name.

Scottish Gaelic service Radio nan Eilean established in Stornoway.

New plant species, Senecio eboracensis, the York groundsel, is discovered.

A record of more than 1.7 million new cars are sold in the United Kingdom this year, with the best selling car, the Ford Cortina, selling more than 190,000 units. Ford Motor Company enjoys the largest share of the new car market, following in second place by British Leyland, the former Chrysler Europe brands (now owned by Peugeot) in third place, and Vauxhall in fourth place. Foreign brands including Datsun, Renault and Volkswagen also prove popular.

1979 in British music

23 February – Dire Straits begin their first American tour, in Boston.

27 March – Eric Clapton marries Patti Boyd, ex-wife of Clapton’s friend George Harrison.

31 March – In the Eurovision Song Contest, UK representatives Black Lace finish 7th.

2 April – Kate Bush begins her first and, to date, her only live tour.

6 April – Rod Stewart marries Alana Hamilton.

1 May – Elton John becomes the first overseas pop music artist to perform in Israel.

2 May – The Who perform their first concert following the death of drummer Keith Moon. The band performed with new drummer Kenney Jones.

11 August – Led Zeppelin play their last ever British concert at Knebworth in Hertfordshire.

21 August – Cliff Richard achieves his tenth UK No.1 and the first for over 11 years.

August – Brotherhood of Man members Martin Lee and Sandra Stevens marry.

26 November – Bill Haley & His Comets perform at the Drury Lane Theatre in London in a command performance for The Queen. This was Haley’s final recorded performance of "Rock Around the Clock".

The Welsh Philharmonia becomes the Orchestra of Welsh National Opera.

Richard Rodney Bennett becomes a resident of New York City.

Arthur Oldham founds the Concertgebouw Orchestra Chorus in Amsterdam.

Number one singles

"Y.M.C.A." – Village People
"Hit Me With Your Rhythm Stick" – Ian Dury and the Blockheads
"Heart of Glass" – Blondie
"Tragedy" – Bee Gees
"I Will Survive" – Gloria Gaynor
"Bright Eyes" – Art Garfunkel
"Sunday Girl" – Blondie
"Ring My Bell" – Anita Ward
"Are ‘Friends’ Electric?" – Tubeway Army
"I Don’t Like Mondays" – The Boomtown Rats
"We Don’t Talk Anymore" – Cliff Richard
"Cars" – Gary Numan
"Message in a Bottle" – The Police
"Video Killed the Radio Star" – The Buggles
"One Day at a Time" – Lena Martell
"When You’re in Love with a Beautiful Woman" – Dr. Hook & The Medicine Show
"Walking on the Moon" – The Police
"Another Brick in the Wall Part II" – Pink Floyd

1979 in British television

2 January – BBC2 broadcasts the first in Michael Wood’s groundbreaking history documentary series, In Search of the Dark Ages.

28 January – Thomas & Sarah, a spin-off of Upstairs, Downstairs premieres on LWT. It runs for only one series.

24 March – Tales of the Unexpected, an Anglia Television series based on the short stories of Roald Dahl, makes its debut on ITV.

3 May–4 May – BBC1 and ITV broadcast coverage of the 1979 General Election. The election is won by the Conservatives and sees Margaret Thatcher become the first female Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

6 August – Technicians at Thames Television go on strike following a long-running dispute.

10 August – The whole of the ITV network except the Channel Islands is affected by a technicians’ strike for eleven weeks.

27 August – Lord Mountbatten was murdered by IRA bombers. His death set a record audience for a news bulletin, as 26 million viewers watched the coverage on BBC1.
Strike action at ITN led to the record viewing figures.

2 September – Subtitling of television programmes on Ceefax begins.

25 September – Robin Day presents the first edition of the long-running political debate programme Question Time on BBC1. The programme continues to air to the present day.

24 October – On ITV’s first night back on the air after the strike, Quatermass, the fourth and final serial featuring Professor Bernard Quatermass, begins its run on the network.

11 November – Last episode of the first series of the sitcom To the Manor Born on BBC1 receives 23.95 million viewers, the all-time highest figure for a recorded programme in the UK.

1 December – BBC2 unveils the first computer-generated television presentation symbol in the world. US broadcaster NBC unveils their first computer-generated symbol later that year.

BBC1

18 January – Blankety Blank (1979–1990, BBC1 1997–1999, ITV 2001–2002)
18 February – Antiques Roadshow (1979–present)
9 June – The Paul Daniels Magic Show (1979–1994)
25 September – Question Time (1979–present)
30 September -To the Manor Born (1979–1981, 2007)
Shoestring (1979–1980)
24 October – Terry and June (1979–1987)

BBC2

28 September – Friday Night, Saturday Morning (1979–1982)
16 October – Not the Nine O’Clock News (1979–1982)

ITV

3 January – The Book Tower (1979–1989)
6 January – Dick Turpin (1979–1982)
14 January – Thomas & Sarah (1979)
25 February – Worzel Gummidge (1979–1981)
11 March – Agony (1979–1981)
24 March – Tales of the Unexpected (1979–1985; 1987–1988)
15 April – End of Part One (1979–1980)
10 July – Sapphire & Steel (1979–1982)
12 July – Shelley (1979–1992)
25 September – Once Upon a Time (1979–present)
29 October – Only When I Laugh (1979–1982)
Minder (1979–1994; 2009)

Image from page 803 of “Knight’s American mechanical dictionary : a description of tools, instruments, machines, processes and engineering, history of inventions, general technological vocabulary ; and digest of mechanical appliances in science and the ar
household tooling made in china
Image by Internet Archive Book Images
Identifier: knightsamericanm02knig
Title: Knight’s American mechanical dictionary : a description of tools, instruments, machines, processes and engineering, history of inventions, general technological vocabulary ; and digest of mechanical appliances in science and the arts
Year: 1882 (1880s)
Authors: Knight, Edward H. (Edward Henry), 1824-1883
Subjects: Industrial arts Mechanical engineering
Publisher: Boston : Houghton, Mifflin and Company
Contributing Library: NCSU Libraries
Digitizing Sponsor: NCSU Libraries

View Book Page: Book Viewer
About This Book: Catalog Entry
View All Images: All Images From Book

Click here to view book online to see this illustration in context in a browseable online version of this book.

Text Appearing Before Image:
See Pillow-block. b. The socket of apivot. An ink orstep. 2. {ShiphuikUng.) Ablock of wood on whichthe inner end of the Pillows.bowsprit rests. 3. (Fabric.) A kind of fustian havingleaved twill. 4. A cushion for the head. The ancient Egjptians used a head-rest for a pillow (6), verysimilar to that now used in China and called a head-stool, orrather by its equivalent in Chinese. It looks uncomfortable,but no doubt was preferred to our kind of pillow in a hot cli-mate. These Egyptian head-rests are mentioned by Porphyry. Theywere maiie of wood or alabaster. They are still used in China,Japan, Abyssinia, Ashantee, and Otaheite. Wood, stone, andearthenware are the modern as they were the ancient materials.They are from 4^ to 10 inches high. Many of them are preserved in the British Museum. One ofwood, 6i inches high, and inscribed with the name and titlesof Mas-khar-hao. Another of arragonite, 6| inches high, witha fluted column, and the name and titles of Atai in front. Fig. 3724. four-

Text Appearing After Image:
a, base. d, pillow. PiUow-Block. b, pedestal.€, cap. c, pedestal-corer. PILLOW-BLOCK. 1705 PIN. Others might be cited. It appears to have been a regular pieceof household furniture. The Egvptians were not ignorant of the use of soft pillows.A cushion with a linen cover and filled with the feathers ofwater-fowl is preserved in the British Museum. Michal, when she sought to save her husband David from thefury of her father Saul, took an image and laid it in the bed,piilo^ving its head upon a bolster of goafs hair covered with acloth Cushions and pillows are common in the East, formed ofsheeps fleeces or goat-skins stuffed with cotton. Pillow-block. (Madiin-ert/.) An iron emdleor bearing to hold the boxes or brasses wliich form ajournal-bearing for a shaft or roller. Pillow-lace. A lace made with bobbins or pirnsu[H)n a pillow. Bobbbi-lac^. It was originally made of silk or tbreid woven into a netwitli hexagonal or octagonal meshes. Afterw.iid, it ivae orna-meated with a thicker taread

Note About Images
Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability – coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.

Nice Plastic Mould Made In China photos

Nice Plastic Mould Made In China photos

A few nice plastic mould made in china images I found:

Image from page 402 of “China : a history of the laws, manners and customs of the people” (1878)
plastic mould made in china
Image by Internet Archive Book Images
Identifier: chinahistoryofla02grayuoft
Title: China : a history of the laws, manners and customs of the people
Year: 1878 (1870s)
Authors: Gray, John Henry, 1828-1890 Gregor, William Gow
Subjects: China — Social life and customs
Publisher: London : Macmillan
Contributing Library: Robarts – University of Toronto
Digitizing Sponsor: MSN

View Book Page: Book Viewer
About This Book: Catalog Entry
View All Images: All Images From Book

Click here to view book online to see this illustration in context in a browseable online version of this book.

Text Appearing Before Image:
garded as a proof of a hostile disposition.On passing through the streets, however, the Chinese began tomake remarks, and to call out one to another, Beware ofthat foreigner, he will club some of you I As my friend hada habit of swinging his stick about when walking, the excite-ment increased as we progressed. Eventually a large crowdgathered, and becoming exceedingly angry, attacked us, andforced us to seek refuge in a pottery, whence we were witliditficulty conveyed through back streets to our boat. In various parts of China the manufacture of fiat clay tiles,which resemble flags, is carried on. At Pak-hin-hok, nearCanton, and at other places in the vicinity, these tiles are madein large quantities. The plastic clay of which they are formedis brought to Canton from the neighbouring counties or districtsof Toong-koon and Pun-yu respectively. As rivers and creeksare the highways of Kwang-tung, the clay is conveyed to thetile-yards i)i Pak-liin-hok in boats. It is ])ih^(l up in stacks.

Text Appearing After Image:
xxviii.] TILF:S AND BRICKS. 245 from which it is taken as roquired, and placed on a threshing-floor to be kneaded or tempered by being trodden by the feet.Tiles are made of the clay thus tempered by means of moulds,according to the size and pattern required. The kilns in whichthe tiles are baked are very large, and the process of bakinge>vtends, I believe, over nine or ten days. They are not removed,however, from tlie kihi until the sixtli day after the fire isextinguished. In many parts of this vast empire bricks are now, and forcenturies past have been, made in great numbers. They aremade in the following manner: the surface soil, or encallow, asit is termed by brickmakers, is first removed. The clay is thentempered or kneaded by the feet of buffaloes, which for this pur-pose are led or driven over it by bo}s, backwards and forwardsfor several hours. At the town of You-tou, however, which isnear Woo-see Hien, the clay is trodden Ijy men. In Persia also,I may observe in passing, a

Note About Images
Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability – coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.

Nice Injection Mould Made In China photos

Nice Injection Mould Made In China photos

Some cool injection mould made in china images:

“Sensible A/C Outlet position” #nerds #opinions / SML.20130110.IP3.SQ.AC.PowerOutlet.Opinions
injection mould made in china
Image by See-ming Lee 李思明 SML
“Sensible A/C Outlet position” #nerds #opinions

I bought the 500W 110 to 220 voltage converter (1) to power the Denon DN-X800 digital/analog mixer (pictured) and the Denon DN-2600F DJ CD player (not shown)—two pieces of 110V electronics which I bought in the US. The cords of the Denon units are not very long so I put the converter on the shelves (2).

Turns out that this is the best position for all electronics so even though I don’t need to convert the voltage for 100-240V electronics e.g. the iPad / iPhone, I now also plug the charger into the converter because it saves me time scrambling on the floor looking for outlet.

I think that I am going to make a rack mount unit and just create rows of outlet on desk level as that makes the most sense to me.

# Notes
1. I bought mine at Sham Shui Po (SSP 深水埗) for HK0 (US).
2. Doron Lachisch’s Cubitec Shelving (2008) combines the exceptional strength and stability of injection-molded polypropylene with simple, modular design. Available at Design Within Reach dwr.com — highly recommended. I bought mine in 2009. Looks new til this day because it is easily cleanable.

/ SML.20130110.IP3.SQ.AC.PowerOutlet.Opinions
/ #smlopinions #ccby #smlmusic #smluniverse #smlchaos #smlprojects
/ #AC #voltage #converter #electronics #outlet #opinions #nerds #geeks #Denon #X800 #Cubitec #shelving #organization #DoronLachisch #design
/ #馬鞍山 #MaOnShan #香港 #HongKong #中國 #中国 #China
/ #smlrec 攝影 摄影 photography IP3 SQ 2013 201301 20130110 power iPad iPhone charger

Cool Plastic Injection Part Made In China images

Cool Plastic Injection Part Made In China images

Some cool plastic injection part made in china images:

Oh the joys of the open road!
plastic injection part made in china
Image by brizzle born and bred
Timeline of motoring history 1940 – 2008

1940
Car production in Britain is put on hold as most factories go over to munitions production.

The German Luftwaffe destroys the centre of Coventry.

Oldsmobile and Cadillac offer the first fully automatic transmission.

Enzo Ferrari leaves Alfa Romeo to establish Auto-Avio Costruzioni Ferrari.

In Japan, Toyo Kogyo produces its first passenger car.

1941
Lord Austin dies aged 74

Louis Chevrolet dies aged 63. He is buried at Indianapolis, scene of his greatest racing victories.

Packard are the first car manufacturer to offer air conditioning.

Chrysler introduces the Fluid Drive transmission, a manual transmission with a fluid coupling instead of a clutch.

1943
American passenger car production falls to just 139 vehicles as war production requirements take over.

1944
Volvo focus on occupant safety with the introduction of a safety cage.

Louis Renault is arrested and imprisoned for collaborating with the Germans. He dies at Fresnes prison in ‘suspicious circumstances’.

Enzo Ferrari’s Maranello workshops are bombed and destroyed.

1945
2nd World War in Europe ends with Germany’s unconditional surrender to the allies on May 7th.

In receivership since 1939, Triumph is acquired by Standard.

Petrol rationing in Britain continues.

Henry Ford resigns as president of The Ford Motor Company, handing over to his grandson, Henry Ford 11.

French President Charles de Gaulle nationalizes Renault and the company’s name is changed to Regié Nationale des Usines Renault.

The newly elected Socialist government ‘encourages’ manufacturers to export half their output. To counteract the consequential development of an illicit black-market car buyers are required to sign a covenant preventing the sale of new cars for one year.

1946

Newly designed post-war models are launched by British car makers Triumph, Armstrong-Siddeley, Jowett and Bentley as the British Motor Industry celebrates its fiftieth birthday.

Petrol ration for British motorists is increased by 50 per cent.

Ford of Britain produce their millionth car, an 8hp Anglia.

Michelin patent the Radial-ply tyre.

In light of negative wartime connotations William Lyons changes the name of SS Cars Ltd. to Jaguar Cars Ltd and begins to focus on export markets.

Enzo Ferrari rebuilds his bombed workshops and begins work on the development and production of the Ferrari 125 Sport. The first Ferrari hits the road!

1947
Packard offers power seats and windows across their range.

Ettore Bugatti dies in Paris aged 66.

The American car industry celebrates its Golden Jubilee.

Henry Ford dies at the age of 84.

BMW engine and car designs are ‘acquired’ by Bristol and Frazer-Nash as ‘war reparations’.

David Brown, already successful in the British engineering industry, sees an advertisement in The Times offering ‘A high-class motor business, established 25 years’ and pays £20.000 to buy Aston Martin. He has already purchased Lagonda, having owned a Lagonda Rapide himself in the past.

A new name, Standard-Vanguard, is introduced to the British public

Instead of taxing cars based on the 1906 RAC horsepower formula a flat- rate system is introduced.

Enzo Ferrari’s 125 Sport wins its first race. The first of many Ferrari victories.

1948
The first motor show since the end of the war takes place at Earls Court.

Morris introduce the Minor family car, designed by Alec Issigonis.

Jaguar Cars Ltd. announces the XK120 sports car featuring low, streamlined body, an outstanding twin overhead cam 6 cylinder engine and a top speed of 120mph. Alongside it the elegant MK 5 saloon (sedan) replaces the pre-war model known by enthusiasts, though not the company, as the MK 4.

Citoen introduce the 2CV, reputedly designed to accommodate gentlemen still wearing their hats and to drive across a ploughed field without breaking a cargo of eggs!

The American motor industry builds its 100,000,000th car.

Ferdinand Porsche launches the Porsche marque by introducing the 356/2 as a no-frills sports car re-working of his war-time Volkswagen project.

Developed along the well proven lines of the Willys Jeep, Rover introduce the 4 wheel drive Land Rover.

Buick offer the Dynaflow fully automatic gearbox. This is essentially the automatic gearbox as we know it today,

1949
Michelin ‘X’ radial-ply tyres go on sale for the first time.

1950
British government ends petrol rationing but doubles fuel tax.

The new car covenant, introduced to prevent a black market in new cars is extended from one to two years ownership.

The UK’s former double purchase tax on luxury cars is halved.

Ford wins back its second place in the US sales league from Chrysler.

Automatic transmission becomes available on lower priced Chevrolet models.

Goodyear offers self-repairing tyres (tires).

60% of American families now own a car.

6,657,000 cars are sold in the USA.

Rover demonstrates the JET 1 the world’s first gas turbine powered car.

Ford engineer Earle S MacPherson designs the MacPherson Strut, a combination of spring, shock absorber and stub-axle which simplifies design and production and reduces costs.

Ford UK introduces Consul and Zephyr models.

In the USA, automatic gearboxes become more readily available – Chevrolet offer the Powerglide, Ford the Fordomatic and Merc-O-Matic.

Nash feature seatbelts in the Rambler. The promoted benefits are that they ‘overcome the problems caused when sleeping passengers fall out of their seats’!

1951
Porsche enters a 356 SL in the Le Mans 24-Hours and wins the 1100cc class·

Ferdinand Porsche dies aged 75.

Lotus Engineering Co founded by aeronautical engineer and competitive sports car driver Anthony Colin Bruce Chapman.

100mph performance becomes available at realistic prices as Triumph announces the TR and the Healey introduces their 100/4 sports cars.

Chrysler offer power steering and the M-6 Torque-Converter Automatic. They also spark a horsepower race with the 180 horsepower, 331 cubic-inch Firepower Hemi V-8 engine.

Kaiser introduces new safety features, a pop-out windshield and a padded dashboard top.

Jaguar introduces the prototype C-Type race-car, aimed at winning Le Mans.

1952
In the USA, sales of cars with automatic transmissions exceed 2 million.

Crosley ceases production.

Rival manufacturers Nuffield organisation (Morris) and Austin comes to an end with their amalgamation into the British Motor Corporation (BMC) with Lord Nuffield in the driving seat.

Mercedes shows the spectacular 300SL ‘gull wing’ sports coupe.

Packard offer power brakes.

The newly developed disk braking system, now available from Dunlop, is fitted to Jaguar’s C Types, enabling them to achieve 1st, 2nd and 4th places at Le Mans.

1953
As wartime austerity begins to fade in the United Kingdom, the availability of higher octane fuels allows higher compression ratios and improvements in engine performance.

Singer announces the SMX Roadster, Britain’s first plastic-bodied production car. Only 12 are made before the project is abandoned.

Britain’s New Car Covenant Purchase Scheme, originally introduced to prevent new cars being sold-on at a premium, is abolished.

General Motors Launch the Corvette, a radical glass-fibre-bodied roadster concept car featuring a wrap-around windshield and powered by a venerable straight six engine. Production is limited.

Porsche introduces the 550 ‘Spyder’ race-car with a triangulated tubular steel chassis, aluminium bodywork and a VW-based 4 cylinder ‘boxer’ engins. 550 Spyders dominate the 1500cc class at Le Mans and then the same class in the Pan Americana, Mexican road race.

1954
The 50 millionth General Motors car rolls off the production line.

All Buick, Oldsmobile and Cadillac models feature wrap-around Panoramic windshields.

Ford introduces overhead valves on its V8 engines in Ford and Mercury models.

Nash merges with Hudson to form the American Motors Corporation.

Studebaker merges with Packard.

GM reveals the 370 horsepower turbine-powered Firebird I concept car.

The two seat Ford Thunderbird roadster is announced.

Lanchester offer the Sprite with automatic transmission, still a rarity in Europe.

Having re-established production of the ‘Beetle’ with much help from British Army personnel, Volkswagen start to focus on generating export sales.

Tubeless tyres (tires) are now offered on all new American cars.

Jaguar Cars replace the XK120 with the XK 140, featuring a 190 horsepower engine, mechanical refinements and chrome trim. The new Jaguar D Type race-car is introduced at Le Mans without success.

1955
The revolutionary Citroen DS19 is introduced with a futuristic aerodynamic body, self-levelling hydropneumatic suspension, power steering and braking and automatic jacks.

McDonald’s opens its first drive-thru hamburger bar.

Chrysler launches ‘Imperial’ as a separates brand.

Kaiser goes out of business.

American car sales hit a record 7,915,000. Jaguar launch the MK 1 Family sports saloon (sedan) to broaden their market appeal. They also win at Le Mans with a much improved D-type.

1956
Fuel supplies are seriously limited by the Suez crisis, resulting in rationing in Britain and other European countries and an upsurge of interest in economical micro-cars for personal transportation.

U.S. car stylists begin to adopt tail fins and rocket-shaped tail lamps as science fiction and space rockets enter the American consciousness.

The Ford Foundation offers over ten million Ford Motor Company shares for sale to the public.

BMC commissions Pininfarina to styles its new models.

Lanchester comes to the end of the road as Daimler discontinues production.

Ford of America offers seat belts to a disinterested public.

The "McKenna Duties" on luxury imports are finally abolished.

Jaguar D Type wins the Le Mans 24 Hours for a second successive year.

The Porsche 550A Spyder, a modified version of its predecessor, wins the Targa Florio road race on its debut, beating much more powerful competitors. It goes on to ‘wipe the floor’ at virtually every appearance.

1957
The Lotus Elite (Type 14) is announced, featuring a revolutionary glassfibre monocoque construction.

Ford Motor Company introduces the Continental Mark II, priced at almost ,000.

The three millionth Mercury comes off Ford’s production line.

Packard and Chrysler offer pushbutton automatic transmissions.

Packard offers power door locks.

Chrysler offers an in-car record player.

80% of all new cars sold in America have a V-8 engine.

The American Congress approves construction of the 41,000 mile Interstate highway system.

The Nash and Hudson marques are discontinued by parent company AMC.

A new Fiat 500 is introduced featuring a rear-mounted vertical twin-cylinder air cooled engine.

Chrysler produce their ten millionth Plymouth.

The new Ford Skyliner features a retractable hardtop, a ‘first’ for a production car.

Ford introduces the Ranchero pickup.

Chevrolet, Pontiac and Rambler adopt fuel injection.

66% of all cars purchased in the USA are bought on extended finance.

Jaguar introduce the XK 150 and a D Type wins the Le Mans 24 Hours for a third successive year.

1958
Work starts on the Ml ‘London to Birmingham’ Motorway, the UK’s first.

Roads around London are governed by a new 40mph speed limit.

To celebrate the fiftieth birthday of the Model T, Ford re-assembles a 1909 example.

Ford produce their fifty millionth car.

The revolutionary glassfibre Lotus Elite (Type 14) enters production. With all-round independent suspension and a 1,216 cc overhead cam Coventry Climax engine it has spectacular handling and is capable of 118mph! In spite of its success as a racecar Lotus will loose money on every one built.

With controversial styling and sophisticated features, the Ford Edsel is launched to a luke-warm reception.

Chrysler builds its twenty five millionth vehicle.

Packard production comes to an end.

The Austin-Healy ‘Frogeye’ Sprite is introduced.

The new chairman of BMC is Sir Leonard Lord.

A record one million cars are produced in Britain.

Toyotas and Datsuns are imported to the United States for the first time.

The Ford Thunderbird becomes a four-seater ‘personal luxury’ car.

American car sales drop by 31% due to an economic recession.

C F Kettering, inventor of the electric starter and Ethyl-Leaded Gasoline dies aged 82.

Porsche introduce the "RSK" Spyder, or Type 718 which continues to win class and outright honours in the hands of such drivers as Dan Gurney, Wolfgang von Trips and Jo Bonnier.

A fascination with the impending space-age inspires Cadillac to begin giving its new models fins and rocket-shaped taillights.

1959
UK Government reduces Purchase Tax on new cars from 60 to 50 per cent.

Triumph introduce the Michelotti styled Herald, featuring all round independent suspension.

Lea Francis go out of business.

NSU announce that they will build Wankel rotary engined cars.

Dutch manufacturer DAF begins car production, using the Variomatic belt-drive automatic transmission.

The M1, Britain’s first motorway is opened by The Right Honourable Ernest Marples, minister of Transport.

British Motor Corporation introduces the Morris Mini-Minor and Austin Se7en variants, built on separate production lines at Cowley, Oxford and Longbridge, Birmingam to a revolutionary compact design by Alec Issigonis. Whichever brand of ‘Mini’, it features a rubber-cone suspension system and a gearbox built into the engine, beneath the crankshaft. Perhaps the Mini’s most significant contribution to the packaging efficiency of modern front-wheel-drive cars is its transversely mounted engine.

Jaguar launches the MK II family sports saloon (sedan) to great acclaim.

The Ford Anglia arrives. It is a small family car with conventional mechanical layout. Its unusual feature is a reverse-slope rear window, which ensures good headroom for rear-seat passengers.

Studebaker introduces the Lark, a compact car intended to compete with European imports.

An Aston-Martin DBR 1, driven by Caroll Shelby and Roy Salvadori wins the Le Mans 24 hours.

1960
Eighty percent of United Stated families own at least one car.

The UK Daimler Company becomes part of Jaguar Cars.

The Japanese car industry manufactures 200,000 cars.

The Ford Anglia l05E is introduced with a four speed gearbox and a raked back rear window.

OPEC (The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) is formed to give the oil producing countries more power over crude oil prices.

The millionth Morris Minor leaves the production line, one of a series of 350 painted in a celebratory shade of lilac with white leather upholstery.

Jaguar Cars Limited buys Daimler and begins to offer ‘badge engineered’ Jaguars.

1961
The Cortina Mk I is introduced by Ford of Britain.

BMC introduce the Morris I IOO featuring a revolutionary ‘Hydrolastic’ suspension system.

The ‘MOT’ test is introduced by Ernest Marples, requiring that all cars over 10 years old are subjected to an annual test.

BMC chief, Sir Leonard Lord becomes Lord Lambury.

Commercial vehicle producers Leyland Motors acquire Standard Triumph and AEC.

Porsche introduce the W-RS Spyder race-car with its well-proven flat four power unit.

1962
Chevrolet introduce the Nova, a compact car with plain styling and 4 or 6 cylinder engines, designed to offer economical family motoring.

Ford UK introduces the Consul Cortina, an attractive medium-sized family saloon, powered by an 1198cc OHV engine. (The ‘Consul’ is dropped very quickly). Though launched as a two-door, a four-door body becomes available within a few months.

The W-RS Spyder, now powered by a 2.0-litre flat-eight engine, continues to build Porsche’s racing prowess by winning everything in sight.

1963
The Leyland Motor Corporation formed under the chairmanship of Sir Henry Spurrier.

Ford’s Cortina DeLuxe is now available with a 1498cc engine and also as high-performance Lotus model featuring a twin-cam engine and major suspension modifications.

Lord Nuffield dies aged 86.

The Hillman Imp is unveiled to compete with the BMC Mini. It features a light-alloy 4 cylinder, 875cc slant-4 engine, originally developed by Coventry Climax to power fire pumps. Manufactured at Linwood, a new Scottish production plant, this is the first car since the 1931 Arrol Johnston, to be made in Scotland.

NSU announce the Spyder their first car to use a Wankel engine.

Rover introduces the 2000 P6 saloon which wins them the European Car of the Year Award.

In Italy Feruccio Lamborghini Automobili founded in Sant’Agata near Bologna. The debut of the prototype 350 GTV takes place at the Turin Motor Show.

Porsche’s W-RS Spyder continues its winning ways at Le Mans and the Nurburgring.

1964
Triumph launches the 2000 family saloon.

The Ford Mustang is ‘released’ to great acclaim and achieves sales of more than 500,000 in its firs 18 months.

Following many years of crippling strikes at its British Light Steel Pressings Ltd factory, the Rootes Group sells a controlling interest to Chrysler.

Despite continuing disinterest, front seat belts supplied as standard in all American cars.

Having resigned his position after just 4 months in charge of The Leyland Motor Corporation Sir Henry Spurrier dies.

Porsche’s W-RS Spyder wins further season championships in the hands of Edgar Barth, before final retirement.

1965
BMC’s intended merger with the Pressed Steel Company is subjected to a report by the Monopolies Commission.

The British government introduces a 70 mph maximum speed "as a four month experiment" which is still with us today.

An automatic transmission, specially designed by AP is available to Mini buyers.

Rolls Royce’s launch Silver Shadow its first unit constructed car.

Ralph Nader publishes his book ‘Unsafe at Any Speed’ exposing safety standards severely compromised by USA manufacturers’ cost constraints. The rear-engined Chevrolet Corvair receives Nader’s particular attention.

1966
Jensen FF sports coupe is launched, featuring Fergusson’s four wheel drive system, Italian styling, a powerful V8 engine and anti-lock brakes.

British Motor Holdings is created by merging The Jaguar Group (Jaguar, Daimler, Guy, Coventry Climax, Henry Meadows) with BMC.

Ford UK update the Cortina with smoother, but boxier styling.

Largely as a result of Ralph Nader’s expose of the American Motor industry the U.S. Congress passes a rigorous auto safety act. Rear seat belts now supplied as standard equipment in all cars sold in the USA.

Peugeot and Renault agree to establish a partnership organisation, La Francaise de Mecanique, to manufacture common mechanical parts.

Sir William Lyons retires as the Managing Director, becoming Chairman and Chief Executive as Jaguar Cars Limited and the British Motor Corporation Limited announce the merger of the two companies.

1967
Panhard, France’s oldest car maker is disolved by its owners Citroen.

NSU produce the first series production passenger car to be powered by a Wankel engine, the Ro80.

Rover and Alvis are absorbed into the Leyland Motor Corporation.

Ford UK introduce the crossflow engine to their product range in 1300cc and 1600cc capacities.

Ford UK and Ford of Europe start to co ordinate development and production programmes to increase commonality of design and component use.

1968
Ford introduces the Escort range, including a high performance ‘twin-cam’ engined version.

The largest car company in British history is formed as British Motor Holdings merges with Leyland Motors to create British Leyland Motor Corporation.

Rover offers the Buick-based V8 in the P6 body-shell to create the 3005, later re-named the 3500.

As bitter strikes cripple industry Renault lose production of I000,000 vehicles.

Volkswagen introduces the 411 or ‘Variant’. Based on an extended ‘Beetle’ floor-pan it features a contemporary body-style and 2 or 4 doors. An estate (station wagon) version is also available.

Citroen buys Maserati, primarily, to take advantage of its engine know-how. Their forthcoming SM coupé will be powered by a Maserati V6 engine.

David Brown is knighted.

1969
Volkswagcn take over Audi.

Jaguar launches the XJ6.

The new British Leyland organisation introduces the Austin Maxi. Sir Alex Issigonis’s last project, in spite of its outstanding practicality, its boxy styling, sparse interior, lack of power and ‘notchy’ five-speed gearbox attracts criticism.

Renault and Peugeot start production of common components as a result of their 1966 agreement, at Douvrin, near Lens in Northern France.

Enzo Ferrari sells 50% of Ferrari’s share capital to Fiat.

1970
Land Rover launches an entirely new concept. The Range Rover is a luxury off-road car and, as an immediate sales success it points the way for rivals, laying the foundation for a whole new market sector.

Citroen launches two new aerodynamic models, the GS family car and the Masserati-powered SM sports saloon.

Italian styling house Ghia of Turin is acquired from Alessandro de Tomaso by Ford.

Mercedes build the C III experimental car to act as a test-bed for future road-car developments. Featuring dramatic aerodynamic styling and powered by a triple rotor Wankel engine developing 280bhp, it achieved a top speed of 160mph.

Japan’s monthly production output of 200,000 cars, makes it the world’s second biggest motor manufacturer.

Volkswagen reveals the K70, their first water cooled model.

Kjell Qvale, Norwegan born head of the ‘British Motor Car Distributors’ in San Francisco, takes over Jensen Motors.

The Chrysler 160/l80 range is launched at the Paris Salon.

The General Motors’ ‘family’ come together from all parts of the globe, under the leadership of Opel, Germany, to begin a project which will result in a ‘World Car’ to rival the success of the VW beetle. For Opel it will result in the Kadette C, small family car. Internationally it becomes known as GM’s ‘T Car’.

1971
Jensen ceases production of the four-wheel-drive ‘FF’ sports-car, but continues with the two-wheel drive ‘Interceptor’ version.

Morris Minor production finally comes to an end.

Peugeot and Renault join forces with Volvo to form a new joint-venture organisation. PRV will design and produce V-engines at their Douvrin production plant.

Mercedes preview the C111-2 at the Frankfurt Motor Show. Once again a test-bed vehicle it features a four-rotor Wankel engine rated at 350 bhp which took the car to 180mph.

Aston Martin’s financial performance causes difficulties, prompting the David Brown Group to sell to financiers. The DBS stays in production.

Jaguar reveals their VI2 production engine, making it available in an enlarged E-type as well as XJ6 and Daimler sedans. This makes them one of only a handful of manufacturers who have ever offered this configuration on a production basis.

Maserati introduce the Bora.

1972
A record l,900,000 cars produced by British motor industry in this year.

The success of Japanese cars becomes evident when Datsun becomes the second biggest importer of cars into Britain.

Maserati introduces the Merak.

Lotus Esprit mid-engined concept car shown on Giorgio Giugiario’s Ital Design stand at the Turin Motor Show.

Sir William Lyons retires as chairman of Jaguar, exactly 50 years after forming the company. Labour relations and production quality problems beset the whole British Leyland organisation, of which Daimler-Jaguar is a significant part.

1973
The Arab-Israeli War causes fuel supply problems and steep rises in pump prices for motorists throughout the world and the realisation that oil is a finite resource. The OPEC organisation becomes more powerful. In Britain motorists queue for petrol and speeds are restricted to 50mph to conserve national stocks and consumption.

Ford opens Bordeaux plant to manufacture automatic transmissions.

Volksvagen ‘Beetle’ production beats the Model T’s record.

Chevrolet offers airbags in some models as a reaction to a rise in fatal car accidents in the USA.

Alfa Romeo introduce the Alfasud, a small family car featuring front wheel drive, a flat-four ‘boxer’ engine, nimble handling and a bonded-in windscreen. The car is made in a new purpose built plant near Naples in Southern Italy – ‘sud’ being Italian for South.

The Bertone-styled Maserati Khamsin is launched into a tough sales environment.

The first fruits of the GM ‘T Car’ project appear in Brasil, with the launch of the Chevrolet Chevette and in Germany with the Opel Kadett C. Although superficially different all T Cars share the same mechanical configuration and many significant components.

1974
E. L. Cord dies

Gabriel Voisin, aeronautical pioneer, industrialist and car manufacturer dies.

The last of 11,916,519 VW ‘Beetles’ to be built at Wolfsburg, leaves the production line.
The VW Golf, a completely new water-cooled, front wheel drive model becomes and instant sales success and Karmann start production of the Scirocco sports coupe version. Both cars styled by Georgetto Guigaro.

Peugeot takes over Citroen to form PSA.

Plans for the Chevrolet Vega to be powered by the repeatedly delayed outcome of General Motors’ Wankel rotary engine project are abandoned and production continues with an alloy block/iron head 4 cylinder unit.

As a result of the previous year’s the fuel crisis, American sales of large-engined cars have slumped and manufacturers start to look at ways of improving fuel econonmy.

Ford begins research into the Stirling ‘hot air’ engine but having made considerable progress, as fuel prices drop back the urge to take the project all the way to production diminishes.

In spite of one million 127s leaving their production lines Fiat find themselves in deep financial difficulties.

The last E Type Jaguar leaves the Coventry factory.

The Douvrin-built PRV V6 engine appears for the first time in the Volvo 264 and soon after in the Peugeot 504 Coupé and Cabriolet models.

In an attempt to cut fatalities in the United States the maximum speed limit is reduced to 55 mph.

1975
Production of the Ford Escort MK1comes to an end.

Ford introduce the Escort MK2 with a squarer body style.

In America VW launch the Golf as the Rabbit.

Rolls Royce unveil the Camargue with Italian styling by Pininfarina, hand- built on the Silver Shadow floor pan at their Mulliner Park Ward coach-building division. Priced at £29,250, it is the first car in the world to feature completely automatic split-level air conditioning and the first Rolls Royce to be designed in metric dimensions.

Porsche announce the 911 Carrera Turbo.

Chrysler UK, in financial difficulties is propped up by the British Government. The introduction of the French built Alpine brings in vital sales.

Volvo takes a majority shareholding in Holland’s DAF car and truck manufacturer.

The Douvrin-built PRV V6 is introduced in the Peugeot 604 and Renault 30 TS models.

Citroen replaces the DS21 with the CX which is voted European Car of the Year.

British Leyland, struggling against a tide of strikes and a poor reputation gets an injection of £200,000,000 from the UK Government.

Jaguar launch the XJS to replace the E type. Due to stringent American crash regulations earlier plans to include a roadster in the range have been dropped.

Lotus Cars start production of the new mid-engined Esprit and confirm their move up-market with front-engined Eclat.

All American cars now come with catalytic converters in the exhaust system in an effort to cut air polluting emissions.

Citroën pulls out of Maserati, leaving Alejandro De Tomaso and GEPI to come to the rescue a few months later.

VW introduce the Polo, the third of their ‘new generation’ cars.

The UK gets its own version of the GM T-Car, the Vauxhall Chevette. A unique aerodynamic ‘droop-snoot’ front-end, designed by Vauxhall Chief-Stylist, Wayne Cherry complements the neat hatch-back body tub.

Australia launches its version of the ‘T Car’, the Holden Gemini, in 4-door saloon (sedan) and stylish coupé versions.

1976
The Chrysler Alpine voted European Car of the Year.

The Renault Alpine A310 sports-car is launched with a rear mounted PRV ‘Douvrin’ V6 engine.

Ford’s first front drive car, the Fiesta, announced.

The Golf GTi debuts at the Frankfurt International Motor Show establishing a new market sector later known as the ‘Hot Hatch’.

Rover launch the 3500 ‘SD1’ a roomy saloon with Ferrari Daytona inspired styling and the ex-Buick alloy V8 engine.

VW introduce a small diesel engine to the golf range.

Mercedes reveal the C111-3. Where its two predecessors had been powered by Wankel rotary engines, this one has a 5 cylinder turbo-charged/inter-cooled Diesel engine producing 180 bhp. At Nardo test track on June 12th, at an average speed of around 150mph, the C111-3 either establishes or brake a total of 16 world speed and endurance records, some of which pertained regardless of its engine type.the

Vauxhall’s ‘T Car’ Chevette appears in the UK as a 2 or 4 door saloon (sedan).

1977
Michael Edwardes takes over the helm of the British Leyland conglomerate, together with its labour relations, production quality and public perception .

Volkswagen cease production of the ‘Beetle’ in Germany forty years after production began.

Rover’s 3500 ‘SD1’ wins the European Car of the Year award.

Merger plans between Swedish manufacturers Saab and Volvo are abandoned.

Production of the Wankel rotary engined NSU Ro80 comes to an end.

Porsche introduce 924 and 928 models, both featuring front-mounted water-cooled engines and rear transaxles. The 924 is an aborted VW project and thus contains a high percentage of WV parts-bin components, including the engine from the Transporter van. The V8 powered 928 is eventually intended to take over from the 911 and wins the European Car of The Year Award.

1978
The Volvo DAF conglomerate slips into financial difficulties. The Dutch Government comes to the rescue with financial aid.

British Leyland shows substantial signs of recovery in the hands of Michael Edwardes but the company’s future is far from secure.

Toyo Kogyo launch the Mazda RX7, a two-seat sports coupe powered by a Wankel rotary engine.

Ford introduces the Fiesta, their first front-wheel-drive small family car. It is to be made at plants in England, Spain and Germany.

1979
Rolls Royce Motor Company is sold to Vickers for £38m as part of the Rolls-Royce engineering group.

Rover begins collaboration with Honda.

Maserati Bora production comes to an end.

Simca- Matra complete the first model of new and practical concept in personal transportation. Based on a single-box van-like shape but with a car-like interior and comfortable flexible seating for up to seven people, the P17 concept is rejected by Talbot-Simca, prompting Matra to approach Renault and to develop the concept further in prototype P18. The MPV is on its way!

1980
Rear wheel drive Escort Mk2 production comes to an end to make way for the new front-wheel-drive Escort Mk3.

Bitter strikes at British Leyland provoke chairman Sir Michael Edwardes to threaten "Return to work or lose your jobs."

Daimler-Jaguar division of British Leyland gets John Egan as its new Chairman. Egan sets about rebuilding pride in the quality of design and production, lost since British Leyland’s formation.

1981
General Motors announces the launch of the Saturn project in the USA, with the intention of creating a new brand and new products from scratch.

John Z DeLorean, former General Motors high-flyer, launches the DMC-12, his stainless steel gull-wing dream car into a world of recession and high interest rates. Designed by Georgetto Guigaro, engineered by Lotus Cars and powered by the Douvrin PRV V6 engine it appears over-priced against stiff opposition and quality issues compound the problem.

Maserati launch the Biturbo range of coupes, spyders and saloons powered by twin-turbocharged all-alloy V6 engines.

1982
Honda starts production at its first US factory.

Having built 8,563 DMC-12s, the DeLorean Motor Company’s factory in Northern Ireland goes into receivership and after a few months, the British government, DeLorean’s biggest creditor by far, issues orders to shut it down.

Anthony Colin Bruce Chapman dies suddenly aged 54, having grown Lotus into an extraordinarily successful Grand Prix team, a substantial low-volume sports car production specialist and an extremely reputable auto-engineering consultancy.

1983
Lexus is announced as the name of Toyota’s new luxury brand in the USA and Europe, intended to allow them to overcome brand prejudice and compete head to head with the prestige European and American manufacturers.

Maserati end production of the Merak

1984
Japanese manufacturer Toyo Kogyo changes its name to Mazda Motor Corporation.

Renault release the new Espace, the first MPV, designed, developed and built for them by Matra at their assembly plant in Romorontin, near Paris.

1985
Chrysler buys AMC and takes over production of the Jeep range.

Founder of Jaguar, Sir William Lyons, dies as the company sees its reputation for quality and value return.

1986
Volkswagen takes a 51% share in Spanish car makers SEAT.

1987
The Ford Motor Company acquires a 75% shareholding in Aston Martin Lagonda.

1988
The new Lincoln Continental is Ford’s first car with a six-cylinder engine and front-wheel drive.

Fiat acquires additional shares in Ferrari, taking its total shareholding to 90%.

Enzo Ferrari dies in Modena, aged 90.

British Aerospace buys Rover Group.

1989
General Motors takes a 50% stake in Saab of Sweden.

General Motors introduces the Geo brand to market Suzuki, Isuzu, and Toyota models in the USA.

Lexus introduces its first model, the LS400.

Honda announces plans to establish European car production by expanding its existing manufacturing facilities at Swindon UK

Honda starts Civic production at its East Liberty, Ohio plant.

Ford takes over Jaguar Cars, promising to build on the unique identity and brand values of the Jaguar name.

1990
Vickers Rolls Royce and BMW announce a joint venture company to build aero-engines – BMW Rolls-Royce GmbH.

Following Czech government approval, VW establishes a new partnership with Skoda.

1992
The Dodge Viper is released with a steel chassis, a glass-fibre body and a 400 horsepower light-alloy V10 engine.

1993
Maserati is bought outright by Fiat.

With development input from parent company Ford, Jaguar announces a vastly improved XJ6.

Sir David Brown, former owner of Aston-Martin Lagonda, dies aged 89.

Aston Martin introduce the DB7, with sleek, modern bodywork, strong six cylinder engines and Jaguar XJS underpinnings. Produced at a dedicated factory in Bloxham, near Banbury in Oxfordshire, it soon begins to achieve sales levels previously unheard of for any Aston Martin.

1994
BMW buys Rover Cars from British Aerospace.

McLaren Cars, previously successful as Formula 1 racing car constructors, introduce the F1 sports supercar. Designed by Gordon Murray and Peter Stevens it features a BMW V12 engine, a top speed well in excess of 200 mph and a price in excess of £500,000.00.

The Ford Motor Company acquires the outstanding 25% interest Aston Martin Lagonda to gain complete control.

1996
The Museum of Modern Art in New York places an early E-Type roadster on permanent display, only the third car to given this honour.

Jaguar introduces the V8 Powered XK8 as a replacement for the venerable XJS.

1997
Vickers put Rolls-Royce Motor Cars up for sale to the highest bidder.

1998
Ferrari takes control of Maserati, and closes the factory for a complete refit and modernisation.

VW announce the New Beetle. A modern stylised interpretation of the original, it shares its floor-pan and many mechanical components with the front-wheel drive Golf.

Rolls Royce is sold after an acrimonious bidding war between Volkswagen and BMW. The final outcome is that, while VW wins the production plant at Crewe and the Bentley brand name, BMW buys the rights to use the Rolls Royce name and announces its plan to develop a new generation of cars which will be built at its own British factory from 2003.

Chrysler and Daimler Benz merge to form Daimler-Chrysler. Initial indications are that the two businesses will remain autonomous.

1999
Volvo sells its car-making division to Ford Motor Company but continues to manufacture trucks.

Aston Martin becomes part of Ford’s Premier Automotive Group joining Jaguar, Lincoln and Volvo, enabling it to call on a pool of expertise, financial and technical resources which would otherwise have been way beyond its reach.

2000
Having invested considerably in the Rover Group and struggled unsuccessfully to make it pay, BMW withdraws and ‘sells’ Rover and MG to The Phoenix Group for a token £1.00. BMW retains the rights to brands Mini, Triumph, Riley and Land Rover, the last of which it then sells to Ford.

2001
Under the ownership of BMW Rolls-Royce move production from Derby to a new, purpose built factory next to the old Grand Prix circuit at Goodwood, West Sussex.

BMW release the ‘NEW MINI’, a modern interpretation of the original Mini built at the former Morris Abingdon plant. Powered by a South-American built, Chrysler-sourced engine, it retains the original’s cheeky appeal and dynamic handling.

In the UK, a new Licence-plate numbering system is introduced.

Jaguar Cars introduce the X Type, based on an extended version of Ford’s European Mondeo floorpan with transverse engine and 4 wheel-drive.

2002
Rolls Royce complete their new factory and commence production of the new Phantom, due for delivery to customers on the 1st January 2003.

Named after the company’s founder Enzo, Ferrari introduce the Enzo supercar. Made of carbonfibre and incorporating much else in the way of Formula 1 technology, its all-alloy, 660 bhp, V12 engine endows the Enzo with a top speed of 217.5 mph.

2003
First customers for Rolls Royce’s New Phantom take delivery on 1st January as promised and world-wide deliveries commence.

Production of the ‘Beetle’ finally comes to an end at VW’s Puebla, plant in Mexico.

Matra’s production-line closes at Romorontin, following commercial failure of Renault’s Avantime and their decision to take Espace production in-house. Matra and its facilities are sold to Italian styling house and niche production specialists Pininfarina SpA, who rename the company Matra Automobile Engineering.

Peter Morgan, son of Morgan founder ‘HFS’ dies aged 84, leaving the business in the safe hands of his son Charles.

Now owned by Volkwagen, Bentley introduces their first all-new design. Based on VW’s large-car platform, the new Continental GT features a contemporary body (styled in-house), 4 wheel drive and an extensively re-engineered version of VW’s 6 litre W12 engine, twin-turbocharged to produce 552bhp.

2004
Car production in the UK reaches its highest level in five years. Britain’s biennial motor show has its last event at the National Exhibition Centre before its move back to London.

More than 40 years after it was launched, the e-type Jaguar has a special exhibition devoted to it at London’s Design Museum.

Production begins on the Aston Martin Volante.

24 year old Russian multimillionaire Nikolas Smolensky purchased Blackpool based TVR for £15 million.

2005
MG Rover -the last "traditional" British mid-sized car manufacturer goes into administration with the key assets finally being purchased by China based Nanjing Automobie Group. Thousands of jobs are lost although there is hope that small scale car manufacturing could return to the same Longbridge plant sometime in the future.

Elsewhere in the Midlands, production begins on the new Aston Martin Vantage.

2006
Honda and the MINI brand continue to help the UK economy as both enjoy increased investment resulting in new jobs. Honda plans to add a further 700 people to its UK workforce, while the world-wide success of the MINI will result in a further 1200 jobs in manufacturing and assorted component industries.

Nissan announce that its new Qashqai car will be built at the company’s Sunderland plant, with the cars being exported across the globe, including Japan. The Qashqai is described as a crossover -effectively a passenger car with a sleek dynamic top half combined with SUV attributes of large pronounced wheel arches and slightly elevated ground clearance. In terms of its size its sits between C-segment hatchbacks and SUVs.

Lotus announces it is to produce a new mid-engined sports car which should be available in about two years time.

The 1½ millionth Honda Civic rolls of the production line at Bridgend.

TVR, the innovative Blackpool based specialist sports car company finally closes its doors after a long battle to remain in production. Owners, enthusiasts and employees meet up for a final celebration in Blackpool.

The British Motor Show returns to London after several decades in the West Midlands. The new venue is the Excel Centre on the banks of the River Thames and nearly 500,000 people attend.
The 30,000th Aston Martin is produced, while the Jaguar XK coupe wins Britain’s car of the year award and luxury car of the year awards.

2007
The Bentley marque enjoys continued success under the parentage of Volkswagen and its newest model is the company’s fastest ever production car -the Bentley Continental GT Speed. It has a top speed of over 200 mph and can get from 0-60 mph in just 4.3 seconds. It is offered for sale in Britain at £137,500.

Manufacturers around the world put more effort and resources into designing and building more environmentally friendly vehicles as the price of oil increases and there is greater awareness of the damage that harmful pollutants are causing from traditional petrol based engined cars.

Britain’s young motor racing star Lewis Hamilton very nearly becomes the new world F1 motor racing champion in his first season -eventually being beaten in the final race. His success though reignites interest in motor sport around the world.

2008
Ford accepts an offer by the rapidly expanding Tata Motors of India for the purchase of Land Rover and Jaguar. The Indian company say their aim is to ensure the cars will remain essentially British.

As the Model T celebrates its 100th anniversary, Ford also announces plans for a year long celebration of the iconic car around the world. One initiative is for a surviving car to be displayed in the "glass tank’ outside the Design Museum in London.

The new Roewe 550 is unveiled at the Shanghai Motor Show in China with the hope that the car may eventually be produced at the old MG Rover plant at Longbridge.

In the US, General Motors announces annual losses for 2007 of billion -the largest ever loss by a US car manufacturer and a further sign that many of the older established car makers are struggling to compete with the surge of production from Asia.

See – History of Motor Car / Automobile Inventions and Improvements

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/5108328806/

Good Molds Made In China photos

Good Molds Made In China photos

Check out these molds made in china images:

Oh,Inspiring Wind, Make Thy Sweet Music Out of my Hollowness by your Soft Caressing strokes…..
molds made in china
Image by -Reji
Shot at Lal Bagh Gardens, Bangalore, India

Bamboo plants are one particular of the world’s most versatile resources. Bamboo, since of its strength and flexibility, has been employed for hundreds of years as a key building material in nations like Japan and China. But aside from furnishings constructing and architecture, bamboo plants are also used for a wide array of purposes. One particular of the most exciting areas exactly where bamboo is used is in the creation of instruments. Because bamboo is hollow like pipe, it makes for a natural wind instrument, and cultures from all more than the globe have utilised it to their musical benefit.

Wind moving via bamboo forests or thickets tends to make symphony orchestras appear impotent. Wind moving tiny pieces of bamboo to strike against every single other gives joy and peace to these who hear it.

Like grass it grows rapidly and propagates itself if left alone. Like wood it is powerful, grows numerous places and has a lot of, several uses. Offered its way, bamboo will hold hillsides in place against raging waters unleashed from above. Given its way, developing profusely among peoples judged materially poorest on the planet, with out gigantic industries cutting, gathering, processing, transporting it bamboo is right here, waiting to serve. It is right here to shelter, to style tools, to weave baskets, to aid water obey, to give beauty and sounds.
Bamboo is a group of perennial evergreens in the accurate grass family members (Poaceae, subfamily Bambusoideae, tribe Bambuseae). Giant bamboos are the biggest members of the grass family.

In bamboo, as with other grasses, the internodal regions of the plant stem are hollow and the vascular bundles in the cross section are scattered all through the stem rather of in a cylindrical arrangement. The dicotyledonous woody xylem is also absent. The absence of secondary development wood causes the stems of monocots, even of palms and huge bamboos, to be columnar rather than tapering.

Bamboos are also the quickest developing woody plants in the planet. They are capable of growing up to 60 centimeters (24 in.) or a lot more per day due to a special rhizome-dependent technique. However, this astounding development price is hugely dependent on regional soil and climatic conditions.

Bamboos are of notable financial and cultural significance in East Asia and South East Asia where the stems are utilized extensively in every day life as developing components and as a extremely versatile raw product, and the shoots as a food supply.

There are more than 70 genera divided into about 1,450 species] They are located in diverse climates, from cold mountains to hot tropical regions. They happen across East Asia, from 50°N latitude in Sakhalin by means of to Northern Australia, and west to India and the Himalayas.They also take place in sub-Saharan Africa, and in the Americas from the Mid-Atlantic United States south to Argentina and Chile, reaching their southernmost point anyplace, at 47°S latitude. Continental Europe is not recognized to have any native species of bamboo.

Bamboo is the fastest-developing woody plant on Earth it has been measured surging skyward as quickly as 121 cm (48 in) in a 24-hour period,[six] and can also reach maximal development rate exceeding one particular meter (39 inches) per hour for brief periods of time. A lot of prehistoric bamboos exceeded heights of 85 metres (279 ft). Mostly developing in regions of warmer climates during the Cretaceous period, vast fields existed in what is now Asia.

As opposed to trees, all bamboo have the prospective to grow to complete height and girth in a single developing season of 3–4 months. Throughout this initial season, the clump of young shoots grow vertically, with no branching. In the next year, the pulpy wall of each culm gradually dries and hardens. The culm starts to sprout branches and leaves from every single node. In the course of the third year, the culm additional hardens. The shoot is now considered a completely mature culm. Over the next 2–5 years (depending on species), fungus and mould start to type on the outdoors of the culm, which ultimately penetrate and overcome the culm. About five – eight years later (species and climate dependent), the fungal and mold growth trigger the culm to collapse and decay. This brief life indicates culms are ready for harvest and appropriate for use in construction inside 3 – 7 years

Source: Wikipedia, Odysey Leadership Centre.

Molds Left to Gather Dust
molds made in china
Image by Henry Hemming
Or ‘Mouldy Molds and the Saga of Spode’. Spode, when a pre-eminent china maker, saw its factory closed down in 2008. The website now belongs to Stoke council and is falling into disrepair. The molds with which Spode’s greatest wares had been created now accumulate dust in a forgotten shop. Spode, and indeed Stoke, are an remarkable part of our heritage. Some of Spode’s greatest designs are now made by the brand’s owners Portmerion, but basically the fantastic name is all but gone. The Spode factory is an incredible part of our heritage. There is a visitor centre, run by wonderful volunteers – go visit! Spode is in the town of Stoke, one particular of the five towns of Stoke-on-Trent. Taken 19 October 2014. I spent the day touring our pottery past with Pete Taylor (@ForrestGrump), whose significantly more fantastic photographs of the day are a should.