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Vintage Milk Glass Salt and Pepper Shakers with Flower Power 70s Silkscreen
Image by GranniesKitchen
This set of vintage milk glass salt and pepper shakers are decorated with a green and orange flower power silkscreen.
The glass maker’s mark on the bottom indicate they were made by the Dominion Glass Company at their Wallaceburg factory in either January of February of 1977. The mould model number is 1632.
Spread the Word! – Save Jobs.
Image by Hasenpfeffer Incorporated
We make and sells dolls, teddy bears, and such. But this isn’t a plug for our business. As a reaction to the dangerous-toy scare last year, the Consumer Product Safety Commission created something called the Consumer Products Safety Improvement Act. It requires all manufacturers of children’s goods to submit their products for testing for lead and phthalates.
While that’s good in the overall scheme, it has some potentially damaging side effects. The problem is that the average testing fee runs a few thousand dollars. Making matters worse, we would have to submit each and every toy for testing since no two are alike (she makes her stuff from salvaged materials like old wool coats and such). Naturally you can see what this version of the act would do to the handmade toy and craft industry (it’s more than macramé owls nowadays).
There is a potential remedy, though. Below is the unabridged copy from the Handmade Handmade Toy Alliance. Below are links to a sample letter and to various legislators.
Save the USA from the CPSIA
In 2007, large toy manufacturers who outsource their production to China and other developing countries violated the public’s trust. They were selling toys with dangerously high lead content, toys with unsafe small part, toys with improperly secured and easily swallowed small magnets, and toys made from chemicals that made kids sick. Almost every problem toy in 2007 was made in China.
The United States Congress rightly recognized that the Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC) lacked the authority and staffing to prevent dangerous toys from being imported into the US. So it passed the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act (CPSIA) in August, 2008. Among other things, the CPSIA bans lead and phthalates in toys, mandates third-party testing and certification for all toys and requires toy makers to permanently label each toy with a date and batch number.
All of these changes will be fairly easy for large, multinational toy manufacturers to comply with. Large manufacturers who make thousands of units of each toy have very little incremental cost to pay for testing and update their molds to include batch labels.
For small American, Canadian, and European toymakers, however, the costs of mandatroy testing will likely drive them out of business.
* A toymaker, for example, who makes wooden cars in his garage in Maine to supplement his income cannot afford the ,000 fee per toy that testing labs are charging to assure compliance with the CPSIA.
* A work at home mom in Minnesota who makes dolls to sell at craft fairs must choose either to violate the law or cease operations.
* A small toy retailer in Vermont who imports wooden toys from Europe, which has long had stringent toy safety standards, must now pay for testing on every toy they import.
* And even the handful of larger toy makers who still employ workers in the United States face increased costs to comply with the CPSIA, even though American-made toys had nothing to do with the toy safety problems of 2007.
The CPSIA simply forgot to exclude the class of toys that have earned and kept the public’s trust: Toys made in the US, Canada, and Europe. The result, unless the law is modified, is that handmade toys will no longer be legal in the US.
If this law had been applied to the food industry, every farmers market in the country would be forced to close while Kraft and Dole prospered.
How You can Help:
Please write to your United States Congress Person and Senator to request changes in the CPSIA to save handmade toys. Use our sample letter or write your own. You can find your Congress Person here and Senator here.
Thank you so much!
FOR SALE: Original North Light “Kitley Ladybird” – Dartmoor Pony mare
Image by appaIoosa
Model # P1133 – bay
Size: 5-3/4"H x 6-1/2"L
Original mold, produced by North Light.
Identifying marks & logos:
On belly: "KITLEY LADYBIRD "
On right buttock cheek: " © North Light 1986 "
Inside right hind leg: " Godfrey "
Inside left hind leg: " MADE IN UK
This is a model of the classic British breed, the Dartmoor. These ponies are hardy and well balanced, originating in Devon, England. This breed is closely related to the Exmoor Pony and probably descended from the same stock. These ponies roamed wild over the rugged moorlands of southwestern Devon for many centuries. Toward the end of the 19th century, the breed’s traits were stabilized by the creation of the Dartmoor Pony Breed Society, with standard requirements. The maximum height for this pony is 12.2 hands high at the withers. She is a well-balanced pony with small head, ears and eyes. The mane and tail are thick and full. The neck is wide, the chest deep and muscular and the shoulders are strong and sloping.
This North Light model is a lovely representative of a Dartmoor Pony from the North Light Native Pony Series.
North Light model horse figurines are made of a porcelain and resin composition, which allow for the extensive mold detailing (some with individual hair detailing, braided manes & tails, etc) that is very evident in the finish. The figurines are finished in a studio where they are airbrushed with the body color and shading required for the particular breed piece. Next comes the hand detailing , which can be extensive, depending on the horses’ color pattern. Pinto and appaloosa patterns require extensive hand work, and vary greatly from horse to horse. Facial features also receive hand detailing, with expressive, lifelike eyes which have a final gloss application to make them look moist and realistic. Touches of pink are added to muzzles. Nostrils are darkened inside to add depth.
With this degree of hand detailing, each model horse will vary slightly.
North Light is a company located in Stoke-On-Trent, Staffordshire, England. The area is famous for its potteries and figurines, including the well known Wedgwood, Beswick and Royal Doulton brands. In 2005, the North Light factory was sold – including all existing North Light molds – to the company: WADE CERAMICS LTD (yes, the same company that made those little whimsy figurines found in red rose tea boxes years ago). Wade repackaged the existing North Light horses under their new trademark and resold them within the Wade division as "North Light @ Wade" horses.
Directly from Wade Co. website, verbatim:
Contributed by Carol Atrak
Monday, 18 July 2005
We have pleasure in announcing that Wade has purchased certain assets from Dennis Doyle of the North Light resin figurine range. North Light, which will trade as a division within Wade as "North Light @ Wade", is famous for its range of dogs, farm animals, horses and wildlife figurines. They are manufactured in resin and hand painted. The "Classic Dog and Horse Ranges" are finished in marble, china blue, bronze, Monet and other effects to grace the sideboards and coffee tables of the World’s finest homes.
Managing Director, Paul Farmer said, "North Light @ Wade" will bring a new dimension to Wade’s figurine capability and Wade’s mechanisms for online purchases of its ceramic products will be adapted to cater for North Light products too. We are also looking forward to improving our ceramic hand painting techniques which come with the North Light asset purchase."
Artists, Guy Pocock and Anne Godfrey, have been retained to continue modelling new lines and Clare Beswick, from that famous family of figurine makers which bears her name, has been appointed Sales and Product Manager for North Light @ Wade.
The manufacture has been moved from Biddulph to a separate resin area within Wade’s Royal Victoria Pottery in Burslem.
In 2008, Wade announced they would no longer produce the North Light @Wade horses (and dogs) at the factory (in the UK). Instead they decided to release a new line: "North Light @ Wade Premier Collection" (consisting of 17 horses and 22 dogs) – to be produced in China. Many of the existing NL horses you see being sold on eBay (and elsewhere) today, bear the "made in China" sticker, along with the NL backstamp.
In 2009, Wade ceased production altogether on all existing North Light models . Today, North Light horses are no longer being produced, sold or marketed by Wade Ceramics, making these horses highly sought after, valuable and rare.
I have no idea what the Wade Co. decided to do with all the existing North Light horses. Some say they sold the existing molds to a company in China.
If your North Light horse has the "©North Light Made in the UK" backstamp, you have a very rare & valuable collectible indeed!
Some cool injection moulding china images:
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Image from page 60 of “Staffordshire pottery and its history” (1913)
Image by Internet Archive Book Images
Title: Staffordshire pottery and its history
Year: 1913 (1910s)
Authors: Wedgwood, Josiah C. (Josiah Clement), 1872-1943
Subjects: Staffordshire pottery Potters Wedgwood ware
Publisher: London : S. Low, Marston & co. ltd.
Contributing Library: Robarts – University of Toronto
Digitizing Sponsor: University of Toronto
Click here to view book online to see this illustration in context in a browseable online version of this book.
Text Appearing Before Image:
the lathe after throw-ing, and thus made thin and light. The claybody is homogeneous and smooth, showinggreater care in the preparation of the body.The ornamentation is delicate and artistic,and has been made by sealing a soft piece ofthe clay on to the ware with a metal sealpressed over the soft clay. There is no glaze,but a high fire has produced a ware so hard as tobe almost forged solid. These things show thehand of the ex-silversmith in size and shape andfinish. The Burslem imitators—Garner and theWedgwoods—never made things like these. Elers,though he may have stolen Dwights secrets, wentahead and showed the possibilities of potting. Heis said also to have produced black ware of asimilar character by mixing oxide of man-ganese—the magnus of Dr Plot—with theclay body, and, though no known pieces ofblack Elers ware can now be certainly identified, 36 Q^/N^p i. Red china teapot, probably by Elers. c. 1700.2. Sample of later date, with moulded spout. Stoke-on-Trent Museums.
Text Appearing After Image:
Samples of solid agate ware made by Wedgwood or Whieldon. c. 1760. From the Stoke-on-Trent Museums (see p. 74). To face p. 36 ELERS AND ART it is this black ware that his copyists chieflydeveloped.* For Nemesis overtook John Philip Elers, andin spite of all his secrecy, perhaps because of it,he was copied. Two potters, Twyford and Ast-bury,f one of whom at least had already made potsafter local methods in Shelton, set themselves in-dependently to acquire the arts of the Dutchman.To lull the suspicions of Elers, Twyford shammedstupidity, and Astbury, who was younger, passedhimself off as an idiot. Recommended by thesestrange qualifications, they asked and obtainedemployment and, in time, the knowledge theydesired. They went back to Shelton with theiracquired arts, and, in a few years, the most in-telligent potters of North Staffordshire knew howto make civilized pottery. But by 1710 JohnPhilip Elers was tired of his exile and of the * Burton, English Earthenware, p. 74. t A list of tho
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“Toys of Christmas Past”
Image by brizzle born and bred
Did you know that toys and games have been part of childhood for thousands of years? As early as 4000 B.C. (before Christ), games became a source of entertainment. At that time, people of Babylon played a game that preceded the present day game of chess.
4000 BC – A Babylonian game, which is the ancestor of modern draughts begins to be played
3000 BC – First Game resembling modern Backgammon is played in Sumeria.
2000 BC – Stone marbles first used in Egypt.
1000 BC – Kites appear in China. Stone Yo-Yos begin to be used in Greece
600 BC – An ancestor of chess called ‘Chaturanga’ is played in India.
1759 – Roller skates are invented by Joseph Merlin.
Victorian Era – Victorian children had fewer toys than you have today. Poor Children – Poor families made their own, such as cloth-peg dolls and paper windmills. Children would save their pocket money to buy marbles, a spinning top, skipping ropes, kites or cheap wooden toys.
Rich Children had rocking horses with real horse hair manes, and dolls houses full of beautifully-carved miniature furniture. Other popular toys for rich children included china or wax dolls for the girls and clockwork train sets for the boys. Girls played with dolls and tea sets whilst boys played with toy soldiers and marbles.
During Victorian times, people became fascinated by toys that made pictures move. One of the earliest and simplest of these was the thaumatrope. This is a disc with a picture on either side that is attached to two pieces of string or a stick. When you spin the disc quickly, the two pictures appear to combine into one.
1901 – Meccano goes on sale in the UK. Invented by Frank Hornby in Liverpool, it captures the spirit of the age with a challenging construction toy. One of the century’s leading toy makers and creator of Hornby train sets (1920, and see 1925) and Dinky Toys, Hornby died in 1936.
1902 – In the USA, the Teddy Bear is created by a Russian emigrants Morris MiTchtom who had seen a report of US President Teddy Roosevelt who declined to shoot a bear cub while out hunting. Clifford Berryman’s celebrated newspaper cartoon captured this moment and Mitchcom launched his range of "Teddy" bears in his Brooklyn shop. German toymaker, Margarete Steiff began making jointed toy animals including bears, and they were also able to cash in on the teddy bear craze in the USA, which spread worldwide.
1903 – Edwin Binney & Harold Smith patent the first ‘Crayola’ crayons.
1908 – Plasticine goes on sale.
1909 – Kewpie Doll-devised by Rosi O’Neill patented in 1935
1910 – Daisy Air Rifles go on sale.
1914 – Tinker Toys – interlocking construction toy.
1914 – Frank Hornby manufactures ‘0 Gauge’ Clockwork model trains
1925 – The first electric ‘Hornby’ train appears..Hornby produce the first electric train sets in the world.
1928 – Mickey Mouse is created by Walt Disney. The licensed toy is born. Dolls from 1930
1929 – Duncan Yo-Yo’s are first launched in Los Angeles when Frank Duncan saw waiters from the Philippines playing with their tradit-ional Yo-Yo. It can be traced back to Ancient Greece – in the Philippines it was a weapon (like a boomerang) for hunting and war until later it became a sporting item then later a plaything. In 1930 Frank Duncan brought over demonstrators to Europe to play the music halls – and the craze took off.
1930 – Charlotte Cla in the USA starts making Micky Mouse dolls based on the first Disney cartoon first screened in 1928.
1932 – US architect, Alfred Butt begins work on what will become the board game, Scrabble. He calls it Lexico. (See 1940) In Denmark, Ole Kirk Christiansen started his Lego toy company. Lego means ‘play well’ in Danish. (leg godt). Later he discovered Lego in Latin means ‘to put together’.
1934 – Corgi starts to manufacture toy cars and other models. In 1965 their model Aston Martin from the first James Bond film became the very first BATR Toy of the Year.
1935 – Monopoly arrives in the UK. Invented in the USA by Charles Darrow in 1933, patent filed 31st August 1935 while on sale in America. It was made under licence in the UK by Waddingtons. Darrow died in 1967.
1935 – Minibrix made by the Premo Rubber Co. using the studs and cavity device which paved the way for plastic interlocking bricks pioneered by Hilary Page in the 1940s.
1943 – Richard James, researching a suspension device develops the Slinky. It goes on sale in 1945.
1948 – Criss Cross Words invented by Alfred Butt (originally Lexico) fails to sell well and is sold to James Brunot who changes the name to Scrabble. Sales average just 8,000, but from 1953 – 55 it suddenly takes off – sales reach 4.5million sets.
1949 – Leeds-based Waddington’s produces mystery board-game, Cluedo. This year (1999) it celebrated its 50th birthday.
1949 – Ole Christiansen, invents Lego bricks. Just six bricks will fit together in 102,981,500 ways !
1950 – Disney’s latest release, Cinderella, spawns toy products. Meanwhile, Disney was telling the toy industry to gear up for their next full-length cartoon, Alice in Wonderland, out in 1951. Popular Toys: a wind-up Cinderella dancing doll (with Prince) and Palitoy’s Archie Andrew Ventro Doll…Minibrix, ‘the world’s finest toys’ from Dean & Son, Flying Saucer from Cascelloid, Electric Contact Quiz – ‘lights up your party – mysterious, unique, amusing’ – claims the makers, Spears. Other events: First Toy Fair in Harrogate. First meeting of the NATR – the toy retailers association.
1951 – best selling toys: Alice (from Alice in Wonderland film), Talking Eggs from Selcol with a crank-handle to make Humpty Dumpty squeak (6/9d) – about 32p…Muffin the Mule push-along toy by Kohnstam…Kiddicraft’s ‘Sensible’ range of cot and pram toys designed by Hilary Page.
1951 – A Muffin The Mule push-along toy is the best seller this year.
1952 – Mr Potato Head is launched. Jack O’dell creates the first Matchbox car.
1952 – Popular toys: Crazy Ball from Louis Marx…Negro dolls from Pedigree called Mary Lou and Dixie…Flop: Loopo, a game with a ball and small hand-held loop promoted as ‘the sensation of the year’…Lines Brothers, Britain’s largest toymaker celebrated its 70th birthday…
1953 – A ‘Little Princess’ doll designed by Norman Hartnell is launched to celebrate the Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II.
1953 – Pedigree launch dolls with ‘flesh-like’ vinyl plastic heads with ‘hair that grows out of their heads!’ using a "Angela, the doll with magic flesh" – it also has ‘sleeping’ eyes and lashes. Another pedigree doll out this Coronation year, is Little Princess dressed by Norman Hartnell…retailers read for the first time that out-of-town shopping centres are being tried out in the USA…Dean’s Rag Books are 50 years old…New Toys: Flower pot Men based on the TV series. Wembley – the football board game, Keywords (from Waddingtons) which has some similarities to Scrabble. Novelty Toys: Atom Bomber with A-bombs with automatic releases, and Slinky, the toy that slithers down steps – still a big seller to this day.
1954 – Sooty appears on TV and turns out to be an actual Chad Valley glove puppet…sales soar. The British Toy & Hobby Association hold their first Toy Fair in Brighton. New Toys: Dan Dare Rota Spinner for the beach…and at Christmas: Matchbox vehicles, Painting By Numbers. Scrabble arrives.
1955 – Scrabble sold in the UK by Spears begins to grow in popularity. Scoop from Waddingtons challenges.
1956 – New Game: Beat the Clock (Spears) based on the game on TV’s Sunday Night at the Palladium…Flops: New Footy Table Soccer as recommended by Stanley Matthews, and Newcrikit , recommended by Freddie Trueman…the Corgi Model Club formed…Triang T-T Gauge trains launched…Radio comedian (and chairman of Chad Valley) Kenneth Horne is seen on TV trying out the new Rise’n’Shine shaving kit and beauty shop – the first seen on TV…and the launch of the sputnik inspires the Bleep Bleep satellite toy.
1956 – A Mr B. Francis puts small electric motors in his scale models of cars and ‘Scalectrix’ is born.
1957 – Combex brings out the Sooty toothbrush flute…and following the Disney film’s release, a rash of Davy Crockett hats and toys.
1958 – New: The Hula – Hoop arrives! 20 million sold in the first year. Scalextric electric model racing first introduced…but whatever happened to Pictorama which can create 14 million different combinations of pictures? It’s the 50th birthday for Plasticine…and Frisbees (invented 1957 at the Frisbee Pie Factory) compete for attention.
1959 – Barbie is created by Ruth Handler, and is named after her daughter Barbara.
1959 – Stanley Matthews endorses Frido playballs. Selling well: Matchbox’s Scammel Breakdown truck, Board Games: Careers, and Wack-O (based on Jimmy Edward’s TV series)
1960 – For the first time, the Brighton Toy Fair allows imported toys to be shown. The craze that swept France, Loopyloop is predicted to sweep Britain…it doesn’t…Lego is seen at the Toy Fair for the first time…plastic kits dominate the market and toy market (at retail) is worth £85m through 11,000 outlets.
1961 – A mini-boom in costume dolls…Airfix launch their Betta Bilda sets at 10 shillings each (50p)…Fuzzyfelt bring out Noddy finger puppets, Scalextrics slot car racing sets, and trains are amongst this year’s top sellers.
1962 – Tipped as the craze of the year, Airtoy’s Spinning Satellite…it isn’t. Dinky launch Ford Fairlane, Corgi offer a model Silverstone with pit stops, Chad Valley launches the Give-a-show projector…Barbie and boy friend Ken impress US market…the Pogo stick is fun again…and Dinky’s First Engine is the first ever with flashing lights.
1963 – The board game, Diplomacy arrives…Matchbox offer cars with doors that open…and there is ‘the greatest money spinner ever from Frido’ – Disky Discs and goal posts to play ‘1-dimensional football’.
1964 – The latest craze: Booma Boomerang, Corgi is 30 years old and celebrates by introducing Corgi Classics…Diana Dors promotes the Trolls.
1965 – Dr Who and the Daleks on TV and toys available this Christmas…the James Bond Aston Martin Car is the big seller and will be the first ever Toy of the Year (to be announced as it will be in future in January of the following year at the NATR Dinner). Waddington’s launch Spyring board game, and the Noise Abatement Society complains about the V-rroom roar maker fitted to bicycles…the Gonks arrive to challenge Trolls…Denys Fisher launch the Spirograph. Craze that never was – Nik Nok – cup and ball game.
1965 – The James Bond Aston Martin from Corgi is the most popular toys this year. A version of the toy is still on sale today.
1966 – Action Man, the first ‘Doll For Boys’ is launched and is a massive success. Toy of the year this year will be Action Man – causing a sensation as the first doll for boys…for girls there is Tiny Tears. To rival Action man, Pedigree launch Tommy Gunn. Another craze that never was: Ippy Op – ball come skipping rope…but party game, Twister is a success.
1967 – Spiro-Graph is toy of the year. Rolf Harris Stylophone (Musical toy with a strangely annoying pitch. Apparently invented by accident the Stylophone enjoys cult popularity among musicians and has been used by bands as diverse as David Bowie and Blur.
1968 – Sindy is top doll and will win Toy of the Year. Ride-a-Roo ball is launched, as are Joe 90 products, Beatles’s Yellow Submarine, and the Go Car game which includes a breathalyser test as a hazard. Other new products: a multi-cube game called Instant Insanity and Glow-Globs, modelling compound that glows in the dark, and paintwheels.
1969 – Hot Wheels cars will win Toy of the Year. The Newton’s Cradle (Klikkies) sells well…but Tic Tac Tosser has a shorter life.
1970 – Sindy wins Toy of the Year for a second time…the NATR launches their Toy Token scheme…"The computer is becoming such an important part of our lives that a mini-computer for kids is in the office"…Super markets begin selling toys, and Matchbox makes 900 redundant.
1971 – Space Hoppers, inflatable orange bouncers with horns for handles. Klackers, a modernised version of conkers that made a very annoying ‘Klick Klack’ sound and lead to dozens of imitations. Katie Kopycat writing doll wins Toy of the Year. The giant Lines Brothers collapses, the arrival of Space Hopper, Craze of the year Clackers or Klik Klaks – first seen on Spanish beaches. Fun Bubbles sell over 7 million in first year.
1972 – Plasticraft modelling kits win Toy of the Year.
1973 – The first Game of the Year – Invicta’s Mastermind…a shortage of plastic causes problems…children’s pocket money averages 9p. New dolls: Disco Girl, Chelsea Girl, Daisy. Toy guns concern when gunmen using toy guns are shot dead by police outside India House.
1973 – Mastermind, a game that had nothing to do with the TV show and everything to do with cracking the code of your opponents coloured plastic pegs.
1974 – Magna Doodle. The magnetic drawing toy which was invented in Japan by pen engineers trying to create a clean mess free chalk.
1975 – Wombles. Womblemania hit the UK and Womble toys where everywhere.
1976 – Raw Power. A handle that you added to your bike and ‘revved’ to create the sound of an engine.
1977 – Slime, a bright green PVA based blob that came in little plastic pots and ruined many a households soft furnishings! Othello, the strategy game of Black & White counters. Holly Hobbie, dolls based on the popular character. Skateboards, 1977 saw the high point of the 1970’s skate craze and featured thin ‘surfboard’ style boards.
1978 – Star Wars, after the release of the movie the previous year the toys soon followed and became one of the most successful movie licenced properties of all time, the toys dominated toy shops until the middle 1980’s when their popularity waned. Simon, the electronic game where you followed a sequence of lights and sounds before you threw it across the room in sheer frustration!
1979 – Space Lego, the humble building brick went where no man had gone before. Stop Boris, a game where you stopped Boris, a creepy spider, with a light gun.
1980 – Rubiks Cube, invented by Hungarian designer Erno Rubik over 100 million of these tricky little puzzles were sold between 1980 and 1982.
1981 – Lego Train. Lego launches their first electric ‘train set’ which featured strangely enough blue rails!
1982 – BMX Bikes, everybody went BMX crazy, BMX is short for Bicycle Motocross. ZX Spectrum, the first ‘affordable’ home gaming computer arrived in UK households.
1983 – My Little Pony, based on an Animated TV series there was an entire world of small plastic horses and accessories to collect. My Little Pony went on to become one of the most successful girls toy concepts of all time. Boys did not miss out this year as they got He Man & The Masters Of The Universe which followed the same based on animation format and became one of the most successful boys toy concepts of all time.
1984 – Care Bears. Following the successful ‘toys from an animated series’ format from the previous year the Care Bears arrived from Care-a-Lot. Shortly before Christmas Cabbage Patch Kids, created by artist Xavier Roberts also arrived and created chaos in toy shops across the land as parent competed to buy one of the sought after dolls. The Board game Trivial Pursuit was the best selling board game in 1984 and dolls based on popular Pop Stars Michael Jackson and Boy George was also big hits.
1985 – Transformers, robots in disguise. These ‘action figures’, which transformed from vehicle to robot and back, again confounded parents and delighted children. Optimus Prime was THE toy to have in 1985 and lead to huge shortages of product.
1986 – In this World Cup year the playground graze was Panini Football stickers. If you managed to complete an album you were a playground hero.
1987 – Sylvanian Families, a range of cute and cuddly animals with play-sets and vehicles. Rubiks Magic, a follow up to the Rubiks Cube.
1988 – Ghostbusters, based on the popular movie and animated series, children across the land strapped on ‘proton packs’ and set out to capture ghosts. Slimer, one of the lead characters was also a firm favourite in toy shops, along with the vehicle Ecto-1.
1989 – Another hit movie, another toy shop success. The Tim Burton movie ‘Batman’ breathed new life into an old favourite and Batmania swept the UK.
1990 – Donatello, Michelangelo, Leonardo and Raphael, the Teenage Mutant Hero Turtles arrived in toy shops and where an immediate hit. Originating in the US from a comic book the original word ‘Ninja’ in the title was replaced with ‘Hero’ in the UK for fears that it would violent connotations with parents.
1991 – Nintendo launched Game Boy in the UK.
1992 – Thunderbirds enjoyed a re-birth this year and dads of a certain age across the land re-lived there childhoods with their children. Shortages of the most popular toy, Tracey Island were so severe that Blue Peter ran an episode where the showed you how to make your own….
1993 – Power Rangers, the TV show arrived on our screens and children’s TV has not been the same since. Toys based on the show sold out immediately.
1994 – Magic Eye Pictures were all the rage and toys and puzzles featuring these pictures within pictures prompted even more people to ask ‘can you see it?’
1995 – POGS, small cardboard disks stormed into playgrounds and became a huge craze. Star Wars toys start production again after a short hiatus, 1970’s kids are now adults and collect the toys out of nostalgia but a new generation of kids also embraces the saga.
1996 – Toy Story, the animated film from Pixar was a huge hit in the cinema and toys from the movie were more than elusive. Parents went to desperate measures to secure a Buzz Lightyear doll. The rights to produce toys from the film went to a small independent Canadian toy company who simply could not cope with the demand. Why? Because all of the major toy manufacturers turned down the chance to make Toy Story merchandise, as they felt that the movie would never catch on. Corinthian figures, small figurines of football stars with oversized heads were the hot collectible and equally popular with adults and child collectors.
1997 – The year of T, Teletubbies, Tamagotchi and TY Beanie Babies are toy shop best sellers.
1998 – The humble Yo Yo returns as the craze of the year, after last being seen in the 1950’s and the 1970’s. The ProYo II is the Yo Yo of choice. Just before Christmas the interactive pet, Furby arrives in toy shops.
1999 – A board game based on the hit TV quiz show ‘Who Wants To Be A Millionaire’ is the best selling board game. Toys and games based on Pokemon the Nintendo game prove to be quite popular. The firm favourite are the trading cards hundreds of millions of which are sold, swapped and traded across the globe.
2000 – Robotic Pets and Aluminium Folding Scooters are this year crazes. They are also accompanied by another familiar face, The Thunderbirds return again and Tracey Island is another Christmas best seller.
2001 – Bob The Builder toys are big hits, Folding Scooters continue to be the must have accessory for both kids and style guru’s alike. Closely followed by Pogo Sticks which enjoyed a resurgence of interest this year.
2002 – Bratz Dolls, steal some of Barbie’s position as top fashion doll, a place she has held since she was born in 1959. Beyblades, customizable spinning tops and Micropets, miniature robotic pets are the favourite crazes
2003 – Beyblades continue to be the playground craze closely followed by Yucky Yo Balls, fluid filled stretchy balls on an elastic string. However Yucky Yo Balls are swiftly banned by the government over safety fears. This is the first time that the government has banned a toy in over 10 years.
2004 – Toy of the Year ‘Terrain Twister’ radio controlled vehicle.
2005 – Fisher-Price top-selling Dora’s Talking House"
2006 – The overall winner of the title Toy Of The Year 2006 was awarded to the Dr Who Cyberman Voice Changer Mask. This Voice Changer is a replica Cyberhead that will give you a robotic voice. It features speech, sound effects and lights! It has 3 play buttons, one that plays Cyberman phrases, one that changes your voice into that of the Cybermen and one with Cyber weapon sound effects.
2007 – The Toy of the Year Award was given to Blanket Time Iggle Piggle Dancing Soft Toy, from the massively popular ‘In The Night Garden’. Boys Toy of the year was chosen as the Ben 10 Omnitrix FX, which is like a wrist watch which transform Ben into different alien superheroes.
2008 – Toy of the Year Ben 10 Action figures 10" and 15" – Pre School Toy of the Year Kidizoom camera, Vtech – Collectable toy of the Year Go Go Crazy Bones – Construction toy of the year is Lego – Girls range toy of the year is Sylvanian families. – Boys range of the year is Ben 10, Bandai – Girls toy of the year is FurReal Biscuit my lovin’ pup.
2009 – Last year the toy of the year award as voted by the Toy Retailer Association went to the Ben 10 series. The year before it went to a set of toys from In the Night Garden. The theme seems to be a toy connected to a popular children’s television character and this will probably be the same pattern for the best selling toy of 2009/2010. Young children love toys that are familiar, toys that they identify with the television characters that they see. In 2008 the pre school toy of the year was again, In the Night Garden and toys such as Star Wars and toys featuring Thomas the Tank engine (pre school toys of the year in 2005) regularly win toy awards.
Hasbro is the largest toy manufacturer in the world.
The 20th century saw the invention of dozens of much-loved toys as well. Still-popular board games like Tripoley, Sorry and Monopoly have been around since the 1930s, and Crayola Crayons are more than 100 years old! Twister, made by a division of Hasbro, sold more than 3 million games within a year of its release in 1966. It has sold more than 22 million since then.
Toys aren’t always a hit the year, or even the decade, they’re created. Unemployed architect Alfred Mosher Butts invented the game of Scrabble, which he first called "Lexiko" and later "Criss-Cross Words," in the 1930s. Entrepreneur James Brunot acquired the game in 1947, but it wasn’t until 1953, when the president of Macy’s — now owned by retail giant Federated Department Stores — discovered the game on vacation that things really took off. More than 100 million sets have since been sold worldwide.
The fortunes of other playthings are more cyclical. Troll dolls, which hit big during the 1960s, had all but disappeared by the 1980s until troll nostalgia ushered in a second boom in the early 1990s. As Generation Xers grow older, toys like Cabbage Patch Kids, now made by Mattel, and Koosh balls could stage a comeback as well.
And there’s serious money to be had. Mr. Potato Head, made in 1952 by Hasbro’s Playskool unit, was the first toy advertised on television, and it grossed more than million in its first year (that’s billion in 2005 dollars). Play-doh, which was originally designed for cleaning wallpaper, made inventor Joseph McVicker a millionaire by his 27th birthday. And Mattel sells an astounding 1.5 million Barbie dolls each week — that’s two dolls per second.
Some cool plastic injection part made in china images:
Oh the joys of the open road!
Image by brizzle born and bred
Timeline of motoring history 1940 – 2008
Car production in Britain is put on hold as most factories go over to munitions production.
The German Luftwaffe destroys the centre of Coventry.
Oldsmobile and Cadillac offer the first fully automatic transmission.
Enzo Ferrari leaves Alfa Romeo to establish Auto-Avio Costruzioni Ferrari.
In Japan, Toyo Kogyo produces its first passenger car.
Lord Austin dies aged 74
Louis Chevrolet dies aged 63. He is buried at Indianapolis, scene of his greatest racing victories.
Packard are the first car manufacturer to offer air conditioning.
Chrysler introduces the Fluid Drive transmission, a manual transmission with a fluid coupling instead of a clutch.
American passenger car production falls to just 139 vehicles as war production requirements take over.
Volvo focus on occupant safety with the introduction of a safety cage.
Louis Renault is arrested and imprisoned for collaborating with the Germans. He dies at Fresnes prison in ‘suspicious circumstances’.
Enzo Ferrari’s Maranello workshops are bombed and destroyed.
2nd World War in Europe ends with Germany’s unconditional surrender to the allies on May 7th.
In receivership since 1939, Triumph is acquired by Standard.
Petrol rationing in Britain continues.
Henry Ford resigns as president of The Ford Motor Company, handing over to his grandson, Henry Ford 11.
French President Charles de Gaulle nationalizes Renault and the company’s name is changed to Regié Nationale des Usines Renault.
The newly elected Socialist government ‘encourages’ manufacturers to export half their output. To counteract the consequential development of an illicit black-market car buyers are required to sign a covenant preventing the sale of new cars for one year.
Newly designed post-war models are launched by British car makers Triumph, Armstrong-Siddeley, Jowett and Bentley as the British Motor Industry celebrates its fiftieth birthday.
Petrol ration for British motorists is increased by 50 per cent.
Ford of Britain produce their millionth car, an 8hp Anglia.
Michelin patent the Radial-ply tyre.
In light of negative wartime connotations William Lyons changes the name of SS Cars Ltd. to Jaguar Cars Ltd and begins to focus on export markets.
Enzo Ferrari rebuilds his bombed workshops and begins work on the development and production of the Ferrari 125 Sport. The first Ferrari hits the road!
Packard offers power seats and windows across their range.
Ettore Bugatti dies in Paris aged 66.
The American car industry celebrates its Golden Jubilee.
Henry Ford dies at the age of 84.
BMW engine and car designs are ‘acquired’ by Bristol and Frazer-Nash as ‘war reparations’.
David Brown, already successful in the British engineering industry, sees an advertisement in The Times offering ‘A high-class motor business, established 25 years’ and pays £20.000 to buy Aston Martin. He has already purchased Lagonda, having owned a Lagonda Rapide himself in the past.
A new name, Standard-Vanguard, is introduced to the British public
Instead of taxing cars based on the 1906 RAC horsepower formula a flat- rate system is introduced.
Enzo Ferrari’s 125 Sport wins its first race. The first of many Ferrari victories.
The first motor show since the end of the war takes place at Earls Court.
Morris introduce the Minor family car, designed by Alec Issigonis.
Jaguar Cars Ltd. announces the XK120 sports car featuring low, streamlined body, an outstanding twin overhead cam 6 cylinder engine and a top speed of 120mph. Alongside it the elegant MK 5 saloon (sedan) replaces the pre-war model known by enthusiasts, though not the company, as the MK 4.
Citoen introduce the 2CV, reputedly designed to accommodate gentlemen still wearing their hats and to drive across a ploughed field without breaking a cargo of eggs!
The American motor industry builds its 100,000,000th car.
Ferdinand Porsche launches the Porsche marque by introducing the 356/2 as a no-frills sports car re-working of his war-time Volkswagen project.
Developed along the well proven lines of the Willys Jeep, Rover introduce the 4 wheel drive Land Rover.
Buick offer the Dynaflow fully automatic gearbox. This is essentially the automatic gearbox as we know it today,
Michelin ‘X’ radial-ply tyres go on sale for the first time.
British government ends petrol rationing but doubles fuel tax.
The new car covenant, introduced to prevent a black market in new cars is extended from one to two years ownership.
The UK’s former double purchase tax on luxury cars is halved.
Ford wins back its second place in the US sales league from Chrysler.
Automatic transmission becomes available on lower priced Chevrolet models.
Goodyear offers self-repairing tyres (tires).
60% of American families now own a car.
6,657,000 cars are sold in the USA.
Rover demonstrates the JET 1 the world’s first gas turbine powered car.
Ford engineer Earle S MacPherson designs the MacPherson Strut, a combination of spring, shock absorber and stub-axle which simplifies design and production and reduces costs.
Ford UK introduces Consul and Zephyr models.
In the USA, automatic gearboxes become more readily available – Chevrolet offer the Powerglide, Ford the Fordomatic and Merc-O-Matic.
Nash feature seatbelts in the Rambler. The promoted benefits are that they ‘overcome the problems caused when sleeping passengers fall out of their seats’!
Porsche enters a 356 SL in the Le Mans 24-Hours and wins the 1100cc class·
Ferdinand Porsche dies aged 75.
Lotus Engineering Co founded by aeronautical engineer and competitive sports car driver Anthony Colin Bruce Chapman.
100mph performance becomes available at realistic prices as Triumph announces the TR and the Healey introduces their 100/4 sports cars.
Chrysler offer power steering and the M-6 Torque-Converter Automatic. They also spark a horsepower race with the 180 horsepower, 331 cubic-inch Firepower Hemi V-8 engine.
Kaiser introduces new safety features, a pop-out windshield and a padded dashboard top.
Jaguar introduces the prototype C-Type race-car, aimed at winning Le Mans.
In the USA, sales of cars with automatic transmissions exceed 2 million.
Crosley ceases production.
Rival manufacturers Nuffield organisation (Morris) and Austin comes to an end with their amalgamation into the British Motor Corporation (BMC) with Lord Nuffield in the driving seat.
Mercedes shows the spectacular 300SL ‘gull wing’ sports coupe.
Packard offer power brakes.
The newly developed disk braking system, now available from Dunlop, is fitted to Jaguar’s C Types, enabling them to achieve 1st, 2nd and 4th places at Le Mans.
As wartime austerity begins to fade in the United Kingdom, the availability of higher octane fuels allows higher compression ratios and improvements in engine performance.
Singer announces the SMX Roadster, Britain’s first plastic-bodied production car. Only 12 are made before the project is abandoned.
Britain’s New Car Covenant Purchase Scheme, originally introduced to prevent new cars being sold-on at a premium, is abolished.
General Motors Launch the Corvette, a radical glass-fibre-bodied roadster concept car featuring a wrap-around windshield and powered by a venerable straight six engine. Production is limited.
Porsche introduces the 550 ‘Spyder’ race-car with a triangulated tubular steel chassis, aluminium bodywork and a VW-based 4 cylinder ‘boxer’ engins. 550 Spyders dominate the 1500cc class at Le Mans and then the same class in the Pan Americana, Mexican road race.
The 50 millionth General Motors car rolls off the production line.
All Buick, Oldsmobile and Cadillac models feature wrap-around Panoramic windshields.
Ford introduces overhead valves on its V8 engines in Ford and Mercury models.
Nash merges with Hudson to form the American Motors Corporation.
Studebaker merges with Packard.
GM reveals the 370 horsepower turbine-powered Firebird I concept car.
The two seat Ford Thunderbird roadster is announced.
Lanchester offer the Sprite with automatic transmission, still a rarity in Europe.
Having re-established production of the ‘Beetle’ with much help from British Army personnel, Volkswagen start to focus on generating export sales.
Tubeless tyres (tires) are now offered on all new American cars.
Jaguar Cars replace the XK120 with the XK 140, featuring a 190 horsepower engine, mechanical refinements and chrome trim. The new Jaguar D Type race-car is introduced at Le Mans without success.
The revolutionary Citroen DS19 is introduced with a futuristic aerodynamic body, self-levelling hydropneumatic suspension, power steering and braking and automatic jacks.
McDonald’s opens its first drive-thru hamburger bar.
Chrysler launches ‘Imperial’ as a separates brand.
Kaiser goes out of business.
American car sales hit a record 7,915,000. Jaguar launch the MK 1 Family sports saloon (sedan) to broaden their market appeal. They also win at Le Mans with a much improved D-type.
Fuel supplies are seriously limited by the Suez crisis, resulting in rationing in Britain and other European countries and an upsurge of interest in economical micro-cars for personal transportation.
U.S. car stylists begin to adopt tail fins and rocket-shaped tail lamps as science fiction and space rockets enter the American consciousness.
The Ford Foundation offers over ten million Ford Motor Company shares for sale to the public.
BMC commissions Pininfarina to styles its new models.
Lanchester comes to the end of the road as Daimler discontinues production.
Ford of America offers seat belts to a disinterested public.
The "McKenna Duties" on luxury imports are finally abolished.
Jaguar D Type wins the Le Mans 24 Hours for a second successive year.
The Porsche 550A Spyder, a modified version of its predecessor, wins the Targa Florio road race on its debut, beating much more powerful competitors. It goes on to ‘wipe the floor’ at virtually every appearance.
The Lotus Elite (Type 14) is announced, featuring a revolutionary glassfibre monocoque construction.
Ford Motor Company introduces the Continental Mark II, priced at almost ,000.
The three millionth Mercury comes off Ford’s production line.
Packard and Chrysler offer pushbutton automatic transmissions.
Packard offers power door locks.
Chrysler offers an in-car record player.
80% of all new cars sold in America have a V-8 engine.
The American Congress approves construction of the 41,000 mile Interstate highway system.
The Nash and Hudson marques are discontinued by parent company AMC.
A new Fiat 500 is introduced featuring a rear-mounted vertical twin-cylinder air cooled engine.
Chrysler produce their ten millionth Plymouth.
The new Ford Skyliner features a retractable hardtop, a ‘first’ for a production car.
Ford introduces the Ranchero pickup.
Chevrolet, Pontiac and Rambler adopt fuel injection.
66% of all cars purchased in the USA are bought on extended finance.
Jaguar introduce the XK 150 and a D Type wins the Le Mans 24 Hours for a third successive year.
Work starts on the Ml ‘London to Birmingham’ Motorway, the UK’s first.
Roads around London are governed by a new 40mph speed limit.
To celebrate the fiftieth birthday of the Model T, Ford re-assembles a 1909 example.
Ford produce their fifty millionth car.
The revolutionary glassfibre Lotus Elite (Type 14) enters production. With all-round independent suspension and a 1,216 cc overhead cam Coventry Climax engine it has spectacular handling and is capable of 118mph! In spite of its success as a racecar Lotus will loose money on every one built.
With controversial styling and sophisticated features, the Ford Edsel is launched to a luke-warm reception.
Chrysler builds its twenty five millionth vehicle.
Packard production comes to an end.
The Austin-Healy ‘Frogeye’ Sprite is introduced.
The new chairman of BMC is Sir Leonard Lord.
A record one million cars are produced in Britain.
Toyotas and Datsuns are imported to the United States for the first time.
The Ford Thunderbird becomes a four-seater ‘personal luxury’ car.
American car sales drop by 31% due to an economic recession.
C F Kettering, inventor of the electric starter and Ethyl-Leaded Gasoline dies aged 82.
Porsche introduce the "RSK" Spyder, or Type 718 which continues to win class and outright honours in the hands of such drivers as Dan Gurney, Wolfgang von Trips and Jo Bonnier.
A fascination with the impending space-age inspires Cadillac to begin giving its new models fins and rocket-shaped taillights.
UK Government reduces Purchase Tax on new cars from 60 to 50 per cent.
Triumph introduce the Michelotti styled Herald, featuring all round independent suspension.
Lea Francis go out of business.
NSU announce that they will build Wankel rotary engined cars.
Dutch manufacturer DAF begins car production, using the Variomatic belt-drive automatic transmission.
The M1, Britain’s first motorway is opened by The Right Honourable Ernest Marples, minister of Transport.
British Motor Corporation introduces the Morris Mini-Minor and Austin Se7en variants, built on separate production lines at Cowley, Oxford and Longbridge, Birmingam to a revolutionary compact design by Alec Issigonis. Whichever brand of ‘Mini’, it features a rubber-cone suspension system and a gearbox built into the engine, beneath the crankshaft. Perhaps the Mini’s most significant contribution to the packaging efficiency of modern front-wheel-drive cars is its transversely mounted engine.
Jaguar launches the MK II family sports saloon (sedan) to great acclaim.
The Ford Anglia arrives. It is a small family car with conventional mechanical layout. Its unusual feature is a reverse-slope rear window, which ensures good headroom for rear-seat passengers.
Studebaker introduces the Lark, a compact car intended to compete with European imports.
An Aston-Martin DBR 1, driven by Caroll Shelby and Roy Salvadori wins the Le Mans 24 hours.
Eighty percent of United Stated families own at least one car.
The UK Daimler Company becomes part of Jaguar Cars.
The Japanese car industry manufactures 200,000 cars.
The Ford Anglia l05E is introduced with a four speed gearbox and a raked back rear window.
OPEC (The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) is formed to give the oil producing countries more power over crude oil prices.
The millionth Morris Minor leaves the production line, one of a series of 350 painted in a celebratory shade of lilac with white leather upholstery.
Jaguar Cars Limited buys Daimler and begins to offer ‘badge engineered’ Jaguars.
The Cortina Mk I is introduced by Ford of Britain.
BMC introduce the Morris I IOO featuring a revolutionary ‘Hydrolastic’ suspension system.
The ‘MOT’ test is introduced by Ernest Marples, requiring that all cars over 10 years old are subjected to an annual test.
BMC chief, Sir Leonard Lord becomes Lord Lambury.
Commercial vehicle producers Leyland Motors acquire Standard Triumph and AEC.
Porsche introduce the W-RS Spyder race-car with its well-proven flat four power unit.
Chevrolet introduce the Nova, a compact car with plain styling and 4 or 6 cylinder engines, designed to offer economical family motoring.
Ford UK introduces the Consul Cortina, an attractive medium-sized family saloon, powered by an 1198cc OHV engine. (The ‘Consul’ is dropped very quickly). Though launched as a two-door, a four-door body becomes available within a few months.
The W-RS Spyder, now powered by a 2.0-litre flat-eight engine, continues to build Porsche’s racing prowess by winning everything in sight.
The Leyland Motor Corporation formed under the chairmanship of Sir Henry Spurrier.
Ford’s Cortina DeLuxe is now available with a 1498cc engine and also as high-performance Lotus model featuring a twin-cam engine and major suspension modifications.
Lord Nuffield dies aged 86.
The Hillman Imp is unveiled to compete with the BMC Mini. It features a light-alloy 4 cylinder, 875cc slant-4 engine, originally developed by Coventry Climax to power fire pumps. Manufactured at Linwood, a new Scottish production plant, this is the first car since the 1931 Arrol Johnston, to be made in Scotland.
NSU announce the Spyder their first car to use a Wankel engine.
Rover introduces the 2000 P6 saloon which wins them the European Car of the Year Award.
In Italy Feruccio Lamborghini Automobili founded in Sant’Agata near Bologna. The debut of the prototype 350 GTV takes place at the Turin Motor Show.
Porsche’s W-RS Spyder continues its winning ways at Le Mans and the Nurburgring.
Triumph launches the 2000 family saloon.
The Ford Mustang is ‘released’ to great acclaim and achieves sales of more than 500,000 in its firs 18 months.
Following many years of crippling strikes at its British Light Steel Pressings Ltd factory, the Rootes Group sells a controlling interest to Chrysler.
Despite continuing disinterest, front seat belts supplied as standard in all American cars.
Having resigned his position after just 4 months in charge of The Leyland Motor Corporation Sir Henry Spurrier dies.
Porsche’s W-RS Spyder wins further season championships in the hands of Edgar Barth, before final retirement.
BMC’s intended merger with the Pressed Steel Company is subjected to a report by the Monopolies Commission.
The British government introduces a 70 mph maximum speed "as a four month experiment" which is still with us today.
An automatic transmission, specially designed by AP is available to Mini buyers.
Rolls Royce’s launch Silver Shadow its first unit constructed car.
Ralph Nader publishes his book ‘Unsafe at Any Speed’ exposing safety standards severely compromised by USA manufacturers’ cost constraints. The rear-engined Chevrolet Corvair receives Nader’s particular attention.
Jensen FF sports coupe is launched, featuring Fergusson’s four wheel drive system, Italian styling, a powerful V8 engine and anti-lock brakes.
British Motor Holdings is created by merging The Jaguar Group (Jaguar, Daimler, Guy, Coventry Climax, Henry Meadows) with BMC.
Ford UK update the Cortina with smoother, but boxier styling.
Largely as a result of Ralph Nader’s expose of the American Motor industry the U.S. Congress passes a rigorous auto safety act. Rear seat belts now supplied as standard equipment in all cars sold in the USA.
Peugeot and Renault agree to establish a partnership organisation, La Francaise de Mecanique, to manufacture common mechanical parts.
Sir William Lyons retires as the Managing Director, becoming Chairman and Chief Executive as Jaguar Cars Limited and the British Motor Corporation Limited announce the merger of the two companies.
Panhard, France’s oldest car maker is disolved by its owners Citroen.
NSU produce the first series production passenger car to be powered by a Wankel engine, the Ro80.
Rover and Alvis are absorbed into the Leyland Motor Corporation.
Ford UK introduce the crossflow engine to their product range in 1300cc and 1600cc capacities.
Ford UK and Ford of Europe start to co ordinate development and production programmes to increase commonality of design and component use.
Ford introduces the Escort range, including a high performance ‘twin-cam’ engined version.
The largest car company in British history is formed as British Motor Holdings merges with Leyland Motors to create British Leyland Motor Corporation.
Rover offers the Buick-based V8 in the P6 body-shell to create the 3005, later re-named the 3500.
As bitter strikes cripple industry Renault lose production of I000,000 vehicles.
Volkswagen introduces the 411 or ‘Variant’. Based on an extended ‘Beetle’ floor-pan it features a contemporary body-style and 2 or 4 doors. An estate (station wagon) version is also available.
Citroen buys Maserati, primarily, to take advantage of its engine know-how. Their forthcoming SM coupé will be powered by a Maserati V6 engine.
David Brown is knighted.
Volkswagcn take over Audi.
Jaguar launches the XJ6.
The new British Leyland organisation introduces the Austin Maxi. Sir Alex Issigonis’s last project, in spite of its outstanding practicality, its boxy styling, sparse interior, lack of power and ‘notchy’ five-speed gearbox attracts criticism.
Renault and Peugeot start production of common components as a result of their 1966 agreement, at Douvrin, near Lens in Northern France.
Enzo Ferrari sells 50% of Ferrari’s share capital to Fiat.
Land Rover launches an entirely new concept. The Range Rover is a luxury off-road car and, as an immediate sales success it points the way for rivals, laying the foundation for a whole new market sector.
Citroen launches two new aerodynamic models, the GS family car and the Masserati-powered SM sports saloon.
Italian styling house Ghia of Turin is acquired from Alessandro de Tomaso by Ford.
Mercedes build the C III experimental car to act as a test-bed for future road-car developments. Featuring dramatic aerodynamic styling and powered by a triple rotor Wankel engine developing 280bhp, it achieved a top speed of 160mph.
Japan’s monthly production output of 200,000 cars, makes it the world’s second biggest motor manufacturer.
Volkswagen reveals the K70, their first water cooled model.
Kjell Qvale, Norwegan born head of the ‘British Motor Car Distributors’ in San Francisco, takes over Jensen Motors.
The Chrysler 160/l80 range is launched at the Paris Salon.
The General Motors’ ‘family’ come together from all parts of the globe, under the leadership of Opel, Germany, to begin a project which will result in a ‘World Car’ to rival the success of the VW beetle. For Opel it will result in the Kadette C, small family car. Internationally it becomes known as GM’s ‘T Car’.
Jensen ceases production of the four-wheel-drive ‘FF’ sports-car, but continues with the two-wheel drive ‘Interceptor’ version.
Morris Minor production finally comes to an end.
Peugeot and Renault join forces with Volvo to form a new joint-venture organisation. PRV will design and produce V-engines at their Douvrin production plant.
Mercedes preview the C111-2 at the Frankfurt Motor Show. Once again a test-bed vehicle it features a four-rotor Wankel engine rated at 350 bhp which took the car to 180mph.
Aston Martin’s financial performance causes difficulties, prompting the David Brown Group to sell to financiers. The DBS stays in production.
Jaguar reveals their VI2 production engine, making it available in an enlarged E-type as well as XJ6 and Daimler sedans. This makes them one of only a handful of manufacturers who have ever offered this configuration on a production basis.
Maserati introduce the Bora.
A record l,900,000 cars produced by British motor industry in this year.
The success of Japanese cars becomes evident when Datsun becomes the second biggest importer of cars into Britain.
Maserati introduces the Merak.
Lotus Esprit mid-engined concept car shown on Giorgio Giugiario’s Ital Design stand at the Turin Motor Show.
Sir William Lyons retires as chairman of Jaguar, exactly 50 years after forming the company. Labour relations and production quality problems beset the whole British Leyland organisation, of which Daimler-Jaguar is a significant part.
The Arab-Israeli War causes fuel supply problems and steep rises in pump prices for motorists throughout the world and the realisation that oil is a finite resource. The OPEC organisation becomes more powerful. In Britain motorists queue for petrol and speeds are restricted to 50mph to conserve national stocks and consumption.
Ford opens Bordeaux plant to manufacture automatic transmissions.
Volksvagen ‘Beetle’ production beats the Model T’s record.
Chevrolet offers airbags in some models as a reaction to a rise in fatal car accidents in the USA.
Alfa Romeo introduce the Alfasud, a small family car featuring front wheel drive, a flat-four ‘boxer’ engine, nimble handling and a bonded-in windscreen. The car is made in a new purpose built plant near Naples in Southern Italy – ‘sud’ being Italian for South.
The Bertone-styled Maserati Khamsin is launched into a tough sales environment.
The first fruits of the GM ‘T Car’ project appear in Brasil, with the launch of the Chevrolet Chevette and in Germany with the Opel Kadett C. Although superficially different all T Cars share the same mechanical configuration and many significant components.
E. L. Cord dies
Gabriel Voisin, aeronautical pioneer, industrialist and car manufacturer dies.
The last of 11,916,519 VW ‘Beetles’ to be built at Wolfsburg, leaves the production line.
The VW Golf, a completely new water-cooled, front wheel drive model becomes and instant sales success and Karmann start production of the Scirocco sports coupe version. Both cars styled by Georgetto Guigaro.
Peugeot takes over Citroen to form PSA.
Plans for the Chevrolet Vega to be powered by the repeatedly delayed outcome of General Motors’ Wankel rotary engine project are abandoned and production continues with an alloy block/iron head 4 cylinder unit.
As a result of the previous year’s the fuel crisis, American sales of large-engined cars have slumped and manufacturers start to look at ways of improving fuel econonmy.
Ford begins research into the Stirling ‘hot air’ engine but having made considerable progress, as fuel prices drop back the urge to take the project all the way to production diminishes.
In spite of one million 127s leaving their production lines Fiat find themselves in deep financial difficulties.
The last E Type Jaguar leaves the Coventry factory.
The Douvrin-built PRV V6 engine appears for the first time in the Volvo 264 and soon after in the Peugeot 504 Coupé and Cabriolet models.
In an attempt to cut fatalities in the United States the maximum speed limit is reduced to 55 mph.
Production of the Ford Escort MK1comes to an end.
Ford introduce the Escort MK2 with a squarer body style.
In America VW launch the Golf as the Rabbit.
Rolls Royce unveil the Camargue with Italian styling by Pininfarina, hand- built on the Silver Shadow floor pan at their Mulliner Park Ward coach-building division. Priced at £29,250, it is the first car in the world to feature completely automatic split-level air conditioning and the first Rolls Royce to be designed in metric dimensions.
Porsche announce the 911 Carrera Turbo.
Chrysler UK, in financial difficulties is propped up by the British Government. The introduction of the French built Alpine brings in vital sales.
Volvo takes a majority shareholding in Holland’s DAF car and truck manufacturer.
The Douvrin-built PRV V6 is introduced in the Peugeot 604 and Renault 30 TS models.
Citroen replaces the DS21 with the CX which is voted European Car of the Year.
British Leyland, struggling against a tide of strikes and a poor reputation gets an injection of £200,000,000 from the UK Government.
Jaguar launch the XJS to replace the E type. Due to stringent American crash regulations earlier plans to include a roadster in the range have been dropped.
Lotus Cars start production of the new mid-engined Esprit and confirm their move up-market with front-engined Eclat.
All American cars now come with catalytic converters in the exhaust system in an effort to cut air polluting emissions.
Citroën pulls out of Maserati, leaving Alejandro De Tomaso and GEPI to come to the rescue a few months later.
VW introduce the Polo, the third of their ‘new generation’ cars.
The UK gets its own version of the GM T-Car, the Vauxhall Chevette. A unique aerodynamic ‘droop-snoot’ front-end, designed by Vauxhall Chief-Stylist, Wayne Cherry complements the neat hatch-back body tub.
Australia launches its version of the ‘T Car’, the Holden Gemini, in 4-door saloon (sedan) and stylish coupé versions.
The Chrysler Alpine voted European Car of the Year.
The Renault Alpine A310 sports-car is launched with a rear mounted PRV ‘Douvrin’ V6 engine.
Ford’s first front drive car, the Fiesta, announced.
The Golf GTi debuts at the Frankfurt International Motor Show establishing a new market sector later known as the ‘Hot Hatch’.
Rover launch the 3500 ‘SD1’ a roomy saloon with Ferrari Daytona inspired styling and the ex-Buick alloy V8 engine.
VW introduce a small diesel engine to the golf range.
Mercedes reveal the C111-3. Where its two predecessors had been powered by Wankel rotary engines, this one has a 5 cylinder turbo-charged/inter-cooled Diesel engine producing 180 bhp. At Nardo test track on June 12th, at an average speed of around 150mph, the C111-3 either establishes or brake a total of 16 world speed and endurance records, some of which pertained regardless of its engine type.the
Vauxhall’s ‘T Car’ Chevette appears in the UK as a 2 or 4 door saloon (sedan).
Michael Edwardes takes over the helm of the British Leyland conglomerate, together with its labour relations, production quality and public perception .
Volkswagen cease production of the ‘Beetle’ in Germany forty years after production began.
Rover’s 3500 ‘SD1’ wins the European Car of the Year award.
Merger plans between Swedish manufacturers Saab and Volvo are abandoned.
Production of the Wankel rotary engined NSU Ro80 comes to an end.
Porsche introduce 924 and 928 models, both featuring front-mounted water-cooled engines and rear transaxles. The 924 is an aborted VW project and thus contains a high percentage of WV parts-bin components, including the engine from the Transporter van. The V8 powered 928 is eventually intended to take over from the 911 and wins the European Car of The Year Award.
The Volvo DAF conglomerate slips into financial difficulties. The Dutch Government comes to the rescue with financial aid.
British Leyland shows substantial signs of recovery in the hands of Michael Edwardes but the company’s future is far from secure.
Toyo Kogyo launch the Mazda RX7, a two-seat sports coupe powered by a Wankel rotary engine.
Ford introduces the Fiesta, their first front-wheel-drive small family car. It is to be made at plants in England, Spain and Germany.
Rolls Royce Motor Company is sold to Vickers for £38m as part of the Rolls-Royce engineering group.
Rover begins collaboration with Honda.
Maserati Bora production comes to an end.
Simca- Matra complete the first model of new and practical concept in personal transportation. Based on a single-box van-like shape but with a car-like interior and comfortable flexible seating for up to seven people, the P17 concept is rejected by Talbot-Simca, prompting Matra to approach Renault and to develop the concept further in prototype P18. The MPV is on its way!
Rear wheel drive Escort Mk2 production comes to an end to make way for the new front-wheel-drive Escort Mk3.
Bitter strikes at British Leyland provoke chairman Sir Michael Edwardes to threaten "Return to work or lose your jobs."
Daimler-Jaguar division of British Leyland gets John Egan as its new Chairman. Egan sets about rebuilding pride in the quality of design and production, lost since British Leyland’s formation.
General Motors announces the launch of the Saturn project in the USA, with the intention of creating a new brand and new products from scratch.
John Z DeLorean, former General Motors high-flyer, launches the DMC-12, his stainless steel gull-wing dream car into a world of recession and high interest rates. Designed by Georgetto Guigaro, engineered by Lotus Cars and powered by the Douvrin PRV V6 engine it appears over-priced against stiff opposition and quality issues compound the problem.
Maserati launch the Biturbo range of coupes, spyders and saloons powered by twin-turbocharged all-alloy V6 engines.
Honda starts production at its first US factory.
Having built 8,563 DMC-12s, the DeLorean Motor Company’s factory in Northern Ireland goes into receivership and after a few months, the British government, DeLorean’s biggest creditor by far, issues orders to shut it down.
Anthony Colin Bruce Chapman dies suddenly aged 54, having grown Lotus into an extraordinarily successful Grand Prix team, a substantial low-volume sports car production specialist and an extremely reputable auto-engineering consultancy.
Lexus is announced as the name of Toyota’s new luxury brand in the USA and Europe, intended to allow them to overcome brand prejudice and compete head to head with the prestige European and American manufacturers.
Maserati end production of the Merak
Japanese manufacturer Toyo Kogyo changes its name to Mazda Motor Corporation.
Renault release the new Espace, the first MPV, designed, developed and built for them by Matra at their assembly plant in Romorontin, near Paris.
Chrysler buys AMC and takes over production of the Jeep range.
Founder of Jaguar, Sir William Lyons, dies as the company sees its reputation for quality and value return.
Volkswagen takes a 51% share in Spanish car makers SEAT.
The Ford Motor Company acquires a 75% shareholding in Aston Martin Lagonda.
The new Lincoln Continental is Ford’s first car with a six-cylinder engine and front-wheel drive.
Fiat acquires additional shares in Ferrari, taking its total shareholding to 90%.
Enzo Ferrari dies in Modena, aged 90.
British Aerospace buys Rover Group.
General Motors takes a 50% stake in Saab of Sweden.
General Motors introduces the Geo brand to market Suzuki, Isuzu, and Toyota models in the USA.
Lexus introduces its first model, the LS400.
Honda announces plans to establish European car production by expanding its existing manufacturing facilities at Swindon UK
Honda starts Civic production at its East Liberty, Ohio plant.
Ford takes over Jaguar Cars, promising to build on the unique identity and brand values of the Jaguar name.
Vickers Rolls Royce and BMW announce a joint venture company to build aero-engines – BMW Rolls-Royce GmbH.
Following Czech government approval, VW establishes a new partnership with Skoda.
The Dodge Viper is released with a steel chassis, a glass-fibre body and a 400 horsepower light-alloy V10 engine.
Maserati is bought outright by Fiat.
With development input from parent company Ford, Jaguar announces a vastly improved XJ6.
Sir David Brown, former owner of Aston-Martin Lagonda, dies aged 89.
Aston Martin introduce the DB7, with sleek, modern bodywork, strong six cylinder engines and Jaguar XJS underpinnings. Produced at a dedicated factory in Bloxham, near Banbury in Oxfordshire, it soon begins to achieve sales levels previously unheard of for any Aston Martin.
BMW buys Rover Cars from British Aerospace.
McLaren Cars, previously successful as Formula 1 racing car constructors, introduce the F1 sports supercar. Designed by Gordon Murray and Peter Stevens it features a BMW V12 engine, a top speed well in excess of 200 mph and a price in excess of £500,000.00.
The Ford Motor Company acquires the outstanding 25% interest Aston Martin Lagonda to gain complete control.
The Museum of Modern Art in New York places an early E-Type roadster on permanent display, only the third car to given this honour.
Jaguar introduces the V8 Powered XK8 as a replacement for the venerable XJS.
Vickers put Rolls-Royce Motor Cars up for sale to the highest bidder.
Ferrari takes control of Maserati, and closes the factory for a complete refit and modernisation.
VW announce the New Beetle. A modern stylised interpretation of the original, it shares its floor-pan and many mechanical components with the front-wheel drive Golf.
Rolls Royce is sold after an acrimonious bidding war between Volkswagen and BMW. The final outcome is that, while VW wins the production plant at Crewe and the Bentley brand name, BMW buys the rights to use the Rolls Royce name and announces its plan to develop a new generation of cars which will be built at its own British factory from 2003.
Chrysler and Daimler Benz merge to form Daimler-Chrysler. Initial indications are that the two businesses will remain autonomous.
Volvo sells its car-making division to Ford Motor Company but continues to manufacture trucks.
Aston Martin becomes part of Ford’s Premier Automotive Group joining Jaguar, Lincoln and Volvo, enabling it to call on a pool of expertise, financial and technical resources which would otherwise have been way beyond its reach.
Having invested considerably in the Rover Group and struggled unsuccessfully to make it pay, BMW withdraws and ‘sells’ Rover and MG to The Phoenix Group for a token £1.00. BMW retains the rights to brands Mini, Triumph, Riley and Land Rover, the last of which it then sells to Ford.
Under the ownership of BMW Rolls-Royce move production from Derby to a new, purpose built factory next to the old Grand Prix circuit at Goodwood, West Sussex.
BMW release the ‘NEW MINI’, a modern interpretation of the original Mini built at the former Morris Abingdon plant. Powered by a South-American built, Chrysler-sourced engine, it retains the original’s cheeky appeal and dynamic handling.
In the UK, a new Licence-plate numbering system is introduced.
Jaguar Cars introduce the X Type, based on an extended version of Ford’s European Mondeo floorpan with transverse engine and 4 wheel-drive.
Rolls Royce complete their new factory and commence production of the new Phantom, due for delivery to customers on the 1st January 2003.
Named after the company’s founder Enzo, Ferrari introduce the Enzo supercar. Made of carbonfibre and incorporating much else in the way of Formula 1 technology, its all-alloy, 660 bhp, V12 engine endows the Enzo with a top speed of 217.5 mph.
First customers for Rolls Royce’s New Phantom take delivery on 1st January as promised and world-wide deliveries commence.
Production of the ‘Beetle’ finally comes to an end at VW’s Puebla, plant in Mexico.
Matra’s production-line closes at Romorontin, following commercial failure of Renault’s Avantime and their decision to take Espace production in-house. Matra and its facilities are sold to Italian styling house and niche production specialists Pininfarina SpA, who rename the company Matra Automobile Engineering.
Peter Morgan, son of Morgan founder ‘HFS’ dies aged 84, leaving the business in the safe hands of his son Charles.
Now owned by Volkwagen, Bentley introduces their first all-new design. Based on VW’s large-car platform, the new Continental GT features a contemporary body (styled in-house), 4 wheel drive and an extensively re-engineered version of VW’s 6 litre W12 engine, twin-turbocharged to produce 552bhp.
Car production in the UK reaches its highest level in five years. Britain’s biennial motor show has its last event at the National Exhibition Centre before its move back to London.
More than 40 years after it was launched, the e-type Jaguar has a special exhibition devoted to it at London’s Design Museum.
Production begins on the Aston Martin Volante.
24 year old Russian multimillionaire Nikolas Smolensky purchased Blackpool based TVR for £15 million.
MG Rover -the last "traditional" British mid-sized car manufacturer goes into administration with the key assets finally being purchased by China based Nanjing Automobie Group. Thousands of jobs are lost although there is hope that small scale car manufacturing could return to the same Longbridge plant sometime in the future.
Elsewhere in the Midlands, production begins on the new Aston Martin Vantage.
Honda and the MINI brand continue to help the UK economy as both enjoy increased investment resulting in new jobs. Honda plans to add a further 700 people to its UK workforce, while the world-wide success of the MINI will result in a further 1200 jobs in manufacturing and assorted component industries.
Nissan announce that its new Qashqai car will be built at the company’s Sunderland plant, with the cars being exported across the globe, including Japan. The Qashqai is described as a crossover -effectively a passenger car with a sleek dynamic top half combined with SUV attributes of large pronounced wheel arches and slightly elevated ground clearance. In terms of its size its sits between C-segment hatchbacks and SUVs.
Lotus announces it is to produce a new mid-engined sports car which should be available in about two years time.
The 1½ millionth Honda Civic rolls of the production line at Bridgend.
TVR, the innovative Blackpool based specialist sports car company finally closes its doors after a long battle to remain in production. Owners, enthusiasts and employees meet up for a final celebration in Blackpool.
The British Motor Show returns to London after several decades in the West Midlands. The new venue is the Excel Centre on the banks of the River Thames and nearly 500,000 people attend.
The 30,000th Aston Martin is produced, while the Jaguar XK coupe wins Britain’s car of the year award and luxury car of the year awards.
The Bentley marque enjoys continued success under the parentage of Volkswagen and its newest model is the company’s fastest ever production car -the Bentley Continental GT Speed. It has a top speed of over 200 mph and can get from 0-60 mph in just 4.3 seconds. It is offered for sale in Britain at £137,500.
Manufacturers around the world put more effort and resources into designing and building more environmentally friendly vehicles as the price of oil increases and there is greater awareness of the damage that harmful pollutants are causing from traditional petrol based engined cars.
Britain’s young motor racing star Lewis Hamilton very nearly becomes the new world F1 motor racing champion in his first season -eventually being beaten in the final race. His success though reignites interest in motor sport around the world.
Ford accepts an offer by the rapidly expanding Tata Motors of India for the purchase of Land Rover and Jaguar. The Indian company say their aim is to ensure the cars will remain essentially British.
As the Model T celebrates its 100th anniversary, Ford also announces plans for a year long celebration of the iconic car around the world. One initiative is for a surviving car to be displayed in the "glass tank’ outside the Design Museum in London.
The new Roewe 550 is unveiled at the Shanghai Motor Show in China with the hope that the car may eventually be produced at the old MG Rover plant at Longbridge.
In the US, General Motors announces annual losses for 2007 of billion -the largest ever loss by a US car manufacturer and a further sign that many of the older established car makers are struggling to compete with the surge of production from Asia.
See – History of Motor Car / Automobile Inventions and Improvements
A few nice pc plastics parts made in china images I found:
A few nice high-quality plastic moulding images I found:
Bruchsichere Verpackung / Unbreakable packaging
Image by BASF – We create chemistry
Wer schon einmal eine Styropor-Platte gebogen hat, kennt das Phänomen: Die Platte kann brechen und kleine Kügelchen fliegen umher. Anders ist das bei Platten aus E-por®, denn der Schaumstoff ist biegsamer und zäher. Hergestellt wird er durch ein neues Produktionsverfahren der BASF. Verarbeitet wird er wie Styropor: Kleine, mit dem Treibmittel Pentan gefüllte Kunststoffgranulate werden mit Wasserdampf aufgeschäumt – dabei bläht sich der Schaumstoff auf das 30-Fache seines ursprünglichen Volumens auf. Die aufgeschäumten Partikel werden dann erneut mit Wasserdampf in der gewünschten Form miteinander verschweißt. Dank der verwendeten Inhaltsstoffe wird der Schaumstoff stabiler. Das ist besonders nützlich für Verpackungen von wertvollen Geräten wie etwa großen Flachbildschirmen oder auch Solarkollektoren. Die 200 bis 400 Mikrometer großen, luftgefüllten Zellen des Schaumstoffs puffern die bei einem Sturz oder Stoß entstehende Energie ab – und das auch mehrere Male hintereinander. Dadurch kommen die Produkte unbeschädigt und funktionsfähig beim Endverbraucher an. Wenn kleine Kügelchen große Dinge schützen, dann ist das Chemie, die verbindet. Von BASF.
Vergrößerung 50:1 (bei 12 cm Bildbreite)
Abdruck honorarfrei. Copyright by BASF.
If you’ve ever bent a Styropor panel you’ll be familiar with the phenomenon: the panel can break causing tiny granules to fly through the air. Panels made of E-por® are different because the foam is tougher and more flexible. It is manufactured using a new BASF production process. It is processed like Styropor: small plastic granules filled with the blowing agent pentane are foamed with steam – as a result the foam swells to 30 times its original volume. The expanded particles are then fused together again with steam in the required mould. Thanks to the components used the foam is more stable. This is particularly useful for the packaging of high-quality products, such as large flat screen televisions or solar collectors. The 200 to 400 micrometer sized air-filled cells of the foam cushion the energy generated by a fall or shock – even several times in a row. This means the products reach the end consumer undamaged and fully functional. When tiny granules protect big things, it’s because at BASF we create chemistry.
Magnification 50:1 (bei 12 cm in width)
Print free of charge. Copyright by BASF.
3D Erasers – Twin Mill III
Image by Leap Kye
Couldn’t think of any catchy title for it…
Anyway, found this in a "China-shop" where all things were tagged with "Made in China" and sold for a bargain price. It came in card and plastic mould with another fancy looking car, and available in a variety of bright cheerful colours; green-yellow, red-yellow etc. No Mattel or Hot Wheels logo or copyright statement can be found, not even the manufacturer’s name, as expected lol. A high quality copy nonetheless. It can be disassembled part by part and everything fits perfectly into its place, something the real Hot Wheels can’t do hmph… (Will upload a picture of it disassembled soon)
A unique addition to my collection, though it will not sit alongside the rest of the real ones. Found it useful for something else instead.
Some cool china tooling making suppliers images:
A Bitcoin You Can Flip
Image by jurvetson
My son has become fascinated with bitcoins, and so I had to get him a tangible one for Xmas (thanks Sim1!). The public key is imprinted visibly on the tamper-evident holographic film, and the private key lies underneath.
I too was fascinated by digital cash back in college, and more specifically by the asymmetric mathematical transforms underlying public-key crypto and digital blind signatures.
I remembered a technical paper I wrote, but could not find it. A desktop search revealed an essay that I completely forgot, something that I had recovered from my archives of floppy discs (while I still could).
It is an article I wrote for the school newspaper in 1994. Ironically, Microsoft Word could not open this ancient Microsoft Word file format, but the free text editors could.
What a fun time capsule, below, with some choice naivetés…
I am trying to reconstruct what I was thinking, and wondering if it makes any sense. I think I was arguing that a bulletproof framework for digital cash (and what better testing ground) could be used to secure a digital container for executable code on a rental basis. So the expression of an idea — the specific code, or runtime service — is locked in a secure container. The idea would be to prevent copying instead of punishing after the fact. Micro-currency and micro-code seem like similar exercises in regulating the single use of an issued number.
Now that the Bitcoin experiment is underway, do you know of anyone writing about it as an alternative framework for intellectual property?
IP and Digital Cash
Digital Cash and the “Intellectual Property” Oxymoron
By Steve Jurvetson
Many of us will soon be working in the information services or technology industries which are currently tangled in a bramble patch of intellectual property law. As the law struggles to find coherency and an internally-consistent logic for intellectual property (IP) protection, digital encryption technologies may provide a better solution — from the perspective of reducing litigation, exploiting the inherent benefits of an information-based business model, and preserving a free economy of ideas.
Bullet-proof digital cash technology, which is now emerging, can provide a protected “cryptographic container” for intellectual expressions, thereby preserving traditional notions of intellectual property that protect specific instantiations of an idea rather than the idea itself. For example, it seems reasonable that Intuit should be able to protect against the widespread duplication of their Quicken software (the expression of an idea), but they should not be able to patent the underlying idea of single-entry bookkeeping. There are strong economic incentives for digital cash to develop and for those techniques to be adapted for IP protection — to create a protected container or expression of an idea. The rapid march of information technology has strained the evolution of IP law, but rather than patching the law, information technology itself may provide a more coherent solution.
Information Wants To Be Free
Currently, IP law is enigmatic because it is expanding to a domain for which it was not initially intended. In developing the U.S. Constitution, Thomas Jefferson argued that ideas should freely transverse the globe, and that ideas were fundamentally different from material goods. He concluded that “Inventions then cannot, in nature, be a subject of property.” The issues surrounding IP come into sharp focus as we shift to being more of an information-based economy.
The use of e-mail and local TV footage helps disseminate information around the globe and can be a force for democracy — as seen in the TV footage from Chechen, the use of modems in Prague during the Velvet Revolution, and the e-mail and TV from Tianammen Square. Even Gorbachev used a video camera to show what was happening after he was kidnapped. What appears to be an inherent force for democracy runs into problems when it becomes the subject of property.
As higher-level programming languages become more like natural languages, it will become increasingly difficult to distinguish the idea from the code. Language precedes thought, as Jean-Louis Gassée is fond of saying, and our language is the framework for the formulation and expression of our ideas. Restricting software will increasingly be indistinguishable from restricting freedom of speech.
An economy of ideas and human attention depends on the continuous and free exchange of ideas. Because of the associative nature of memory processes, no idea is detached from others. This begs the question, is intellectual property an oxymoron?
Intellectual Property Law is a Patch
John Perry Barlow, former Grateful Dead lyricist and co-founder (with Mitch Kapor) of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, argues that “Intellectual property law cannot be patched, retrofitted or expanded to contain digitized expression… Faith in law will not be an effective strategy for high-tech companies. Law adapts by continuous increments and at a pace second only to geology. Technology advances in lunging jerks. Real-world conditions will continue to change at a blinding pace, and the law will lag further behind, more profoundly confused. This mismatch may prove impossible to overcome.”
From its origins in the Industrial Revolution where the invention of tools took on a new importance, patent and copyright law has protected the physical conveyance of an idea, and not the idea itself. The physical expression is like a container for an idea. But with the emerging information superhighway, the “container” is becoming more ethereal, and it is disappearing altogether. Whether it’s e-mail today, or the future goods of the Information Age, the “expressions” of ideas will be voltage conditions darting around the net, very much like thoughts. The fleeting copy of an image in RAM is not very different that the fleeting image on the retina.
The digitization of all forms of information — from books to songs to images to multimedia — detaches information from the physical plane where IP law has always found definition and precedent. Patents cannot be granted for abstract ideas or algorithms, yet courts have recently upheld the patentability of software as long as it is operating a physical machine or causing a physical result. Copyright law is even more of a patch. The U.S. Copyright Act of 1976 requires that works be fixed in a durable medium, and where an idea and its expression are inseparable, the merger doctrine dictates that the expression cannot be copyrighted. E-mail is not currently copyrightable because it is not a reduction to tangible form. So of course, there is a proposal to amend these copyright provisions. In recent rulings, Lotus won its case that Borland’s Quattro Pro spreadsheet copied elements of Lotus 123’s look and feel, yet Apple lost a similar case versus Microsoft and HP. As Professor Bagley points out in her new text, “It is difficult to reconcile under the total concept and feel test the results in the Apple and Lotus cases.” Given the inconsistencies and economic significance of these issues, it is no surprise that swarms of lawyers are studying to practice in the IP arena.
Back in the early days of Microsoft, Bill Gates wrote an inflammatory “Open Letter to Hobbyists” in which he alleged that “most of you steal your software … and should be kicked out of any club meeting you show up at.” He presented the economic argument that piracy prevents proper profit streams and “prevents good software from being written.” Now we have Windows.
But seriously, if we continue to believe that the value of information is based on scarcity, as it is with physical objects, we will continue to patch laws that are contrary to the nature of information, which in many cases increases in value with distribution. Small, fast moving companies (like Netscape and Id) protect their ideas by getting to the marketplace quicker than their larger competitors who base their protection on fear and litigation.
The patent office is woefully understaffed and unable to judge the nuances of software. Comptons was initially granted a patent that covered virtually all multimedia technology. When they tried to collect royalties, Microsoft pushed the Patent Office to overturn the patent. In 1992, Software Advertising Corp received a patent for “displaying and integrating commercial advertisements with computer software.” That’s like patenting the concept of a radio commercial. In 1993, a DEC engineer received a patent on just two lines of machine code commonly used in object-oriented programming. CompuServe announced this month that they plan to collect royalties on the widely used GIF file format for images.
The Patent Office has issued well over 12,000 software patents, and a programmer can unknowingly be in violation of any them. Microsoft had to pay 0MM to STAC in February 1994 for violating their patent on data compression. The penalties can be costly, but so can a patent search. Many of the software patents don’t have the words “computer,” “software,” “program,” or “algorithm” in their abstracts. “Software patents turn every decision you make while writing a program into a legal risk,” says Richard Stallman, founder of the League for Programming Freedom. “They make writing a large program like crossing a minefield. Each step has a small chance of stepping on a patent and blowing you up.” The very notion of seventeen years of patent protection in the fast moving software industry seems absurd. MS-DOS did not exist seventeen years ago.
IP law faces the additional wrinkle of jurisdictional issues. Where has an Internet crime taken place? In the country or state in which the computer server resides? Many nations do not have the same intellectual property laws as the U.S. Even within the U.S., the law can be tough to enforce; for example, a group of music publishers sued CompuServe for the digital distribution of copyrighted music. A complication is that CompuServe has no knowledge of the activity since it occurs in the flood of bits transferring between its subscribers
The tension seen in making digital copies revolves around the issue of property. But unlike the theft of material goods, copying does not deprive the owner of their possessions. With digital piracy, it is less a clear ethical issue of theft, and more an abstract notion that you are undermining the business model of an artist or software developer. The distinction between ethics and laws often revolves around their enforceability. Before copy machines, it was hard to make a book, and so it was obvious and visible if someone was copying your work. In the digital age, copying is lightning fast and difficult to detect. Given ethical ambiguity, convenience, and anonymity, it is no wonder we see a cultural shift with regard to digital ethics.
Piracy, Plagiarism and Pilfering
We copy music. We are seldom diligent with our footnotes. We wonder where we’ve seen Strat-man’s PIE and the four slices before. We forward e-mail that may contain text from a copyrighted news publication. The SCBA estimates that 51% of satellite dishes have illegal descramblers. John Perry Barlow estimates that 90% of personal hard drives have some pirated software on them.
Or as last month’s Red Herring editorial points out, “this atmosphere of electronic piracy seems to have in turn spawned a freer attitude than ever toward good old-fashioned plagiarism.” Articles from major publications and WSJ columns appear and circulate widely on the Internet. Computer Pictures magazine replicated a complete article on multimedia databases from New Media magazine, and then publicly apologized.
Music and voice samples are an increasingly common art form, from 2 Live Crew to Negativland to local bands like Voice Farm and Consolidated. Peter Gabriel embraces the shift to repositioned content; “Traditionally, the artist has been the final arbiter of his work. He delivered it and it stood on its own. In the interactive world, artists will also be the suppliers of information and collage material, which people can either accept as is, or manipulate to create their own art. It’s part of the shift from skill-based work to decision-making and editing work.”
But many traditionalists resist the change. Museums are hesitant to embrace digital art because it is impossible to distinguish the original from a copy; according to a curator at the New Museum of Contemporary Art, “The art world is scared to death of this stuff.” The Digital Audio Tape debate also illustrated the paranoia; the music industry first insisted that these DAT recorders had to purposely introduce static into the digital copies they made, and then they settled for an embedded code that limited the number of successive copies that could be made from the a master source.
For a healthier reaction, look at the phenomenally successful business models of Mosaic/Netscape and Id Software, the twisted creator of Doom. Just as McAfee built a business on shareware, Netscape and Id encourage widespread free distribution of their product. But once you want support from Netscape, or the higher levels of the Doom game, then you have to pay. For industries with strong demand-side economies of scale, such as Netscape web browsers or Safe-TCL intelligent agents, the creators have exploited the economies of information distribution. Software products are especially susceptible to increasing returns with scale, as are networking products and most of the information technology industries.
Yet, the Software Publishers Association reports that 1993 worldwide losses to piracy of business application software totaled .45 billion. They also estimated that 89% of software units in Korea were counterfeit. And China has 29 factories, some state-owned, that press 75 million pirated CDs per year, largely for export. GATT will impose the U.S. notions of intellectual property on a world that sees the issue very differently.
Clearly there are strong economic incentives to protect intellectual property, and reasonable arguments can be made for software patents and digital copyright, but the complexities of legal enforcement will be outrun and potentially obviated by the relatively rapid developments of another technology, digital cash and cryptography.
Digital Cash and the IP Lock
Digital cash is in some ways an extreme example of digital “property” — since it cannot be copied, it is possessed by one entity at a time, and it is static and non-perishable. If the techniques for protecting against pilferage and piracy work in the domain of cash, then they can be used to “protect” other properties by being embedded in them. If I wanted to copy-protect an “original” work of digital art, digital cash techniques be used as the “container” to protect intellectual property in the old style. A bullet-proof digital cash scheme would inevitably be adapted by those who stand to gain from the current system. Such as Bill Gates.
Several companies are developing technologies for electronic commerce. On January 12, several High-Tech Club members attended the Cybermania conference on electronic commerce with the CEOs of Intuit, CyberCash, Enter TV and The Lightspan Partnership. According to Scott Cook, CEO of Intuit, the motivations for digital cash are anonymity and efficient small-transaction Internet commerce. Anonymity preserves our privacy in the age of increasingly intrusive “database marketing” based on credit card purchase patterns and other personal information. Of course, it also has tax-evasion implications. For Internet commerce, cash is more efficient and easier to use than a credit card for small transactions.
“A lot of people will spend nickels on the Internet,” says Dan Lynch of CyberCash. Banks will soon exchange your current cash for cyber-tokens, or a “bag of bits” which you can spend freely on the Internet. A competitor based in the Netherlands called DigiCash has a Web page with numerous articles on electronic money and fully functional demo of their technology. You can get some free cash from them and spend it at some of their allied vendors.
Digital cash is a compelling technology. Wired magazine calls it the “killer application for electronic networks which will change the global economy.” Handling and fraud costs for the paper money system are growing as digital color copiers and ATMs proliferate. Donald Gleason, President of the Smart Card Enterprise unit of Electronic Payment Services argues that “Cash is a nightmare. It costs money handlers in the U.S. alone approximately billion a year to move the stuff… Bills and coinage will increasingly be replaced by some sort of electronic equivalent.” Even a Citibank VP, Sholom Rosen, agrees that “There are going to be winners and losers, but everybody is going to play.”
The digital cash schemes use a blind digital signature and a central repository to protect against piracy and privacy violations. On the privacy issue, the techniques used have been mathematically proven to be protected against privacy violations. The bank cannot trace how the cash is being used or who is using it. Embedded in these schemes are powerful digital cryptography techniques which have recently been spread in the commercial domain (RSA Data Security is a leader in this field and will be speaking to the High Tech Club on January 19).
To protect against piracy requires some extra work. As soon as I have a digital bill on my Mac hard drive, I will want to make a copy, and I can. (Many companies have busted their picks trying to copy protect files from hackers. It will never work.). The difference is that I can only spend the bill once. The copy is worthless. This is possible because every bill has a unique encrypted identifier. In spending the bill, my computer checks with the centralized repository which verifies that my particular bill is still unspent. Once I spend it, it cannot be spent again. As with many electronic transactions today, the safety of the system depends on the integrity of a centralized computer, or what Dan Lynch calls “the big database in the sky.”
One of the most important limitations of the digital cash techniques is that they are tethered to a transaction between at least three parties — a buyer, seller and central repository. So, to use such a scheme to protect intellectual property, would require networked computers and “live” files that have to dial up and check in with the repository to be operational. There are many compelling applications for this, including voter registration, voting tabulation, and the registration of digital artwork originals.
When I asked Dan Lynch about the use of his technology for intellectual property protection, he agreed that the bits that now represent a bill could be used for any number of things, from medical records to photographs. A digital photograph could hide a digital signature in its low-order bits, and it would be imperceptible to the user. But those bits could be used with a registry of proper image owners, and could be used to prove misappropriation or sampling of the image by others.
Technology author Steven Levy has been researching cryptography for Wired magazine, and he responded to my e-mail questions with the reply “You are on the right track in thinking that crypto can preserve IP. I know of several attempts to forward plans to do so.” Digital cash may provide a “crypto-container” to preserve traditional notions of intellectual property.
The transaction tether limits the short-term applicability of these schemes for software copy protection. They won’t work on an isolated computer. This certainly would slow its adoption for mobile computers since the wireless networking infrastructure is so nascent. But with Windows ’95 bundling network connectivity, soon most computers will be network-ready — at least for the Microsoft network. And now that Bill Gates is acquiring Intuit, instead of dollar bills, we will have Bill dollars.
The transaction tether is also a logistical headache with current slow networks, which may hinder its adoption for mass-market applications. For example, if someone forwards a copyrighted e-mail, the recipient may have to have their computer do the repository check before they could see the text of the e-mail. E-mail is slow enough today, but in the near future, these techniques of verifying IP permissions and paying appropriate royalties in digital cash could be background processes on a preemptive multitasking computer (Windows ’95 or Mac OS System 8). The digital cash schemes are consistent with other trends in software distribution and development — specifically software rental and object-oriented “applets” with nested royalty payments. They are also consistent with the document-centric vision of Open Doc and OLE.
The user of the future would start working on their stationary. When it’s clear they are doing some text entry, the word processor would be downloaded and rented for its current usage. Digital pennies would trickle back to the people who wrote or inspired the various portions of the core program. As you use other software applets, such as a spell-checker, it would be downloaded as needed. By renting applets, or potentially finer-grained software objects, the licensing royalties would be automatically tabulated and exchanged, and software piracy would require heroic efforts. Intellectual property would become precisely that — property in a market economy, under lock by its “creator,” and Bill Gates’ 1975 lament over software piracy may now be addressed 20 years later.
——–end of paper———–
On further reflection, I must have been thinking of executable code (where the runtime requires a cloud connect to authenticate) and not passive media. Verification has been a pain, but perhaps it’s seamless in a web-services future. Cloud apps and digital cash depend on it, so why not the code itself.
I don’t see it as particularly useful for still images (but it could verify the official owner of any unique bundle of pixels, in the sense that you can "own" a sufficiently large number, but not the essence of a work of art or derivative works). Frankly, I’m not sure about non-interactive content in general, like pure video playback. "Fixing" software IP alone would be a big enough accomplishment.
1960’s packet of sealed Embassy cigarettes unopened best selling cigarett brand of the 1960’s until 1971, succeeded by Players No6
Image by Computer Poster Photographs
Cigarettes have been available packets for a long time The fraze "Coff in nails" Is a old 19th century word (1880s) Only fitting because the like of brands that came out with natural, especially like "WoodBine" 1888) and knowing the dangers of smoking even then. called cigarettes "coffin nails" The Bonsack machine in 1880 was the first cigarette making machine ever Woodbine was formally britains best selling cigarette and was decomissiomednon its 200th aninversery in 1988 when the manufactuer Wd&Ho Whills decided to debunked because of old age and call it a day at 200 years old. they was also the manufactuers odd Golden Virginia, and Embassy. in Britain not many brands have been Britains best selling cigarette, since the end of end of the 1940s there is only four brands that ever did this(Embassy, Players N06, Silk Cut and Lambert and Butler) Benson&Hedges special filter was never actually britains best selling cigarette, as there is no evidence in figures to say they was, also there is no figures published for the 1980s, maybe four brands drew with each other, so there was no out right winner, maybe Bensons had individual yeas a britains best selling cigarette and a good enough average of sales in infact qualify them for said award?. I guess maybe even though they never was beat seller in a decleration adequate they surly had lots of individual years where they was UK’so Number1. Silk Cut is a Benson brand any way, and so is Mayfair in reality. Mayfair are Britains second best selling cigarette since 2002 (First ever econemy tobacco brand that ever held the honour of Britain’s second best selling cigarette, L&B have been The UKs best seller since 2002, the top two have not changed to date., Mayfair are branded Gallagher, and now JTI that are the same company as Benson.. Mayfair is a 1960s Benson cigarette, originally in a red box, and not king size.
Silk Cut themselves was the biggest selling cigarette brand of the 1990s,
I might add.The worlds best selling cigarette is Marlboro since 1973 AS THE AMERICANS ALL THEM AS "COWBOY KILLERS" INDEED I AM A SMOKER AND I WOULD LIKE TO SAY THAT IS INDEED DANGEROUS TO ARM THESE CIGARETTES WITH A GUNS.
OLD CIGARETTE BOXES CAN FETCH A LOT OF MONEY UP TO A (£100 )ORIGINAL CIGARETTE PACKETS FROM 1847 TO THE 1890s ARE RARE AND WORTH A £ OR TWO, BUT REMAIN Unseen UNDOCUMENTED IN A PRIVATE COLLECTION BY A UNKNOWN COLLECTOR. IN INTERNET DOCUMENTATION, YOU MAY FIND DIAGRAMS ELSEWHERE BUT AT THIS MOMENT IN TIME THERE IS NO REAL DOCUMENTATIONAL EVIDENCE TO SHOW THESE EARLY CIGARETTES, SAYING THAT WE HAVE BEEN SMOKING IN BRITAIN FOR APPROX 540 YEARS OR MORE. THERE IS LOTS OF MEMORABILIA OUT THERE, IVE SEEN A FEW THREE HUNDRED YEARS OLD BRASS TOBACCO POTS WITH LIDS FOR SALE ON EBAY, NICE ADDITION TO YOUR 14 A DAY, WHY DO THEY STILL MAKE CIGARETTES? BECAUSE WE GET BAD TEMPERED IF WE HAVE NOT GOT ANY AND AGGRESSIVELY FORCE THE TOBACCO FACTORY WORKERS TO MAKE US SOME? WELL THAT MUST PASSED A MIND OF TWO WONDERING TO OURSELVES AFTER ALL KNOWING THE DANGERS OF SMOKING, TO AS WHY WE ARE TECHNICALLY STILL SMOKING THESE SMOKE STICKS THAT MAKE YOU FEEL SICK, MAYBE THEY ARE OUR PAIN THRESH HOLD, AND DEFEAT ANOTHER ILL. IF WE ENDURE THEM?
THE GOVERNMENT KNOW WHAT WE ARE LIKE. AND THAT’S WHY THEY CAN’T BAN THE STUFF? I HAVE BEEN PUFFIN AND INHALING TOBACCO PRODUCTS FOR 30 YEARS. IN THEM DAYS. 20 SUPERKINGS WAS £1.14p that about £3.40p in today’s reckoning. over £5 now is paid in tax on cigarettes (75%)
.Tax was introduced in 1976 and health warnings on packets in 1971 by EU law. knowing the dangers of smoking as i do i must say there is still mythology and confusion about cigarettes. Such as the boy advert on todays graphic health warning.that claim that "even smoking around children can kill them" and that people "up to the 1950s use to smoke a average of 100 cigarettes a day" opposed to today’s figures of 14 a day average intake. Its where the system gets confused, and the seems as if the non smoker is trying to take control, and make false claims such as "smoking around children damages there health", When infact most of us smokers would rather be the child as they have 99.9% fresher air than us non smokers do, whether or not there is smoke in the same room as they are in, and the smell of nicotine is good for them , as it makes them feel sick and deters them from smoking when they are old enough to do so, parents on the whole do not encourage children to smoke, it comes as well from other parts of the community, anyway there parents are not to blame for smoking, because they was children themselves once. Maybe a ignorant non smokers attitude at the end of the day to use children as the victim.
100 cigarettes a day is a myth? maybe maybe because cigarettes price have gone up five times , so they count that as 100? another case of misinterpretation of the official secrets act because they could not read the complexity of the text, these long words, and invest in PHD professors to de classify the official secrets act as official public revelation?
Jut like China did when they banned the motorbike recently, and never read the health and saft act out first as you must, but said they was not banning them from there towns because they was dangerous, but said because they was cheap, it is not so much they said they was a cheap form of transport, but they should have read the health and safety act out first, then you as thus say "there is better things to spend our money on"
.There has been Health warnings in BRITAIN FOR OVER 400 HUNDRED YEARS ON TOBACCO. I READ ONE RECENTLY DATED 200 YEARS AGO SAYING "SMOKING KILLS" THERE ARE INFACT 12 MILLION SMOKERS IN BRITAIN
AGAIN THE FIGURES WAS LOWERED TO HIDE A KIND OF NON SMOKERS PARANOIA WHERE IS THE EVIDENCE THAT SMOKING IS ON THE DECREASE? ANYWAY HERE IS YOUR TOP TEN ALTERNATIVES TO SMOKING YOU ASKED ME FOR. CHOOSE YOUR OWN DEATH. JUST CHECK THAT TAB . YES YOU CAN "CUSTOMISED YOUR OWN DEATH" INSTEAD OF DYEING FROM CIGARETTES. CHOOSE FROM THE LIST PROVIDED AS A ALTERNATIVE INSTEAD
1- DRINK AND DRIVE?." ITS A FUN WAY TO GO"
US AT MADABOUT@COM CAN OFFER YOU THE BEST DEALS ON MASTER OF YOUR OWN ROAD, .WARNING BEWARE OF THIS WEBSITE AS THE PRODUCT IS A SEMI RIPP-OFF AS THEY ONLY SUPPLY A IN CAR BAR FITTING. NO TRAINING TO DO 125MPH ON A BUILT UP AREA FOR CHARITY DRUNK.
2- CONFESS TO THE POLICE YOU ARE REALLY A PAEDOPHILE? AT MORE T-I-C,s THAN A CLOCK .COM we can arrange this for you ,the setting up of fake photos,,witnesses to the crime, children in there masses can be supplied on demand to give false witnessbaccounts, as we are indeed the "biggest UK supplier" of said resource. guaranteed satisfaction, or "we will refund you your mumy back "GUARANTEED".
AGAIN IT MUST BE SAID BECAUSE OF THESE SITES CLAIMING TO BE PROFESSIONAL PEDO FRAME SPECIALISTS. YOU CAN END UP SPENDING A LOT OF MONEY "DIE PEDO DIE.CO.UK@YOU" ARE THE WORLD LEADER IN THIS INDUSTRY. THEY GET TO THE POINT. DON’T TAKE IT FROM ME, TAKE IT FROM THEM. THEY JUST SIMPLY SUPPLY YOU WITH A DIGITAL CAMERA, OR CAMCORDER. SIMPLE ISN’T IT JOB DONE BECAUSE WE ALL KNOW THAT PEOPLE IN PUBLIC WITH CAMERAS ARE PEDO’S RIGHT? !THIS HAS A 100% SUCCESS RATE, OR YOU MONEY BACK GUARANTEED EXCUSE ME AS I GIVE MY SPONSOR A HELP IN HAND I AM JUST LOOKING OUT OF MY CAR WINDOW RIGHT NOW, I AM HERE TO PLEASE I CAN SEE A MEMBER OF THE PUBLIC NOW WITH A SLR. camera,"HAY YOU PEDO WHAT ARE YOU TAKING PICTURES FOR IN PUBLIC FOR, ARE YOU A REAL PERV? THAT’S AGAINST THE LAW TO TAKE PHOTOS IN PUBLIC PLACES I AM TELLING ON YOU PEDOCAM"
THERE YOU GO I OFFER MY SERVICE AS VOLUNTEER.
,3 -WATCH THE BBC ,4- LIVE, WITH MUM AND DAD ALL YOUR LIFE?
,5- SMOKE CHESTERFIELDS?,
6-USE TESCO’S 24HOUR?,
7-BELIEVE THAT BREAST ENLARGEMENTS ARE REAL?
8- LIVE ON FACEBOOK (THE STUDENTS UNION HAVE A GOVERNMENT HEALTH WARNING WRITTEN ON THEIR BACKS?) and behind there backs.
-9 USE FLICKR 16 A DAY, ARSEH*LE CREEPING AROUND OTHER FLICKR MEMBERS. LOOKING AT THERE PHOTO STREAM, LEAVING COMMENTS SO YOU CAN GET MORE VIEWS FOR YOUR BORING PICTURES PLASTIC? SYNTHETIC VIEW COUNT CHEAP OR WHAT?
. I MEAN AT HALF THE PRICE TWO FOR ONE OFFER! LIMITED PROMOTION TIME ONLY, OFFER END 30/09/2078.
YES WE GET IT THAT YOU VIEW EVERBODYS PHOTSTREAM, SO THEY WILL VISIT YOUR FLICKR WEBSITE, TO CONTRIBUTE TO THE DIGITS, TO INCREASE THEM SO IT LOOKS LIKE A MASS POLITICAL COVER UP, THAT IN ALL OTHER CIRCUMSTANCES WAS THE BORING HOME SLIDE SHOW COME ALIVE, COME REAL, CONCOCTED IN BEELZEBUBS LABS, USING ONLY "BLACK BUNNIES" TO TEST SAID APPLICATIONS OF DEEP BORE, ONLY CAPABLE AS WE KNOW BY THE COPYRIGHT LAWS TO BE EXCLUSIVE TO THE UNDERGROUND TEST FERSILATIES OF THE DEVIL.
I WILL JUST READ THE MANUFACTURES GLOSSY ON THIS SITE CALLED firstname.lastname@example.org.
You mean flickr was concocted by the underworld, to fool us to believing different from what we all ready knew, and that was that other peoples photos are boring?
No you get done in by a dunce that contacted you on your flickr stream, and got friendly and then they came around and and killed you.
AND LAST BUT NOT LEAST No-10 "give up smoking" all together now "smoking kills" IT DOES IF YOU HAVE NOT GOT ANY THIS IS GUARANTEED BY TH MANUFACTURERS CALLED GOOGLE.BOMB TO BE THE ONLY REAL ALTERNATIVE TO SMOKING CIGARETTES "GOOGLE.BOMB".UNIVERSITY KNOWALLS@CO.UK claim a 100% success rate on my spelling…erm i mean on this particular subject product description highlighted on top of the Pops 1978. WE ARE HERE TO SERVE THE SMOKING COMMUNITY. JUST DOWNLOAD THE SOFTWARE CLICK "RUN" and when the yahoo tool bar is fully downloaded press INSTALL US AND ARE FRIENDS YAHOO WITH ASK JEAVES ON LEAD BASEBALL BAT, CAN HAVE "ANY F***ER" YOU SEEMED TO KNOW THE SPELLING CORRECTION ON THAT DIDN’T YOU? JUST YOU LITTLE B*STARDS OF INTERNET FLIDDERMISATION-KEYBOARD JUNKY CLONES "WE ARE ARD" and thus "GUNS DON’T KILL PEOPLE , WE KILL PEOPLE". us at cog-google re-enterprises forward-slash-you-up-a-bit@http. can do anyone. So tell me now you have herd the top ten options whats your choice? you only live one life life’s to short not to take advantage of these offers why not try a free 30 day trial download them all and brake your hard drive rendering your PC useless maybe that’s the "11th best alternative to smoking" that no one is offering us smokers so in the mean time as i light another JPS up. oh that’s a add as it illegal to promote cigarettes. (in other words they need no introduction. that’s why they don’t promote cigarettes anymore
And before i totality CoggGoogle looking at the internet all the time, stripping the gears i have to say to the next time.
You was serious there for a minute wasn’t you John Future?"
Indeed because i was dying for a cigarette, so back to normal now with Dr Dr
"Dr Dr i cant give up smoking". Dr says try hand grenades, just juggle them until they expire.
Maybe thinking about it though if it was not best to ship all of the smokers out on big ships and put them all on a island somwhere, and maybe put there faces on a Easter egg as a "Thanks" but no thanks, the supermarkets are now hiding the cigarettes behind sliding doors, and so should smokers be?
"But we are not black you may say?"
But i got a shipping line to run, and get this "Duty Free" where do you want to go? Easter island?
"WE will re invade the UK, and ethnic every where. The Cannery islands"
Ok lets go anyway i will becoming along with you as the government does not like me either.
"We will miss home"
Miss home i am just taking you on a cruise tour of my New Album, as this is a smugglers ship, and if anything goes wrong don’t worry you take the blame. Last stop Felixstowe
And we have to stop to pick up some cars, and other items. As we don’t intend on paying any VAT once we arrive back, excise duty is really means exercise duty, but as we are "Fat Wasters" we don’t qualify to pay for any. and you want out of Britain don’t you? to go and live in other peoples countries, the land of promise. And get this we can scream racial discrimination with the best off them. Have our foreign faces put on TV programmes in other county. embarrass there society when other competitor country’s watch there exported TV programmes. as they are now ethnicated broadcasters?
Have have" White nigger" shouted to us by a passing white van, and then as always thus, go and find a puney little native and bash beefy Because you are in the right?
We all know people emigrate to other peoples country’s because they think they are soft targets, and they will get a better life, better house than living in there own countries , or the UK, and you think it was because they was on the run?.
I have simply cut out the middleman here with my ship, and intercepted some ethnics to be, and sank the ship in the middle of the ocean with there grandads left over submarine missile, he was innuendoing about for years, and "Germans this and that".
And i got a big bumper pack of 200 Embassy, and get this duty free for my Captain Seagull efforts today.
You mean shoot the ethnics living in Britain, and the British nationals living abroad?
YES AND YOU TAKE THE BLAME. FOR LETTING THEM DO THIS IN THE FIRST PLACE.
Granted IT WAS NOT MY NUCLEAR MISSILE FROM POUND LAND THAT SANK THE EX PATS TO BE SHIP.
It was sank by imagrents arriving to come into Britain(there own worse enemy’s).
But you take the blame anyway, because you thought it in your best interest to do such a thing, its written all over your face "you are as bad as them" and if they get it you get it, law of advantages and the law also says "75+% tax. and i guess i will be getting a cut in that. BECAUSE YOU ARE GOING TO TAKE THE BLAME FOR WHAT I JUST DID, I SIMPLY CUT OUT THE MIDDLEMAN, AND "SANK RULE BRITANNIA -1" ON IT’s MAIDEN VOYAGE because they was apprentice ethnics.
call IT A MIX OF PERKS OF THE jOB AND ACT OF CHARITY.
Indeed you at home that never left these shores, along with foreign people abroad in there said counties that never emigrate.and are indiginous to the tee, are as bad as them. How could you be any different?
Do you really think we could have got away with being that racist for long ? No. Because they are all in together, Trust no one, you will be informed on at any moment in time. aproach with caution. It’s best to take the piss out of both sides and this is as we know called "Job satisfaction" You canot have your cake and eat it? Because it was a piece of cake.
Some cool china two shot mold manufacturer images:
RA – RE – Historical Bristol Street Directory 1871
Image by brizzle born and bred
Mathews’ Bristol Street Directory 1871
Rack Hay, Back Street
Raglan Place, Stapleton Road
Railway Cottages, King Street, Bedminster
Railway Terrace, Kingsland Road
Ranger’s Court, Lamb Street
Ranson’s Court, Bragg’s Lane
Red Lane, Redcliff Meads
Redcliff Back, Redcliff Street
William Baker & Sons, corn merchants www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/2060341010
Bram & Son, coopers, etc
P. Rowe, steamship agent
Harris & Sellick, rag merchants
Thomas Davis, coal merchant
Richard Cripps, wharfinger
Lucas, Brothers & Co. Redcliff wharf
Edward Mill Veal, vict, Carpenters’ Arms (pub) 1816. William Lockwood / 1820. James Warbutton / 1823 – 32. James Jones / 1834 – 39. Elizabeth Jones / 1840. Thomas Kerslake 1842 – 44. Jane Prewett / 1847. William David / 1848 to 1853. Edward Johns / 1854 to 1855. Mary Johns 1856 to 1857. Gregory Davey / 1858 to 1860. John Mallett / 1861. Eleanor Mallett / 1863 – 75. Ann Osborne / 1876 to 1878. R. E. Veal 1879. Edward Veal / 1881. James Andrews / 1882. Fanny Andrews / 1883. James Pollard / 1885 – 87. Sarah Hughes 1888. Sarah Williams / 1889. George Nott / 1891 – 99. Henry Davis / 1901. Mrs. E. Davis / 1904 – 09. Elizabeth Hinton. Edward Johns was also a fire brick maker
Redcliff Buildings, Redcliff Hill
Redcliff Crescent (east, west, & centre) York Road, Bedmister
Redcliff Hill, Redcliff Street to Bedminster Bridge
1. George Gardiner, surgeon
5. John Coles, joiner
7. William Morse, surgeon & dentist
8. Henry Hart, ship surveyor and valuer
9. William John Knight, plumber & painter
10. Webb & Thomas, milliners
11. J. W. Willway & Co. dyers, Redcliff house www.flickr.com/photos/20654194@N07/2052840014
12. Charles Hanney, Co-operative Society Stores
13. John Hillier, basket maker
14. Mrs Tidcombe, earthenware dealer
29. Elizabeth Jane Harris, dyer
John Tutt, hairdresser
14. John Webb, dairyman
Mrs Bethell, dress maker
15. Cleophas Shaddick
William Prowse, carpenter
16. Robert Long, saddler, etc
17. Josiah Harris, pawnbroker
19. John McCartney, currier
20. Charles Sherwood, baker
22. Frederick Harding, pork butcher
24. William Stone, paper hanger
25. Samuel Mansfield, boot maker
26. Alfred Martin, boot maker
27. Alfred Whittle, greengrocer etc
28. William Orchard, pork butcher
29. William Henry Richards, dentist & watch-maker
30. John Mathews, butcher.
31. George Williams, grocer
32. Robert Henry Smith, potato stores
33. John Thomas Wilkins, tailor
34. James Thomas, hay dealer
36. William James Hall, grocer
37. Aldred D. Collard, butcher www.flickr.com/photos/20654194@N07/2042727109
38. Charles Harrison, confectioner
William Merrick, builder & professor of singing, Rossini villa
39. Theophilus Ackerman, druggist
6. Henry Thompson, saddler, etc
7. Mary Ann Garland, straw hat maker
8. John Peace Couch, boot maker
9. William Kirk, news-agent
11. William Frederick Sheppard, hatter
12. David J. Thomas, hosier
13. John Coates, watch maker
14. William Goulter, chemist
15. Albert Edward Flux, linen draper, etc
16. Elizabeth Jones, confectioner
17. Miss Sheppard, greengrocer
17. Robert S. Cole, plumber & gas-fitter
18. Henry Kent, butcher
19. Jacob Smith, confectioner
21. Joseph Henry Green
Redcliff Girl’s School – Mrs. Green, governess
22. Thomas Stephens, wine & spirit dealer
36. John R. Farler & Son, family grocers
37. William Heyman, oil & color-man
69. James Mantle, linen draper
71. William Clark Gobbett, linen draper
72. George Smith & Co. furnishing & lronmongers
77. James Venn & Son, tobacconists
78. Joseph Hooper, butcher
78. Farnham, Budgett & Co. tea dealers
47. Henry Charles Pope, confectioner
48. Rupert A. Weare, baker & corn merchant
49. Samuel Robert Long, spirit merchant
50. John Pitman, chemist and druggist
51. William H. Olive, pawnbroker & silversmith, etc
52. Thomas Fryer and Hallett, surgeons
53. Thomas Williams, linen draper
54. Henry Pugh & Son, family grocers
Sheldon, Bush, & Co. patent shot & lead pipe manufacturers www.flickr.com/photos/20654194@N07/2059560841
58. Samuel Seex, grocer, etc
59. Joseph Stock, linen draper
60. Edward Lucas, boot maker
61. J. H. Manning, provision dealer
62. George Powell, stationer & news-agent
63. Henry Thorne, grocer and tea dealer
64 William Edwin Jones, boot maker
64. J . & W. E. Jones, house agents
65. Joseph Willis, butcher
66. John Hayland, hatter & silver lace manufacturer
67. Baker, Houghton & Co. ironmongers
68. George Gardner, boot maker
69. F. & C. Northam, tea dealers, etc
70. Mark Sellick, vict, Boar’s Head & Redcliff Tavern (pub) On the corner with Jones’ Lane, the Boar’s Head narrowly missed demolition in 1936 when the new inner circuit road was cut through the bottom of Redcliff Hill. The pub then survived until 1941 when it was flattened by Hitler’s bombs. bristolslostpubs.eu/page149.html
57. William Turvey, vict, Ship (pub) The Ship Inn was re-built in 1860, it stood across the road from St.Mary Redcliffe Church and was next door to the famous shot tower, it once had stables and a coach house at the rear. A popular jazz venue in the 50’s and 60’s, the pub and the shot tower were demolished in 1968 to be replaced with office buildings. bristolslostpubs.eu/page168.html
70. William Rice, vict, Waggon & Horses (pub) Among the last buildings on Redcliff Hill to be demolished to make way for the new dual-carriageway in 1969. bristolslostpubs.eu/page170.html
35. John Crook, vict, Talbot Inn (pub) 1792. Lawrence Boucher / 1794. William Oldfield / 1800 – 06. Thomas James / 1816. William Sargeant / 1820 – 34. Ann Pillinger 1837 – 52. Ann Sinnett / 1853. George Sinnett / 1853. George Burgess / 1854. George Crook / 1855 to 1874. John Crook 1875 to 1877. Sarah A. Crook / 1878 to 1888. William Tudball / 1889. James Nash / 1891. William Eades / 1891 – 94. Ellen Eades 1896. Arthur Hulbert / 1897. Charles David / 1899 – 1904. Sarah Cox David / 1909. Ellen Jane Gray.
10. Mary Ann George, porter stores, vict, Albion (pub) 1871. Mary Ann George / 1872. George Cleverly / 1874 – 78. John Leakey / 1879 to 1891. Henry Peters / 1892 – 96. Dick Smith 1899 – 1901. Arthur Callaway.
6. ?. Clarke, vict, Hope & Anchor (pub) A coaching inn with stables and a large courtyard at the rear, this pub received a direct hit in the war and was burned to the ground. The site is now occupied by offices. bristolslostpubs.eu/page161.html
18. James Vincent, vict, Star (pub) Just three doors up from the Berkeley Castle, the Star is pictured here during the tenancy of Thomas Court, this is probably Mr. Court stood in the doorway. The Star ceased trading around the time of the first world war when the building was taken over by printers: The General Publishing Syndicate Ltd., who still occupied the building prior to its demolition in 1961. bristolslostpubs.eu/page245.html
21. Robert Oram, vict, Berkeley Castle (pub) The Berkeley Castle, and two doors down the hill the Lord Nelson, both these pubs disappeared in 1961 when the south east side of Redcliff Hill was cleared to make way for new flats and road widening. bristolslostpubs.eu/page147.html
23. James Potter, vict, Lord Nelson (pub) The Lord Nelson with its large Bristol United Breweries sign, and two doors to the left the Georges’ & Co. sign of the Berkeley Castle, all these buildings were demolished in the early 1960’s for road widening. bristolslostpubs.eu/page172.html
William Sage, vict, Shepherd’s Rest (pub) No.29½ Redcliff Hill (later No.113) 1867 – 68. Thomas Thomas / 1870 – 75. William Sage / 1876 – 79. Charles K. Parker / 1881 – 83. Joseph Sidaway / 1886. Mrs. Sidaway 1887. S. Hatherly / 1889. Walter Jones / 1891 – 96. Samuel Hale / 1899 – 1904. Betsy Browning / 1906 – 09. James Taylor.
35. Philip Thomas, vict, George & Dragon (pub) On the corner with Redcliff Hill. The pub was demolished in 1961 to allow for road widening as part of the second Bedminster bridge roundabout scheme. bristolslostpubs.eu/page158.html
Redcliff Brewery No.107 Redcliff Street, built in 1640, this old building like many others in the area was lost in the blitz. The brewery entrance would have been at the rear of the building on Redcliff Back where there was once a pub called the Brewers’ Arm. bristolslostpubs.eu/page248.html
Redcliff Mead Lane, Temple Gate to Cathay
Sarah Station, shopkeeper
E. Mackervoy, grocer and dairyman
Henry Saunders, greengrocer
Robert Batten, shopkeeper
Bishop & Butt, brewers, Redcliff Mead brewery
Jesse Reeves, vict, Neptune (pub) 1853. George Castle / 1861 – 63. John Bennett / 1865 – 66. Maria Bennett / 1867 to 1868. E. Ellbury / 1869 – 77. Jesse Reeves.
Richard Bush, vict, Barley Mow (pub) 1865. John Poole / 1867. J. Smith / 1868 – 89. Richard Bush / 1891 – 1904. Stephen Bush.
Redcliff Parade, Redcliff Hill
Redcliff National School (see comments below for schools in the Redcliff area).
Thomas Randall, master of schools
James Knight, lodging houses
Richard Stock, butcher
John Hannam, accountant
Mrs Reynolds, teacher of music
William Fry, master mariner
William Middleton Gibson
Richard & William King, African merchants
Henry Arundell Day, M.D. surgeon
John C. Cummins
Robert William Ellis, surgeon
?. Helyer, dentist
James Logan, surgeon, M.D.
William H. Pugh
Samuel John Harris
Redcliff Place, near Redcliff Hill
Redcliff Square, near Redcliff Hill
Redcliff Street, Bristol Bridge to Redcliff Hill
1. T.C. Stock, paper-hangings manufacturers
2-3. E.S. and A. Robinson, wholesale Stationers, printers, etc www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/2132253987
4. Finch and Godwin, wire workers www.flickr.com/photos/20654194@N07/2052839570
5. J. Hooper, poulterer
6. H. Hooper, victualler bristolslostpubs.eu/page141.html
7-9. H. Prichard & Co. oil merchants
11. Edwin Gale, grocer
12. Thomas & Joseph Weston, iron merchants
13. Wills & Co. tobacconists www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/sets/72157603345…
13. Jacob Saunders, glass and moulding warehouse
15. Elizabeth Butterwick, stationer & music seller
16. S. & J . Newman, cabinet makers
W. Inch, japanner
17. Neat & Co. tripe merchants
17. Charles H. Chavasse, Birmingham goods warehouse
19. John Thomas, Sons & Co. wholesale grocers
20. Samuel Jacques Fear, plumber, etc
21. T. Bolwell, milliner
22. W. V. Lott, brush maker
23. George Taylor, wine & spirit merchant
21. A. & J. Warren, wholesale druggists
25. Elizabeth Bozley, grocer
27. Joseph Wacks, print seller
28. J. & S. Powell, cork cutters
29. Stiff & Fry, starch and blue makers
30. George Smith, butcher
33. T. Batson, boot maker
34-35. E. Fear, furnishing warerooms
36. ?. Thorne, cabinet maker
36. O. Ball, bellows maker
38. William Hudson, grocer
39. John Miles, earthenware dealer
40. Samuel Sweet, carpenter
Elias Wills, currier
John Jones Willie, japanner
41-42. Sanders & Ludlow, wholesale confectioners
43. William Wood, cabinet maker
49. C. R. Claridge, marine stores
51. William James Martin, boot maker
53. M. Kingston, vict. and builder
54. John Sturt, greengrocer
55. Charles Selfe Winterson, brass founder, etc
56. John Dando, furniture broker
57. Edward Fisher, outfitter
58. Robert Clarke Bartlett, milliner, etc
Thomas Williams, plumber, etc
59. Jacob Joel, boot maker
60. E. Brison & Co. brush & bellows makers, etc (Later moved to Peter Street) www.flickr.com/photos/20654194@N07/6133055828
61. H. S. Willett, spirit vaults
62. J. Derham, butcher
63. Thomas Frankham, general dealer
64. Baker, Houghton & Co. wholesale ironmongers
65. H. B. Osborne, plumber, etc
66. Richard Pullin, pork butcher
67. ?. Cowens, eating house
68. R. Dadley, cutler
69. Newton, Son, and Heanes, brass founders
71. Frederick Brice, eating house
72. S. Nelson, butcher
73. J. King & Co. wholesale confectioners
76. W. H. M’Guiness, outfitter
77. George Davidge, hair dresser
78. George Mitchell, fishmonger
80. John Slade, wheelwright
81. William A. Pedler, stay maker
82. B. Lazarus, pawnbroker
83. Mrs M. Summers, milliner
72. Thomas Lane, butcher
73. T. H. Davis, linen draper
74. T. Hasell, grocer, etc
75. G. Grant, baker, etc
76. James Mee, boot maker
77. S. J. Cross, linen draper, etc
78. J. Atkins, watch-maker
Thomas Atkins, stationer, etc
79. Boon & Son, ironmongers, etc
80. Alfred Isaac Davis, draper & milliner
81. R. & O. Warren, wholesale druggists
82. John O. Cummins, pawnbroker
83. Bees & Fear, wine & spirit merchants
84. T. Pearce, boot maker
85. M. A. Orchard, pork butcher
86. T. Dyer & Co. grocers, etc
87. William Gillard, fruiterer, etc
Nathan Parkin, printer & stationer
William Gray, glass and china dealer
88. Mrs Millard, servants’ registry
89. Billett & Co. outfitters
90. Edwards, Ringer, & Co. tobacco & snuff manufacturers. The firm of Edwards, Ringer & Bigg (Bristol) which is a combination of four old Bristol tobacco businesses, traces its origin to 1813 when William Ringer set up business in Bristol. www.flickr.com/photos/20654194@N07/2058988369
91. William Quick, bookseller
92. Edward Nott, confectioner
93. Jane Osborne, confectioner
94. R. C. Bartlett, bonnet warehouse
95. S. Holmes, boot maker
96-98. C. T. Jefferies & Sons, booksellers, printers, etc
100. W. A. Latham, currier and leather-cutter
101. J. & M. Warry, watch-makers
102. Richard Gibbs & Son, linen drapers
103. Elizabeth Clarke, confectioner
104. Harding & Co. wholesale stationers
105. J. Curtis, baker
106. John Cory Withers, hatter
107. Sykes & Co. brewers Daniel Sykes & Co. Ltd merged with Bristol United Breweries Ltd in 1897 and the brewery was closed down in 1898. For a list of south Gloucestershire pubs tied to the Redcliff Brewery in 1891 click on link www.gloucestershirepubs.co.uk/Breweries-Database-Tablevie…
108. John King, cabinet maker
110. Wills & Co. tobacco manufacturers
113. Peters and Taylor, tin-plate & galvanized ironmongers
114. Collins & Roper, druggists’ sundries dealers
115. Gerrish & Sainsbury, wharfingers ( is a term for a person who is the keeper or owner of a wharf).
116 J. & S. Gillard, rope and haircloth makers
117-120. Purnell, Webb, & Co. tobacco manufacturers & vinegar makers freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cbennett/brist…
121. E. L. Box, seedsman
122. Thomas Taylor, druggist
123. E. Moore, tallow chandler
G. & T. Spencer
124. Wansbrough & Co. wholesale stationers
125 J. B. Moore, soap & candle manufacturer
126. Isaac Davis & Son, carvers & gilders
127. J. C. Wall, railway depot
128. Edwin Jones & Co. Glasgow Iron Foundry blacksmiths.mygenwebs.com/iron-1.php
135. J. Green, cutler
136. Danks & Sanders, wharfingers & carriers, Bull wharf www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/7326771060
136. Griffith & James, slate merchants & slaters
137. Jonathan Bryant, tea merchant
138. W. Harding, fish curer
139. Aaron Diamond, tin-plate worker
140. Godwin, Warren, & Co. iron merchants www.flickr.com/photos/20654194@N07/2130787804
142. Turner, Nott & Strong, corn merchants
143. T. Fogaty, wharfinger
144. Mary Hooper, butcher
145. John Dennis, ironmonger
146. D. Harries, linen draper
26. M. Flower, vict, Queen’s Head (pub) 1752. Charles Wood / 1792 – 1806. William Williams / 1816 to 1840. Samuel Rich / 1840 to 1857. Mary Ann Rich 1858 to 1871. Marshall Flower.
37. James Pye, vict, Little Ship (pub) 1775. John Dally / 1794. Sarah Devereux / 1800. Mary Bevan / 1806 – 16. George Oliver / 1820. Thomas Siviter 1823 – 28. Sarah Siviter / 1830 – 31. James Battle / 1832. William Thomas / 1834. ? Heath / 1837. Thomas Jones 1839 – 40. Mary Robertson / 1842. William Wilcox / 1847 – 71. James Pye / 1872 – 78. Henry George James.
Sarah Gregory vict, Old Arm Chair (pub) 1863 – 74. Samuel Webb / 1874 – 77. Sarah Gregory. Samuel Webb was also a chair maker.
79. Ann Young, vict, Angel inn (pub) 1752. John Hill / 1794. Sarah Lovell / 1800 – 06. John Lovell / 1816. John Willis / 1820. Jennet Willis / 1822. Charles Parker 1823. Joseph Scott / 1825 – 32. George King / 1834 – 55. John Pearce / 1856. Edwin Pearce / 1858 – 66. John Young 1867 to 1875. Ann Young / 1876 – 77. George Wilcox / 1879 – 87. John Ehmann / 1888 to 1891. George Becker 1892 – 94. George Duggan / 1896. Lawrence Tooth / 1897. George Lethbridge / 1899. Edward Cranfield / 1901. Frederick Welsford 1904. Charles Hole / 1906. William Palmer / 1909. Frederick Wilkins. (for a glimpse see the Don Cossack).
74-75. G. C. Plumley, vict, Don Cossack (pub) On the corner with Portwall Lane. The Don restaurant by 1890 and later a temperance hotel the building was lost in the blitz. bristolslostpubs.eu/page154.html
70. T. Hill, vict, Old Fox (pub) Near the corner with Portwall Lane, the old building was pulled down in the 1870’s for road widening, and re-built in brick. bristolslostpubs.eu/page176.html
George Wilcox, vict, Golden Lion (pub) The Golden Lion was at No.100 Redcliff Street and was one of many buildings lost in this area during the blitz. bristolslostpubs.eu/page160.html
Redcross Lane, Redcross Street to Old Market Street
Redcross Street, Ellbroad Street to Redcross Lane
Mrs Caroline Butcher, dress maker
Henry Densham, tanner
George Burge, sign painter
Charles Augustus Dicker, broker
Henry Edward Kear, machine maker
John Dodge, marble mason
William Pinney, cabinet maker
George Morgan, poultry dealer
Matthew Crowley, garden wire worker
Samuel Collings, grocer
William Gadd, grocer
John Hazell, potatoe dealer
James Collins, marine stores
James Wheeler, grocer
E. Honour, match maker
Charles Dickson, beer seller
Sidney Chard, chandler
British School www.flickr.com/photos/20654194@N07/10476893215
John Douglas, machinist (Douglas Motocycles of Kingswood) www.flickr.com/photos/20654194@N07/3107607134
William Turner Beavis, plasterer, vict, Rose & Crown (pub) 1775. Elizabeth Hopkins / 1792 – 94. Roger Prosser / 1806. Grace Hoare / 1816. Ann Giles / 1832. John Norris / 1847. James Haines 1849 – 54. E. Webber / 1855. James Frampter / 1857. J. H. Phippen / 1860 – 61. John W. Rippon / 1865. Elizabeth Garland 1867. George George / 1868. Samuel Collard / 1869 – 89. William Beavis / 1891. Frederick Allen / 1896. Elizabeth Williams 1901 – 04. William Stevens / 1906 – 09. George Payne / 1914. Isabella Payne / 1917 – 23. George Payne 1924 to 1934. James Henry Lines / 1934 – 38. Samuel Woodruff Hollis / 1944. Marie Merchant-Locke 1950 – 53. Margaret Merchant-Locke / 1960. G. A. J. Wills. John Rippon was a baker and beer house keeper.
Sarah Bending, vict, Hit or Miss (pub) 1861 – 67. Charles Gregory / 1868. J. Brain / 1871 – 78. Sarah Bending / 1879. Norman Richards / 1881 – 83. William Loney 1885 – 86. George Mills / 1889. Joseph Eyles / 1891. John Hobbs / 1892. Alfred Cantle / 1897 – 1901. James Harris 1904. Miss. S. Bates.
Elizabeth Ann Organ, vict, Old Crown (pub) (Back Lane) Redcross Lane. 1816 – 20. Rachael Duckham / 1823. Thomas Duckham / 1826. William Blanchard / 1828 – 32. John Thorn / 1834. John Rossiter 1837 – 61. Thomas Rossiter / 1863. James Fish / 1867 – 71. Elizabeth Ann Organ / 1872 to 1875. John Southcott 1876 to 1898. Shedrack Potter / 1901 Frederick W. Lockwood / 1902 – 04. William Symes / 1906 – 44. George Ewans 1950 – 53. Mary Ann Ewans. On 30th November 1898, Shedrack Potter sold the Old Crown and adjoining dwelling house to Stoke’s Croft brewers R. W. Miller & Co. for the sum of £2000.
Redfield Place, Lawrence Hill
Miss Frances Lisle, Redland Green house
Theodore James, Grenville house
Richard Castle, Richmond house
John Robert Turner, Luccombe house
John Llewellyn, Grove house
George Weight Gwyer, Franconia house
G. D. Whereat, Hillside house
Rev. William Cartwright, Redland parsonage
Richard Boucher James, Canowie house
(Cold Harbour Lane)
John E. Williams, vict, Cambridge Arms (pub) 1865 – 78. John Williams / 1882 – 83. William Whitmarsh / 1885 – 88. Mary Ann Rowlands / 1889 – 1909. Thomas Burridge 1914. Ellen Roberts / 1917 – 38. Cecil Geoffrey Cains Trudgen / 1944. John Harold / 1950 – 53. Harold Chapman / 1975. A. R. Wildman.
William Gregory, Union cottage
William Henry Budgett, Redland house
Edward Payson Wills, Torweston house
John Reynolds, Manor house
James Gent Wood, Stanley villa
Henry Wileman, Redland Knoll
James C. Wall, Redland lodge
Daniel Fripp, St. Vincent’s lodge
George O. Edwards, Redland court
Misses Balsdon, ladies’ school, Woodfield villa
Mrs Elizabeth Williams, Elm villa
Charles Webb, builder, etc. Malvern house
Henry Robertson, Redland farm
Redland Court Road, Redland Road
Redland Green, top of Redland Road
Redland Grove, Lower Redland Road to Lover’s Walk
Thomas Davis, Santa clara
Samuel Burman, Hollybank
G. Frederick Church, Claverham villa
F. B. Fooks, Elmfield
Henry Webb, Elmside
Miss Thomas, Windsor villa, preparatory school
?. Townshend, York villa
Redland Hill, top of Redland Road
Miss Emma Venning
John Lucas, Redland bank
Mrs Sanderson, ladies’ boarding school, Redland hill house
Henry House, Gothic cottage
Mrs Lucy Vaughan
William Saunders, Redland cottage
Mrs Maria Humpage, Bellevue villa
Samuel Wills, Redland villa
Thomas Webster, surgeon, Malvern house
Mrs Eliza Nutting, Castle Bellevue
Abraham Champion, Castle Bellevue
Redland Parade, Redland Road
Redland Park, Whiteladies Road
William Edward Matthews, Rosedale house
Mrs Callcott, Redfield house .
Richard Sanders, Glenthern lodge
William Cromey, Camborne house
George Thomas Bright, Rougemont house
James Rowe Shorland, Greinton house
Redland Park Road, 151, Whiteladies Road
Redland Park Villas, Whiteladies Road
Mrs Agnes Young, ladies boarding school
Col. Charles Hutchinson
Henry William Sayles
Thomas Garner Grundy
John Edwards, Runnymede house
William Thomas Moseley, Thornbury house
T. Phillips, Stanley house
Richard Ferris Rumsey, Bradley house
Thomas Bush Sage, Brighton house
Miss Hooft, Stanley house
Miss Elizabeth Irons, ladies’ boarding school, Camerton villa
D. Cunliffe, Cromer villa
Col. Patton, Sandown villa
George Palmer Hutchins, Henley villa
George Thomas, Dartmouth villa
?. Kingswood lodge
Rev. Henry Marris, Lyndhurst villa
Redland Park Congregational Church
Redland Road, Redland to Cheltenham Road
Redland Road (Lower), Redland Road to Whiteladies Road
John Mustey, greengrocer
George M. Stansfeld, surgeon, The Shrubbery
George Webber, Elm lodge
Mrs Margret Williams, Somerset house
Mrs Isabella Stewart, Eldon villa
Charles Bennett, Wellington villa
John York, Warkwood house
John G. Thornton, Avenue villa
Mrs Elizabeth Hoskin, Ross villa
Henry Ashman, Belgravia
J . Bryant. Chelvey villa
William Bevan Warry, Chisbury villa
William Blackwell, Rozel villa
Henry Gillard, Avonleigh villa
Col. Charles Waddell, Orchard villa
Joseph Hartland, Tewkesbury villa
James Willey, 2, Collumpton villas
H. H. Hodge, 1, Collumpton villas
John Davis, builder, grocer etc. Vale house
J . Peters, butcher
William Mustey, greengrocer
1. David Pickett
2. Samuel Hayter, dentist
3. Mrs Mary Morgan, lodging house
4. Joseph Goss
5. Mrs Annie Tedder
Redland Side, Cheltenham Road
Redland Terrace, Lower Redland Road, near Whiteladies Road
1. Rev. John Howard Hinton, M.A.
3. William James
4. Alfred Robert S. Hiley
5. Mrs Agnes Phillips
6. Henry William Britton
7. James Shaw
Redland Vale, Redland Road
Mrs Fowell and C. Watts, Albion villa
Mrs Catherine M. Rudge
Charles K. Rudge, surgeon
Thomas Walters, St. James’s villa
Robert David Douch Bartlett, Clifft villa
Mrs Susan Westley, Shirley villa
John Cox, Hillside lodge
Mrs Evans, Eva cottage
Gustavus Richard Lovell, Swiss cottage
William Ball Palmer, Alma cottage
George Davis, Clyde cottage
E. Goodwin, Fairbank villa .
Mrs John Lane, Cradley house
Miss Pinchback, Sidney villa
Edward Walton Claypole, Pendennis villa
Joseph Lockey, Raymont villa
Mrs Mary Randall, Donnington villa
Alfred Hall, Erne Leat
Red Lodge Court, Frogmore Cliff, Park Row
Redlodge Place, Leopard Lane
Red Rank, Lower Ashley Road
Reece’s Court, 65, Hotwell Road
Reeds Court, East Street, Bedminster
Reform Court, Old Market Street
Regent Buildings, Bishop Street to Sargent St, Bedminster
Regent Place, St. James’ Square
Regent Place, Union Road, Dings
Regent Place, Royal York Crescent
Regent Place, Spring Street
Regent Road, Coronation Road, to Bedminster Parade
William Davis, grocer
Richard F. Cox, clerk
Frederick Shortman, shopkeeper
William Jones, grocer
Daniel Hill, vict, Little Ship (pub) 1854 – 71. Daniel Hill / 1874 – 77. Stephen Hitchcock / 1879. Thomas Elbury / 1881 – 83. Ann Cook / 1885 – 87. Leonard Organ 1888 – 1909. Frederick George Aplin / 1914. Ellen Evans.
Thomas Knight, vict, White Squall (pub) 1867 – 91. Thomas Knight / 1893 – 99. Thomas Nicholls / 1904 – 14. John Porter / 1917 – 21. Herman Gallop.
William Knight, vict, Coronation inn (pub) 1831 – 34. Martha Yeates / 1837 – 44. John Yeates / 1849 – 52. John Parkes / 1853 – 54. Henry Chaffey / 1856 – 61. William Harrill 1863. Maria Harrill / 1867 – 69. William Marshall / 1871. William Knight / 1872 to 1877. William Selway / 1878. H. Kiddle 1879. Joseph Roberts / 1882 – 83. William Davis / 1886 – 87. Arthur Bishop / 1888 – 89. William E. Davis / 1891 – 96. James Hall 1897 – 99. Charles Pegler / 1901. Charles Lloyd / 1904. H. Hodge / 1906 – 28. William Sweetland / 1931. Frederick Burchill 1935. George Brown / 1937 – 38. Elsie Holley / 1944 – 50. Clara Batten / 1953. Alan Crane.
Thomas Hill, vict, Robin Hood (pub) Queen Street. 1858 – 75. Thomas Hill / 1882 – 85. Jane Bass / 1886 to 1887. G. Mills / 1888. Betsey Mills / 1889 to 1891. Betsey Gully 1892. Thomas Veal / 1896 – 99. Elizabeth Veal / 1901. W. Wright / 1906. Thomas Plumb / 1909. William Pudner 1914. William Chamberlain / 1917. Rosa Annie Saunders / 1921. Emma Griffey / 1925 – 28. Matilda Jane Ashley.
Regent Street, Boyce’s Buildings to Clifton
Regent Street, Clarence Town, St. Philips
Sarah A. Doust, beer retailer
John Spurrier, ﬂy & break proprietor
Mary Orchard, butcher
Joseph C. Paul
Thomas D. Jarrett, tax collector
Caleb Lee, beer retailer vict, Newtown Tavern (pub) 1867 – 89. Caleb Lee / 1891 – 96. William Evans / 1899 – 1904. Edwin Lentell / 1906 – 09. Richard Parker / 1914 – 28. John Leaman 1931. Frank Saunders / 1935 – 38. Gilbert England / 1944 – 53. Frederick Pegler.
Elizabeth Tinsley, vict vict, Freemason’s Arms Hotel (pub) Regent Street / Barrow Road (the Freemasons’ Arms was demolished in 1969) 1863. George Kinnerley / 1871 – 76. Elizabeth Tinsley / 1877. William Harding / 1878 – 79. Isaac Jefferies / 1885. William Higgs 1886 – 87. L. Morgan / 1889 – 91. William Baggs / 1892. Edward Roberts / 1894. Walter Whyatt / 1899. William Brown 1904 – 06. James Davis / 1909. William Withers / 1914 – 17. Frederick Curtis / 1921. Frank Ford / 1925. Edwin Tanner 1928 – 38. Clara Tanner / 1944 – 49. Henry Burt / 1949 to 1957. Reginald Gwinnell.
Regent Terrace, Newtown
Regent Terrace, St. James’ Square
Regina Place, Stapleton Road
Rennison’s Baths, bottom of Cheltenham Buildings, Montpelier
Rennison’s Court, Hillgrove Hill
Reynard’s Court, The Horsefair