Discover More about Various Molding Tactics Used By Plastic Injection Mould Suppliers China

In case, you are seeking for best plastic injection mould suppliers china, there are a variety of techniques pointed out here. Amongst all, injection and blow moldings play pivotal roles.

The history of molding process started at times in amongst 1940s and 1950s. Previously, this procedure was utilised for manufacturing smaller amount of plastic, but later this very same process can be utilised for bigger and bulk amounts. Later, in the year 1950s, after understanding the molding process properly, applications are started creating for manufacturing premium top quality marine buoys, road cones, and automobile armrests. There have been certain companies in other parts of the planet, which comprise of larger hollow shaped containers, made employing LDPE.

Focusing towards compression molding
Anytime the main location relates with plastic molding technique, there are various procedures, which you can avail. One particular of the significant options relates with compression molding. In this segment, the slug area of any difficult plastic is pressed inside the heated mold halves. This variety of molding service mainly requires assist of vertical presses, just inside of the horizontal atmosphere. These are utilised for blow molding and injection period. The parts are finally air cooled. The rates of these tools and gear are really moderate.

Film-insert molding process
Whenever the main location relates with plastic molding technique, you might want to take assist of film insert molding process. This technique is going to embed an image, just below the molded part’s surface. Any material, like fabric or film, is inserted inside than mold. Soon after that, plastic is injected inside the structure, and pressurized from outdoors. On the other hand, you can also look for the best plastic injection mould suppliers china, for availing the trustworthy raw supplies. Make confident to take aid of the credential businesses only, related with this field for really some time now.

Checking on gas help
Apart from film insert, you may well want to take support of gas help molding structure. This segment can also be utilized as the greatest gas injection molding strategy, and it is used for generating plastic components, within the hollow interiors. Right after that, you are likely to incorporate partial plastic shot, followed by high-stress gas. The major aim of this technique is to fill up the mold cavity with the raw and molten plastic materials. This method types a key component of commodity mould, which can assist in providing durable and extended lasting outcomes.

Other alternatives available
Even even though you have come across diverse varieties of plastic molding alternatives, but there are mostly two key sorts of molding procedures, utilized. These two possibilities are injection molding and blow molding solutions. Often make it a point to take aid of dependable experts, as you want expert help for this segment. With out appropriate expertise, you will not be able to pour the molten materials in the right manner. Consequently, check the credentials of the manufacturing units, ahead of taking their help.

This report is written by Jacob Williams on behalf of HQMOULD. His understanding in plastic moulding sector has noticed him contribute to and write several articles on subjects like China Mould Manufacturer, Pipe Fitting Mould, Plastic Injection Mould Suppliers China, Commodity Mould and Plastic Mould Maker China and so on.
Good Molds Made In China photos

Good Molds Made In China photos

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Oh,Inspiring Wind, Make Thy Sweet Music Out of my Hollowness by your Soft Caressing strokes…..
molds made in china
Image by -Reji
Shot at Lal Bagh Gardens, Bangalore, India

Bamboo plants are one particular of the world’s most versatile resources. Bamboo, since of its strength and flexibility, has been employed for hundreds of years as a key building material in nations like Japan and China. But aside from furnishings constructing and architecture, bamboo plants are also used for a wide array of purposes. One particular of the most exciting areas exactly where bamboo is used is in the creation of instruments. Because bamboo is hollow like pipe, it makes for a natural wind instrument, and cultures from all more than the globe have utilised it to their musical benefit.

Wind moving via bamboo forests or thickets tends to make symphony orchestras appear impotent. Wind moving tiny pieces of bamboo to strike against every single other gives joy and peace to these who hear it.

Like grass it grows rapidly and propagates itself if left alone. Like wood it is powerful, grows numerous places and has a lot of, several uses. Offered its way, bamboo will hold hillsides in place against raging waters unleashed from above. Given its way, developing profusely among peoples judged materially poorest on the planet, with out gigantic industries cutting, gathering, processing, transporting it bamboo is right here, waiting to serve. It is right here to shelter, to style tools, to weave baskets, to aid water obey, to give beauty and sounds.
Bamboo is a group of perennial evergreens in the accurate grass family members (Poaceae, subfamily Bambusoideae, tribe Bambuseae). Giant bamboos are the biggest members of the grass family.

In bamboo, as with other grasses, the internodal regions of the plant stem are hollow and the vascular bundles in the cross section are scattered all through the stem rather of in a cylindrical arrangement. The dicotyledonous woody xylem is also absent. The absence of secondary development wood causes the stems of monocots, even of palms and huge bamboos, to be columnar rather than tapering.

Bamboos are also the quickest developing woody plants in the planet. They are capable of growing up to 60 centimeters (24 in.) or a lot more per day due to a special rhizome-dependent technique. However, this astounding development price is hugely dependent on regional soil and climatic conditions.

Bamboos are of notable financial and cultural significance in East Asia and South East Asia where the stems are utilized extensively in every day life as developing components and as a extremely versatile raw product, and the shoots as a food supply.

There are more than 70 genera divided into about 1,450 species] They are located in diverse climates, from cold mountains to hot tropical regions. They happen across East Asia, from 50°N latitude in Sakhalin by means of to Northern Australia, and west to India and the Himalayas.They also take place in sub-Saharan Africa, and in the Americas from the Mid-Atlantic United States south to Argentina and Chile, reaching their southernmost point anyplace, at 47°S latitude. Continental Europe is not recognized to have any native species of bamboo.

Bamboo is the fastest-developing woody plant on Earth it has been measured surging skyward as quickly as 121 cm (48 in) in a 24-hour period,[six] and can also reach maximal development rate exceeding one particular meter (39 inches) per hour for brief periods of time. A lot of prehistoric bamboos exceeded heights of 85 metres (279 ft). Mostly developing in regions of warmer climates during the Cretaceous period, vast fields existed in what is now Asia.

As opposed to trees, all bamboo have the prospective to grow to complete height and girth in a single developing season of 3–4 months. Throughout this initial season, the clump of young shoots grow vertically, with no branching. In the next year, the pulpy wall of each culm gradually dries and hardens. The culm starts to sprout branches and leaves from every single node. In the course of the third year, the culm additional hardens. The shoot is now considered a completely mature culm. Over the next 2–5 years (depending on species), fungus and mould start to type on the outdoors of the culm, which ultimately penetrate and overcome the culm. About five – eight years later (species and climate dependent), the fungal and mold growth trigger the culm to collapse and decay. This brief life indicates culms are ready for harvest and appropriate for use in construction inside 3 – 7 years

Source: Wikipedia, Odysey Leadership Centre.

Molds Left to Gather Dust
molds made in china
Image by Henry Hemming
Or ‘Mouldy Molds and the Saga of Spode’. Spode, when a pre-eminent china maker, saw its factory closed down in 2008. The website now belongs to Stoke council and is falling into disrepair. The molds with which Spode’s greatest wares had been created now accumulate dust in a forgotten shop. Spode, and indeed Stoke, are an remarkable part of our heritage. Some of Spode’s greatest designs are now made by the brand’s owners Portmerion, but basically the fantastic name is all but gone. The Spode factory is an incredible part of our heritage. There is a visitor centre, run by wonderful volunteers – go visit! Spode is in the town of Stoke, one particular of the five towns of Stoke-on-Trent. Taken 19 October 2014. I spent the day touring our pottery past with Pete Taylor (@ForrestGrump), whose significantly more fantastic photographs of the day are a should.

Cool Plastic Molding Solutions China pictures

Cool Plastic Molding Solutions China pictures

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Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: Grumman F6F-3 Hellcat
plastic molding services china
Image by Chris Devers
Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Grumman F6F-3 Hellcat:

The Grumman F6F Hellcat was originally conceived as an advanced version of the U.S. Navy’s then present front-line fighter, the F4F Wildcat (see NASM collection). The Wildcat’s intended replacement, the Vought F4U Corsair (see NASM collection), very first flown in 1940, was showing great guarantee, but improvement was slowed by difficulties, which includes the crash of the prototype.

The National Air and Space Museum’s F6F-three Hellcat, BuNo. 41834, was built at Grumman’s Bethpage, New York, factory in February 1944 under contract NOA-(S)846. It was delivered to the Navy on February 7, and arrived in San Diego, California, on the 18th. It was assigned to Fighter Squadron 15 (VF-15) on USS Hornet (CV12) bound for Hawaii. On arrival, it was assigned to VF-3 where it sustained damage in a wheels-up landing at NAS Barbers Point, Hawaii. Right after repair, it was assigned to VF-83 exactly where it was utilized in a instruction role till February 21, 1945. After quite a few transfers 41834 was converted to an F6F-3K target drone with the installation of sophisticated radio-handle gear. It was painted red with a pink tail that carried the quantity 14. Its mission was to be employed in Operation Crossroads – the atomic bomb tests at Bikini Atoll. It flew on June 24, 1946, with a pilot, on a practice flight and was launched, unmanned, soon right after the first bomb test. Instrumentation on board and photographic plates taped to the manage stick obtained data on radioactivity. 3 much more manned flights preceded the final unmanned flight on July 25, 1946, which evaluated the initial underwater explosion. Records indicate that exposure of this aircraft to the radioactive cloud was minimal and residual radiation is negligible.

F6F-3K 41834 was transferred to NAS Norfolk and logged its final flight on March 25, 1947, with a total of 430.two flying hours. It was assigned to the National Air Museum on November three, 1948, and remained at Norfolk until October four, 1960, when it was moved by barge to Washington and placed in storage. In 1976 this Hellcat was loaned to the USS Yorktown Museum at Charleston, South Carolina. A superficial restoration was performed at the museum, but simply because of the harsh environment and its poor condition the Hellcat was returned to NASM on March 16, 1982. In 1983, it was sent to Grumman Aerospace exactly where a group of volunteers completely restored the aircraft. In 1985, it was shipped back to the Paul E. Garber Preservation, Restoration and Storage Facility in Suitland, Maryland, and put in storage. NASM’s F6F-3 Hellcat is scheduled to be displayed in the new Steven F. Udvar-Hazy center at Dulles International Airport in Virginia in 2004.

Transferred from the United States Navy.

Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation


Nation of Origin:
United States of America

All round: 338 x 1021cm, 4092kg, 1304cm (11ft 1 1/16in. x 33ft 5 15/16in., 9021.2lb., 42ft 9 three/8in.)

Physical Description:
Heavy armor plate, reinforced empennage, R-2800-10W engine, spring tabs on the ailerons (increased maneuverability), could carry rockets as effectively as bombs.

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Cool High-high quality Plastic Mould images

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What’s in my bag January 1, 2013 no Timbuk2 🙁
high-quality plastic mould
Image by Do8y
As much as it pains me, I had to replace my favourite Timbuk2 messenger bags. I have mentioned previously ( that I had an elbow injury which had me get rid of the Laptop. At this time I was using the messenger bag because none of the below had happened yet:
– I noticed that the messenger bag was hard to put on without exerting strain on the not yet completely healed elbow (taking it off was no problem at all)
– some tasks/functions I took on at work required me to use some Mac OS X grade software and as much as I like my iPad, it simply did not have those (some of them requiring advanced file management and file encryption)

So I had to switch to a backpack – I found out that putting it on and off is much less of a strain on my elbow as I previously thought. Naturally, I bought a Timbuk2 backpack – a custom Swig Backpack. I had several major issues with it. Those are things that might not affect everyone who will use this backpack, but for me, they make the Swig unusable:
– the Swig is one size and fits a 15 inch MacBook Pro such as the one above, but getting it out trough the swig side opening is almost impossible – it is a real fight to do that and this is not the aim of this bag
– this backpack has VERY FEW organisation possibilities, the result being that all the things (and I really haven’t got that much anymore) are ending in a big bulk at the bottom of the bag making weight distribution impossible and creating a bulging lump on your back.

Looking at further backpack possibilities from Timbuk2 was not an option for me (delivery time of a couple of days was too long to wait as I had to lug the laptop already), although I found later that they do have something that would be better for my needs – Showdown Laptop Backpack. By then I have already given out quite a few bucks for Timbuk2 bags and did not want to risk it.

Then I went on a hunt for a good backpack – nothing in Zurich, Switzerland could answer any of my very specific needs. There were some really good bags and some interesting backpacks, but nothing as good in matter of organisation pockets as the backpack by Thule I found in the Apple online and then retail store. The product name is Crossover 25L MacBook Backpack – Black (…) – do not trust the picture – it looks much more bloated in this picture than it is in real life as the producer was trying to show the total volume of, rather than to stress the really low profile this backpack has when on your back.

It has a vertical front pocket for my Kindle, sometimes my Moleskine is there for quick access to jot down notes while on my commute. Side pockets could hold a water bottle (half a litre bottles and even half a litre cans fit fine, although even my smallest SIGG bottle doesn’t, which is why I don’t carry any water currently), but I carry there keys, hand sanitizer and lip balm – the things I need immediate access to when out and about.

The front compartment has a mesh pocket for my wallet interdental brush and medicine tin. There is a very good plastic reinforced mesh pocket for my cables and SD cards.

The main compartment has got a good volume, but a narrow base so that it doesn’t sag when all the contents fall to the bottom. To allow you to distribute the weight vertically, without it all amassing at the bottom you have the side straps to compress the volume of the main compartment.

At the bottom of the laptop holder you have a very good padding so that you can put your backpack down without worrying what you’re doing to you laptop by doing so.

The shoulder straps are not padded and basically were the only thing that made me a bit hesitant when buying the bag, but they turned out to be very comfortable. There are a two carrying handles – one at the bottom and of course one at the top, in case you have the bag lying in some overhead compartment and you have to pull it out – you can do so no matter the position it is in.

NOW, we come to my favourite feature in this bag (after the reinforced mesh pocket and the vertical front pocket) – I call it the safe storage compartment, THULE calls it "Heat-molded, crush proof SafeZone™ compartment protects your sunglasses, iPhone, portable electronics and other fragile gear". It is really great for keeping this small piece of equipment that you do not want to be crushed or scratched by the rest of the things you cary. In my case what I put there are the Canon PowerShot SX260 HS camera and my brand new portable HDD LaCie Porsche design P9223 Slim 500GB.

So there, I hope all the above could be useful for someone who like me has a the need to transport a laptop everyday and has to ensure that putting this on and off one’s back is exerting as little strain as possible on both arms and back.

2014-11-29 – 001-007 – HDR – Longsword
high-quality plastic mould
Image by vmax137
My Rawlings synthetic longsword with a steel crossguard and aluminum pommel for weight. Dogtags for scale, books for learning, and Skyrim with some metal for motivation.

TL;DNR: All sword simulators from wood to blunts have their use in recreating the treatises. For me this synthetic longsword is safer and more realistic than the wooden waster that Arya was using in Game of Thrones but it’s more affordable and safer than good blunt steel sparring swords such as Federschwerts. At 0 USD for the price it’s a good sword simulator for beginners. More advanced students will find steel Feders to be a better option.

A Feder with a soft steel blade from Hanwei is about 0 USD but expect good ones from Albion and Regenyei Armory to start at around 0 USD and up. Finally I’m not a lawyer so please check the *written* local laws on whether transporting a covered sharp sword in public is legal or if a sword-shaped foam would be considered a weapon. In the United States city, county, and state laws can differ from each other.

Some German longsword action using Federschwerts and blunts:

Some Italian longsword action using Federschwerts:

I’m not familiar with Talhoffer but the controversial John Clements performs this very interesting interpretation of half-swording:

Ok it’s going to be asked: yes you can grab sharp blades on some swords without cutting yourself if you avoid the edges or if pressure is applied to prevent slipping (but don’t do this without training by instructors!!):

**Thank You Lindybeige, Skallagrim, and Scholagladiatoria**

I was reading a gaming forum on Guy Fawkes Day when the discussion of throwing knives behavior in the V for Vendetta movie led me to Lindybeige’s YouTube channel. While clips of his swing dance and wargame modeling were interesting the main draw was the discussion of weapons and various historical topics in bite-sized servings. Indirectly I found Skallagrim’s channel from related videos and topic searches where he assisted by his wife Cara introduced and explain basic historical combat in a very easy to understand manner. Scholagladiatoria’s videos often appear as well with even more in-depth discussions.

Though there may be disagreements in opinion they correspond with each other cordially by offering different viewpoints and are generally the three recommended channels when discussing historical European combat in English. So even though I was very aware of the New York Times video article on Longpoint 2014 back in September, thank you guys for showing that anyone can pick up a longsword simulator and have a go with it in about a week after watching a few videos.

I’m paying it forward with this long review for all those who don’t know about Historical European Martial Arts or HEMA.

Some Background

Let me preface this that I’ve just started and know probably as much as someone who have taken a brief introductory session. I have never held a museum sword piece or even fine replicas such as those from Albion although I have encounter wall hangers, poor heavy replicas, and other Sword-Like Objects.

Obviously there’s much more than longswords with Historical European Martial Arts or HEMA covering polearms, bows, and even WW2 bayonets. I decided that the longsword is a good place to start from as there are many treatises on it, is regarded as a good foundation to have that can be used for other arms, and is two-handed so the physical and mental barrier to entry is lower than say a one-handed sword and buckler. Plus it’s a friggen sword.

What makes HEMA part of but distinct from Western Martial Arts or WMA is the attempt to reconstruct as close to the sources as possible rather than add anything modern. Unlike a lot of other martial arts longsword living knowledge has been broken and this gap demands scholarly research and experimental archeology to verify each other. Interestingly Chinese two-handed sword techniques have been lost and reconstructed then adapted many times in history so what HEMA and WMA are doing isn’t a modern concept.

Normally I would start by checking with schools before getting equipment. But with schools some distance away my goals are simple solo technique drills mixed with historical research that will promote health, understanding of history, combat participant’s mentality, and philosophical enlightenment. Eventually sparring and classes will be required to progress but for now very basic strength training and research (along with poor foot work and plain wrong positioning) are enough of a preoccupation. Consistency first, then correction.

Obviously a waster or sword simulator for practice was needed, something that is a good approximation of a longsword and can handle contact sparring at an affordable price. Some sword simulators can handle the rigors of technique drills but not sparring; they’re not part of the discussion here. Trainers such as MBlades’ Swing are good for confined spaces but they’re not meant for sparring and there’s no way to practice half-swording techniques with them.

Wooden swords or wasters have a long historical pedigree and many still swear by them. They can be too light, bounce on contact, and are too dangerous during thrusts because they don’t flex. "Control!" people will cry, but as a beginner with no pell experience it’s better to err on the side of safety. I really like blunt steel Federschwerts or Feders – also a traditional training tool – but good ones are expensive. Feders from Albion and Regenyei Armory start at around 0 USD and up.

The expense increases further because of the protection required for inexperienced sparring. For those deciding on Feders sparring with against other Feders with the same blade hardness will prolong blade life for all participants. A steel Federschwert using an adjustable screw-held pommel will have to wait for now. Good blunt swords are closer in handling with sharps, but they flex more for safety (typically less than Feders but not always) and because they are blunt the edges do not stick. They are way beyond my budget and safety requirements anyway. Really, synthetic nylon swords are the only remaining option.

I’ve read very good things about Purpleheart Armoury’s Type III Pentti and Black Fencer’s Like Steel Waster Longsword V3. They were either a little too stiff or too expensive so I went with Rawlings. Everything’s that been mentioned have their place in recreating the treatises, it’s just that I’m deciding their usefulness to my situation.

Rawlings Synthetic Longsword Review

The parts were ordered from Purpleheart Armoury, an American company that imports Western Martial Arts and Historical European Martial Arts gear from Europe. Each component had to be selected separately and with everything except for the pommel made in the UK, I opted for a steel crossguard and a 5" extended aluminum pommel for weight and balance simulation. The cost for my build is 0 USD before tax and shipping.

My order needed a few changes but there were no replies to my emails. It wasn’t until the sword arrived that I was able to confirm that the changes were indeed applied so good on Purpleheart Armoury for fast processing and order changes, I just wish they would be more communicative in keeping their customers in the loop. The pieces came in a long rectangular box disassembled but assembly is easy enough that no instructions were required.


The 38" long blade has a lenticular geometry and while much thicker than the real article it has a moderate distal and profile tapering that aids in balance as well as safe sparring by reducing mass at the impact point. For further safety the tip and edges are well rounded with good flex at the last third of the blade for safe thrusting. All of this makes the blade too whippy during full speed swings but really metal sword simulators suffer from this to some degree as well although they’re much more resistant to taking a set or bend.

The 8" plastic tang encases a long metal screw rod that ensures all components will be held in place. The thread for the pommel came greased and for maintenance I recommend a water displacement such as WD-40 be used for cleaning off old grease and other contaminants followed by a very light coating of lubricant such as viscous machine grease.

Of note is that my blade flat had some excess molding material giving an appearance of dripping wax and stress marks. They’re not really bumpy and this sword isn’t a wall hanger so it’s not a problem but it may be for some. Another minor issue are rectangular mold registration points. The two on an edge may affect blade-on-blade impact but are easy to sand smooth. The one on the tip protruded enough to possibly damage fabric during impact and was carefully hand-sanded smooth after some effort.

The blade will take a set from true straight over time either from storage or temperature changes. It’s best to hang this point down by the crossguards if possible for storage and blade self-correction. For severe blade deformations a hot but not boiling water bath for a few minutes will help straighten it back, or modifying it as the case may be.


The 9.5" stainless steel casted crossguard has slightly upturned quillions that end in balls at the tips for safety. It’s held by compression from the pommel against the rubber grip so there is some very slight movement during severe impact at the guard but nothing that’s dangerous. Of note is that my crossguard came with minor cosmetic dings but again this sword is meant to be used. I’ve read from other people’s experiences that this guard can chew nylon blades after many enthusiastic sparring sessions.

The steel guard offers better protection for the hands and even during technique drills the added weight makes things a little more realistic so it’s recommended. The quillions aren’t thick enough to get in the way of fingering the guard, thumbing the blade, or simulate an overhand palm-up sword-throwing hold that would be at home in a judicial duel to settle a domestic dispute.


The longsword grip is sticky rubber that also compress against the crossguard with the aid of the pommel. It’s adequate but robust gloves such as leather work gloves are recommended against impact shock. Another reason is that when the grip gets wet dragging the palm across the surface will produce eraser-like particles of rubber. Wrapping grip tape may help.

It may not be apparent but the grip is oval at the crossguard and gradually becomes cylindrical towards the pommel which is great. A lot of fantasy swords get this wrong because the oval serves as a tactile indicator of where the blade is oriented. An imprecise cutting angle with a real blade can cause an ineffective bounce or can reduce the blade into a shower of sharp projectiles so this detail aids in forming good habits during practice.

The interior of the grip is sticky making it very difficult to slide over the tang and because of the imprecise fit there will be a noticeable tacky sensation as it shifts slightly during swinging. I used some talcum powder to eliminate it and to aid disassembly. Less then a pinch applied directly to the tang is all that’s needed – seriously, too much will increase movement of the grip that can cause premature wear.

Speaking of which I noticed white scratch marks on the rubber that I have no idea how they were made. When I tried to brush them smooth with my fingers the ridges from my finger prints made fresh white lines. This is the least durable component here but fortunately it’s also the cheapest to replace.

Update 2016-02-29
Some people have asked how to avoid abrasions when drilling bare-handed since the rubber grip unlike leather is a bit too grippy. I’ve used baby powder for a few months which worked really well before switching back to gloves because of stress marks on the palms appeared and general tenderness from drilling without shock protection. Other alternatives other people have suggested in forums include thin fingerless gloves and re-wrapping the grip. Rewrapping can be done easily with grip tape and will most likely prevent the waster from easy disassembly for travel.

Re-wrapping may also help with a slipping effect the loose grip gives when rotational forces are applied, typically during fast guard transitions that gives the waster a momentarily unsteady, mushy response. I’ve seen people made wood grips then wrapped in leather for their federschwert, something I’m sure the same can be done in a way that will allow disassembly for this synthetic waster.

Other possible solutions I haven’t seen tested are adding shims or apply thin tape onto the tang and mallet the rubber grip on.

The rubber grip itself has held up well. It’s very slightly looser than originally but I think it can make it through the rest of this year. The tang has rubber residues from the grip which occasionally needs to be cleaned off with isopropyl alcohol. Other than that some light application of baby power still work to prevent tackiness when rotational forces are applied.


Historically pommel weight for balancing in real swords was a secondary function and in fact many were hollow. Here it’s a weight. I decided on the 5" extended mostly solid aluminum pommel (not the PHA or Pentti pommels) for my build instead of the nylon pommel for weight and balance. The two grip bevels and the border between the pommel’s round bottom and the adjacent angled facet were every so slightly sharp for comfort so liquid abrasive was used. The soft aluminum readily lends itself very well for polishing but it’s insanely easy to get scratches. Placing the sword on the ground pommel-first will guarantee gouges to the finish. Of great concern though is that repeated disassembly or looseness can increase the chance of stripping the pommel’s threads.

I found out later that many people prefer this extension for the length advantage it gives during a bout, an advantage that’s slight compared to fighter experience. For me it offers good simulated weight, better leverage, and more tactical options. It creates a very comfortable 13", three hand-width grip-space and overall the beveling was well done, making this a good option for someone who’s interested in some of the German longsword treatises.

For those that prefer a more lively handling snug grip that won’t get in the way with one hand use, something that offers little for an opponent to grab, or for those who decide to follow treatises that require a shorter two hand-width grip but still desire some weight stainless steel short pommels are also available.

Update 2016-02-29:
Aluminum is soft. Even if cared for the pommel will get dinged on a working waster. As a former aircraft maintainer aluminum will absolutely corrode in harsh environments. There’s no corrosion on the pommel so far but it’s never near salt water and food-grade mineral oil is lightly applied after cleaning and coating my montante waster.


With a blade length of 38" and a total length of 52" the synthetic sword built is basically a Oakeshott Typology Sub-Type XVIIIb with a rounded tip. The weight is within historical ranges at about 3 lbs. but mass has been moved towards the guard to reduce tip impact force as a trainer. The point of balance is about 1" away from the crossguard center tip, a little close but again done for safety and is still within the historical range for some longswords.

From everything I’ve read and seen the thickness of the blade creates aerodynamic drag that makes it slower than a metal blade during a swing. The relative lightness allows it to accelerate quicker helping with directional changes so I suspect this nuance is what people are unconsciously implying when they say that synthetics are faster. I don’t know if it’s intentional but the tip creates an audible noise when a cut is done with the blade angled straight through the cutting path which can be extremely useful for training.

As mentioned during full speed swings the blade can get a little whippy but half-swording techniques and even Mordhau is still entirely feasible. Wearing padded work gloves I was able to easily finger the guard for greater point control. Thumbing the blade to assist in rotations or sticking the thumb up to protect it from an attack on the inside-line is also very easily done.

Binding is unrealistic of course as real sharpened swords will stick to each other very securely during edge-on-edge contact instead of sliding around. This is something that also affects dull metal blades. Some HEMA practitioners are testing 3M friction tapes, grip tape, and other alternatives on synthetic blades edges. The sword flats should remain slippy by being tape-free. From what’s been reported taping isn’t as good as sharp edge binds but it allows a much better binding and winding simulation than blunt swords. Skin contact at speed can create some bad abrasions so dress accordingly.

Whether synthetic or blunts for sparring it’s best to use like-with-like since blades can behave differently and can even damage each other at a rate that will outpace their intended life span. There are some very affordable sword simulators such as those from Cold Steel that are as balanced as clubs and the material is relatively rigid making them dangerous. Forget about using PVC pipes, they tend to shatter into sharp pieces and aluminum blades are not useful at all because their behavior deviates from steel so greatly.


I agree with the philosophy that increased risks adds to increased respect, but up to a certain point. I’m a beginner and we have modern knowledge and protective technology so I’ll leave the advanced fencing approaches to the experts. Since I’m soloing for now I might at most wear work gloves to prevent ripping off calluses. For sparring with synthetics the minimum protection recommended is as follows:

-A HEMA-rated face mask with back of head protection; Kendo and sport fencing masks can’t handle the extra force involved and offers no back protection for the head.

-A separate gorget throat protector will help prevent the crushed windpipes and broken collar bones.

-A chest protector, gambson or fencing jacket, preferably with the ability to insert a separate gorget underneath. People have found built-in throat protectors are not as effective as a separate gorget.

-Thick gloves to protect against broken fingers. Pay especially extra attention to side finger and finger tip protection.

-Male cup for the gents or female cup for the ladies.

Optional gear includes fencing pants, limb guards, joint guards, etc. This isn’t all inclusive and HEMA-rated gear are still being updated. Using wooden wasters and steel will of course increase the level of protection required compared to synthetics. Also armor remains a compromise between protection, mobility, and cost. Limbs still bend certain ways so many of the half-swording and wrestling techniques are very dangerous if done at full speed.

Using a pell to swing near-full speed then stopping just before impact or softening the impact can increase control and training partner survival rate. Generally more experience and familiarity with training partners will demand less protection, inexperience, increased speed, or unfamiliarity with opponents such as during a tournament will demand more. Wearing all of this gear can get extremely hot so hydrate to prevent heat stroke and make sure others do the same, especially in many events held in the open with no shade.


For transport a friend recommended a cloth Naginata bag for the blade that was on sale at E-Bogu. The sword will have to be disassembled of course but that should aid with peaceful intent if questioned by law enforcement.

I’m not a lawyer but according to the Seattle Municipal Code as long as the sword is covered for transport to or from an event or private location and it’s not being brandished it should be ok. Law enforcement will still have the ability to detain so be professional and if it’s a new club have insurance and uniforms. Otherwise follow Wheaton’s Law.


Those that are thinking of trying out HEMA will find this synthetic sword to be fairly good and is probably one of the best in it’s price category. It’s safer and more realistic than wooden waster sparring swords but more affordable and all things being equal safer than good blunt sparring swords and Federschwerts. Even though the metal parts more than double the price I would still recommend getting them if you’re in the same position of not being able to get a Feder.

But before rushing out to get this do ask the club that you’re going to train with and see what they recommend for gear. Otherwise like most things go with your budget and your ambitions. Thanks for reading, stay safe and have a good fight.


Basic properties of swords:

Some differences between sharp swords and blunts:…

Oakeshott Typology

Sparring swords introduction:

Why a sword feels right:


New York Times on Longpoint 2014:…

HEMA Alliance club finder (doublecheck locations):

Using different training tools and their characteristics for accurate reconstruction:

Video review of various Rawlings synthetic swords:

A more critical review of an older generation of this synthetic longsword:…

How to get into Historical European Martial Arts:…

Longsword training tips:…

Sword Carolina has excellent solo training videos:

Sword School is a supplement to fencing manuals by Guy Windsor:

Flying with Swords (some good advice from experiance):

How to be comfortable wearing safety gear:…

Seattle Municipal Code – Chapter 12A.14 – Weapons Control:…

Albion Swords (high quality and expensive):

Black Fencer (their synthetic swords are preferred by some for their rigidity):

E-Bogu (martial arts stuff for the Bruce Lees and Master Kens):

Hanwei Federschwerts (CAS Iberia is importer, Hanwei is hit or miss do research):

MBlades Swing compact sword simulator:

Purpleheart Armoury (sword simulators, HEMA safety gear, etc.):

Regenyei Armory (good quality potentially long wait, importer is HEMA Supplies):


The Swordsman’s Companion by Guy Windsor is a training manual that mainly follows the "Italian tradition" using Fior di Battaglia as a source. It’s a good manual for longsword beginners.…

Sword School, supporting videos for The Swordsman’s Companion:

Sigmund Ringeck’s Knightly Arts of Combat by David Lindholm and Peter Svärd is a training manual that mainly follows the "German tradition" mostly using Sigmund Ringeck’s Fetchbuch as a source. More of a supplement it covers sword and buckler, wrestling, polearms, and half-swording. Interpretations on mounted cavalry was not included.…


BWF – Box. Wrestle. Fence.

Encased in Steel

Fight with All Your Strength

Guy Windsor

I don’t do longsword

The Hema-Tome

The HEMAists

The Ring of Steel

Awesome YouTube channels




Sword Carolina

Update 2016-05-02:
Skallagrim has made an updated review and it’s negative for the Rawlings. Based on everything else consistently written or said by different people and clubs his comments are fairly on mark. The blade for my Rawlings longsword is nowhere as flexible as shown in the video because it’s not used for impact work on a pell, and the weight is closer to a steel federschwert than BlackFencer’s synthetic longswords. For my own use and considering Seattle city parks have legal restrictions dealing with anything that can be mistaken for an actual weapon I wouldn’t hesitate to get another one limited to solo drills.

Untitled (In Memoriam, Jon Claremont)
high-quality plastic mould
Image by jay-chilli
From the photoblog Chillimatic

Posting a photo of a shop called "Party World" here is an odd way to memorialize someone. Bear with me, I’ll explain further down the page. Firstly a little on how I came to know about Jon Claremont and his work.

The service provider for my photoblog, Chillimatic, is called Expressions. Expressions won’t be rivalling Flickr any time soon and perhaps due to the small number of subscribers, or perhaps due to the good work of the people who run it, Expressions is a genuine ‘online community’ (prior to joining I had thought this phrase an oxymoron) brought together by a shared love of photography.

Some particularly high quality photoblogs are nestled alonside my own (frankly amateurish) site. Chief among these is a blog I discovered during my earliest nose around Expressions called ClaremontPhoto – Jon’s photoblog.

The aesthetic of Jon’s pictures was so different to that which currently prevails in photography that it was a shock when I first landed there. My eyes had become too accustomed to the diamond-sharp, perfectly colour-balanced images that digital technology has made possible to immediately accept photos taken with film cameras and developed at the local One Hour Photo. Jon’s snaps were often blurry and overexposed with no apparent colour scheme. His subjects rarely sat nicely in measured compositions.

Even when he was photographing the patrons of the shabby café-bars of Montemor-o-Novo, the town in Portugal where he lived – subjects who were in fact seated and immobile – there was always a touch of anarchy, a touch of humanity, his photos were alive. He once remarked in an e-mail to me that he didn’t do “pretty pictures”. He was wrong. His photos were beautiful, and in a way that all those diamond-sharp digital images could never be.

I started leaving comments on Jon’s site, he on mine, and our intermittent e-mail exchanges began. Just as one had to get past the aesthetic shock and look carefully at Jon’s photos to fully appreciate them so he looked carefully at others’. More than once he remarked on something in one of my shots that I hadn’t noticed myself. For this reason his words of encouragement were valuable to me; his appreciation was genuine.

Jon’s warmth of character was a further quality as apparent in his photos as his mails. Most of his shots were of the inhabitants of Montemor, a village lost in the countryside 40 miles to the east of Lisbon, a town not pretty enough for tourism nor rich enough for chain store homogeneity.

Similarly, Montemor’s inhabitants are neither charmingly rustic nor the neat, presentable Gap-clad men and women that the global economy has moulded. They’re a scruffy lot, spending their evenings sitting awkwardly on bar furniture, drinking cheap beer straight from the bottle, looking up slack-jawed at the football on the telly. In viewing Jon’s photos I was often reminded of Oscar Wilde’s famous aphorism “Work is the curse of the drinking classes”.

Most photographers, I think, would maintain a certain distance between themselves and such subjects, one that would translate into a mocking tone in their photos or a falsely reverent one: ostensibly honouring such ‘salt of the earth’ characters, covertly pitying them. Jon did none of that; the section at ClaremontPhoto compiling his ‘people’ shots is titled “Friends and Neighbours”. Quite right, they were not his subjects, he was one of them. The warmth and camaraderie so apparent in his photography were equally evident in his words to me.

Soon after I was first in contact with Jon he was appointed as Community Ambassador at Expressions, bringing to the members’ attention the work of other Expressions contributors, and continuing to offer words of encouragement and genuine appreciation to so many of us. He was very much the glue in our online community and I know that I am not alone in saying how greatly missed he will be.

I learnt of Jon’s passing on Friday and that same day Shanolyno, a fellow Expressions user, posted a comment on my photoblog. I mailed him to say thanks and told him the sad news. His words in reply voiced my own thoughts perfectly: “Seems strange to mourn for someone that I feel I know so well, yet I never met.”

I never met Jon Claremont either, I never even spoke to him and yet he touched me in some way, he inspired me, and I will miss him. For those that did know this clearly exceptional man, his family and friends, the loss must be very great indeed and my thoughts are with them.

So, the photo of “Party World”. It was taken in July of last year with a DSLR which I’d just bought, on the day I arrived in Sardinia, my holiday destination. During the preceding months I had spent much time on photography: taking photographs, tending to my website, reading about photography, viewing the work of others and occasionally exchanging e-mails with Jon.

Shortly before I left we had a quick exchange about Martin Parr, whose work we both admired. I wrote: “Regarding Martin Parr, yes the man is a genius, but I also kind of hate him because it’s become impossible to take photos in certain areas (supermarkets and seaside towns in the UK particularly) without thinking of his brilliant photos. He kind of owns all that now. If I ever find myself in a run down bar in Portugal and I’m unable to take photos because you’ve taken all the ideas and own that environment I’ll let you know.”

When I arrived in Olbia this throwaway comment had transformed into prophecy. Maybe it was the intensity of the sunlight (in Jon’s outdoor shots the walls and streets of Montemor appeared sun-bleached) or maybe it was the slightly tattered look that much of Olbia still has despite a recent influx of tourists courtesy of EasyJet, but I was unable to take pictures of the place, I saw Jon’s photos everywhere.

Thwarted in my attempts to take my own photos I decided to produce some imitation Claremonts. I turned the exposure up a notch to get the bleached look, switched the focus setting to “auto” to lose some sharpness and took a couple of shots of shop fronts which I imagined wouldn’t be out of place in Montemor. This shot was the most successful. I had intended to send it to him but, very regrettably now, never got round to it.

But "Party World", though? Surely not the best way to memorialize someone? Like I say – bear with me. This shop, despite its apparent banality, despite the cheap plastic knick-knacks it displays in the window, proudly proclaims itself “Party World” and this is in keeping with the meaning I read behind many of Jon’s photos. Despite the tawdriness of their surroundings; despite their shabby clothes; despite the cheap beer they’re given to drink every night; despite the fact that they live in a forgotten hinterland, held there just above the breadline; despite the fact that they’re old and working class (both characteristics that were once a source of pride but not so much these days); despite all this and much more, the people in Jon’s photos are mostly smiling. They’re happy.

My favourite of Jon’s photos is of a frail old man who sells lottery tickets from in front of a bar. According to the text accompanying the photo he’s there every week with the same patter, every week he has “the big one”. There he is – leaning against a rubbish bin, an expression of rapt wonder on his face as he eyes the little scraps of paper in his hand which, despite the 10-million-to-one odds, are going to bring in the jackpot. The Don Quixote of Montemor, he is both a fool and a hero.

As summations of the human condition go, it’s hard to beat. We are born into a world without purpose or meaning where there is but one truth: that one day, soon, we will be gone from it, obliterated. We have no chance; we are playing a machine we will never beat, which metes out suffering so much more than joy… And yet we still believe, holy fools that we are, that we’re going to land "the big one", that “A vida é uma festa!” Ladies and gentlemen, welcome to Party World.

So rest in peace, Jon Claremont, and thank you for showing me all this.

If you’ve read this far I hope you’ll click on the link for ClaremontPhoto. Many of his older photos (including the lottery ticket seller) have disappeared but there remain many photos of exceptional quality.

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Good China Injection Molding Design and style photos

Good China Injection Molding Design and style photos

A few nice china injection molding design images I found:

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: View over World War Two aviation wing, including Japanese planes and B-29 Enola Gay
china injection molding design
Image by Chris Devers
See more photos of this, and the Wikipedia article.

Details, quoting from Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum: Steven F. Udvar-Hazy | Nakajima J1N1-S Gekko (Moonlight) IRVING:

Originally designed as a three-seat, daylight escort fighter plane by the Nakajima Aeroplane Company, Ltd., and flown in 1941, the IRVING was modified as a night fighter in May of 1943 and shot down two American B-17 bombers to prove its capability. The Gekko (meaning moonlight) was redesigned to hold only two crewmen so that an upward firing gun could be mounted where the observer once sat. Nearly five hundred J1N1 aircraft, including prototypes, escort, reconnaissance, and night fighters were built during World War II. A sizeable number were also used as Kamikaze aircraft in the Pacific. The few that survived the war were scrapped by the Allies.

This J1N1 is the last remaining in the world. It was transported from Japan to the U.S. where it was flight tested by the U.S. Army Air Forces in 1946. The Gekko then flew to storage at Park Ridge, IL, and was transferred to the Smithsonian Institution. The restoration of this aircraft, completed in 1983, took more than four years and 17,000 man-hours to accomplish.

Transferred from the United States Air Force.

Nakajima Hikoki K. K.


Country of Origin:

Overall: 15ft 1 1/8in. x 41ft 11 15/16in., 10670.3lb., 55ft 9 5/16in. (460 x 1280cm, 4840kg, 1700cm)

All-metal, monocoque construction airplane

Physical Description:
Twin-engine, conventional layout with tailwheel-type landing gear.
Armament: (2) 20 mm fixed upward firing cannon
Engines: (2) Nakajima Sakae 21 (NK1F, Ha35- 21) 14- cylinder air-cooled radial 1,130 horsepower (metric)

• • • • •

See more photos of this, and the Wikipedia article.

Details, quoting from Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum: Steven F. Udvar-Hazy | Boeing B-29 Superfortress "Enola Gay":

Boeing’s B-29 Superfortress was the most sophisticated propeller-driven bomber of World War II and the first bomber to house its crew in pressurized compartments. Although designed to fight in the European theater, the B-29 found its niche on the other side of the globe. In the Pacific, B-29s delivered a variety of aerial weapons: conventional bombs, incendiary bombs, mines, and two nuclear weapons.

On August 6, 1945, this Martin-built B-29-45-MO dropped the first atomic weapon used in combat on Hiroshima, Japan. Three days later, Bockscar (on display at the U.S. Air Force Museum near Dayton, Ohio) dropped a second atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Japan. Enola Gay flew as the advance weather reconnaissance aircraft that day. A third B-29, The Great Artiste, flew as an observation aircraft on both missions.

Transferred from the United States Air Force.

Boeing Aircraft Co.
Martin Co., Omaha, Nebr.


Country of Origin:
United States of America

Overall: 900 x 3020cm, 32580kg, 4300cm (29ft 6 5/16in. x 99ft 1in., 71825.9lb., 141ft 15/16in.)

Polished overall aluminum finish

Physical Description:
Four-engine heavy bomber with semi-monoqoque fuselage and high-aspect ratio wings. Polished aluminum finish overall, standard late-World War II Army Air Forces insignia on wings and aft fuselage and serial number on vertical fin; 509th Composite Group markings painted in black; "Enola Gay" in black, block letters on lower left nose.

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: P-38 Lightning, with B-29 Enola Gay behind it
china injection molding design
Image by Chris Devers

See more photos of this, and the Wikipedia article.

Details, quoting from Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Lockheed P-38J-10-LO Lightning

In the P-38 Lockheed engineer Clarence "Kelly" Johnson and his team of designers created one of the most successful twin-engine fighters ever flown by any nation. From 1942 to 1945, U. S. Army Air Forces pilots flew P-38s over Europe, the Mediterranean, and the Pacific, and from the frozen Aleutian Islands to the sun-baked deserts of North Africa. Lightning pilots in the Pacific theater downed more Japanese aircraft than pilots flying any other Allied warplane.

Maj. Richard I. Bong, America’s leading fighter ace, flew this P-38J-10-LO on April 16, 1945, at Wright Field, Ohio, to evaluate an experimental method of interconnecting the movement of the throttle and propeller control levers. However, his right engine exploded in flight before he could conduct the experiment.

Transferred from the United States Air Force.

Lockheed Aircraft Company


Country of Origin:
United States of America

Overall: 390 x 1170cm, 6345kg, 1580cm (12ft 9 9/16in. x 38ft 4 5/8in., 13988.2lb., 51ft 10 1/16in.)


Physical Description:
Twin-tail boom and twin-engine fighter; tricycle landing gear.

Long Description:
From 1942 to 1945, the thunder of P-38 Lightnings was heard around the world. U. S. Army pilots flew the P-38 over Europe, the Mediterranean, and the Pacific; from the frozen Aleutian Islands to the sun-baked deserts of North Africa. Measured by success in combat, Lockheed engineer Clarence "Kelly" Johnson and a team of designers created the most successful twin-engine fighter ever flown by any nation. In the Pacific Theater, Lightning pilots downed more Japanese aircraft than pilots flying any other Army Air Forces warplane.

Johnson and his team conceived this twin-engine, single-pilot fighter airplane in 1936 and the Army Air Corps authorized the firm to build it in June 1937. Lockheed finished constructing the prototype XP-38 and delivered it to the Air Corps on New Year’s Day, 1939. Air Corps test pilot and P-38 project officer, Lt. Benjamin S. Kelsey, first flew the aircraft on January 27. Losing this prototype in a crash at Mitchel Field, New York, with Kelsey at the controls, did not deter the Air Corps from ordering 13 YP-38s for service testing on April 27. Kelsey survived the crash and remained an important part of the Lightning program. Before the airplane could be declared ready for combat, Lockheed had to block the effects of high-speed aerodynamic compressibility and tail buffeting, and solve other problems discovered during the service tests.

The most vexing difficulty was the loss of control in a dive caused by aerodynamic compressibility. During late spring 1941, Air Corps Major Signa A. Gilke encountered serious trouble while diving his Lightning at high-speed from an altitude of 9,120 m (30,000 ft). When he reached an indicated airspeed of about 515 kph (320 mph), the airplane’s tail began to shake violently and the nose dropped until the dive was almost vertical. Signa recovered and landed safely and the tail buffet problem was soon resolved after Lockheed installed new fillets to improve airflow where the cockpit gondola joined the wing center section. Seventeen months passed before engineers began to determine what caused the Lightning’s nose to drop. They tested a scale model P-38 in the Ames Laboratory wind tunnel operated by the NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics) and found that shock waves formed when airflow over the wing leading edges reached transonic speeds. The nose drop and loss of control was never fully remedied but Lockheed installed dive recovery flaps under each wing in 1944. These devices slowed the P-38 enough to allow the pilot to maintain control when diving at high-speed.

Just as the development of the North American P-51 Mustang, Republic P-47 Thunderbolt, and the Vought F4U Corsair (see NASM collection for these aircraft) pushed the limits of aircraft performance into unexplored territory, so too did P-38 development. The type of aircraft envisioned by the Lockheed design team and Air Corps strategists in 1937 did not appear until June 1944. This protracted shakedown period mirrors the tribulations suffered by Vought in sorting out the many technical problems that kept F4U Corsairs off U. S. Navy carrier decks until the end of 1944.

Lockheed’s efforts to trouble-shoot various problems with the design also delayed high-rate, mass production. When Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, the company had delivered only 69 Lightnings to the Army. Production steadily increased and at its peak in 1944, 22 sub-contractors built various Lightning components and shipped them to Burbank, California, for final assembly. Consolidated-Vultee (Convair) subcontracted to build the wing center section and the firm later became prime manufacturer for 2,000 P-38Ls but that company’s Nashville plant completed only 113 examples of this Lightning model before war’s end. Lockheed and Convair finished 10,038 P-38 aircraft including 500 photo-reconnaissance models. They built more L models, 3,923, than any other version.

To ease control and improve stability, particularly at low speeds, Lockheed equipped all Lightnings, except a batch ordered by Britain, with propellers that counter-rotated. The propeller to the pilot’s left turned counter-clockwise and the propeller to his right turned clockwise, so that one propeller countered the torque and airflow effects generated by the other. The airplane also performed well at high speeds and the definitive P-38L model could make better than 676 kph (420 mph) between 7,600 and 9,120 m (25,000 and 30,000 ft). The design was versatile enough to carry various combinations of bombs, air-to-ground rockets, and external fuel tanks. The multi-engine configuration reduced the Lightning loss-rate to anti-aircraft gunfire during ground attack missions. Single-engine airplanes equipped with power plants cooled by pressurized liquid, such as the North American P-51 Mustang (see NASM collection), were particularly vulnerable. Even a small nick in one coolant line could cause the engine to seize in a matter of minutes.

The first P-38s to reach the Pacific combat theater arrived on April 4, 1942, when a version of the Lightning that carried reconnaissance cameras (designated the F-4), joined the 8th Photographic Squadron based in Australia. This unit launched the first P-38 combat missions over New Guinea and New Britain during April. By May 29, the first 25 P-38s had arrived in Anchorage, Alaska. On August 9, pilots of the 343rd Fighter Group, Eleventh Air Force, flying the P-38E, shot down a pair of Japanese flying boats.

Back in the United States, Army Air Forces leaders tried to control a rumor that Lightnings killed their own pilots. On August 10, 1942, Col. Arthur I. Ennis, Chief of U. S. Army Air Forces Public Relations in Washington, told a fellow officer "… Here’s what the 4th Fighter [training] Command is up against… common rumor out there that the whole West Coast was filled with headless bodies of men who jumped out of P-38s and had their heads cut off by the propellers." Novice Lightning pilots unfamiliar with the correct bailout procedures actually had more to fear from the twin-boom tail, if an emergency dictated taking to the parachute but properly executed, Lightning bailouts were as safe as parachuting from any other high-performance fighter of the day. Misinformation and wild speculation about many new aircraft was rampant during the early War period.

Along with U. S. Navy Grumman F4F Wildcats (see NASM collection) and Curtiss P-40 Warhawks (see NASM collection), Lightnings were the first American fighter airplanes capable of consistently defeating Japanese fighter aircraft. On November 18, men of the 339th Fighter Squadron became the first Lightning pilots to attack Japanese fighters. Flying from Henderson Field on Guadalcanal, they claimed three during a mission to escort Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress bombers (see NASM collection).

On April 18, 1943, fourteen P-38 pilots from the 70th and the 339th Fighter Squadrons, 347th Fighter Group, accomplished one of the most important Lightning missions of the war. American ULTRA cryptanalysts had decoded Japanese messages that revealed the timetable for a visit to the front by the commander of the Imperial Japanese Navy, Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto. This charismatic leader had crafted the plan to attack Pearl Harbor and Allied strategists believed his loss would severely cripple Japanese morale. The P-38 pilots flew 700 km (435 miles) at heights from 3-15 m (10-50 feet) above the ocean to avoid detection. Over the coast of Bougainville, they intercepted a formation of two Mitsubishi G4M BETTY bombers (see NASM collection) carrying the Admiral and his staff, and six Mitsubishi A6M Zero fighters (see NASM collection) providing escort. The Lightning pilots downed both bombers but lost Lt. Ray Hine to a Zero.

In Europe, the first Americans to down a Luftwaffe aircraft were Lt. Elza E. Shahan flying a 27th Fighter Squadron P-38E, and Lt. J. K. Shaffer flying a Curtiss P-40 (see NASM collection) in the 33rd Fighter Squadron. The two flyers shared the destruction of a Focke-Wulf Fw 200C-3 Condor maritime strike aircraft over Iceland on August 14, 1942. Later that month, the 1st fighter group accepted Lightnings and began combat operations from bases in England but this unit soon moved to fight in North Africa. More than a year passed before the P-38 reappeared over Western Europe. While the Lightning was absent, U. S. Army Air Forces strategists had relearned a painful lesson: unescorted bombers cannot operate successfully in the face of determined opposition from enemy fighters. When P-38s returned to England, the primary mission had become long-range bomber escort at ranges of about 805 kms (500 miles) and at altitudes above 6,080 m (20,000 ft).

On October 15, 1943, P-38H pilots in the 55th Fighter Group flew their first combat mission over Europe at a time when the need for long-range escorts was acute. Just the day before, German fighter pilots had destroyed 60 of 291 Eighth Air Force B-17 Flying Fortresses (see NASM collection) during a mission to bomb five ball-bearing plants at Schweinfurt, Germany. No air force could sustain a loss-rate of nearly 20 percent for more than a few missions but these targets lay well beyond the range of available escort fighters (Republic P-47 Thunderbolt, see NASM collection). American war planners hoped the long-range capabilities of the P-38 Lightning could halt this deadly trend, but the very high and very cold environment peculiar to the European air war caused severe power plant and cockpit heating difficulties for the Lightning pilots. The long-range escort problem was not completely solved until the North American P-51 Mustang (see NASM collection) began to arrive in large numbers early in 1944.

Poor cockpit heating in the H and J model Lightnings made flying and fighting at altitudes that frequently approached 12,320 m (40,000 ft) nearly impossible. This was a fundamental design flaw that Kelly Johnson and his team never anticipated when they designed the airplane six years earlier. In his seminal work on the Allison V-1710 engine, Daniel Whitney analyzed in detail other factors that made the P-38 a disappointing airplane in combat over Western Europe.

• Many new and inexperienced pilots arrived in England during December 1943, along with the new J model P-38 Lightning.

• J model rated at 1,600 horsepower vs. 1,425 for earlier H model Lightnings. This power setting required better maintenance between flights. It appears this work was not done in many cases.

• During stateside training, Lightning pilots were taught to fly at high rpm settings and low engine manifold pressure during cruise flight. This was very hard on the engines, and not in keeping with technical directives issued by Allison and Lockheed.

• The quality of fuel in England may have been poor, TEL (tetraethyl lead) fuel additive appeared to condense inside engine induction manifolds, causing detonation (destructive explosion of fuel mixture rather than controlled burning).

• Improved turbo supercharger intercoolers appeared on the J model P-38. These devices greatly reduced manifold temperatures but this encouraged TEL condensation in manifolds during cruise flight and increased spark plug fouling.

Using water injection to minimize detonation might have reduced these engine problems. Both the Republic P-47 Thunderbolt and the North American P-51 Mustang (see NASM collection) were fitted with water injection systems but not the P-38. Lightning pilots continued to fly, despite these handicaps.

During November 1942, two all-Lightning fighter groups, the 1st and the 14th, began operating in North Africa. In the Mediterranean Theater, P-38 pilots flew more sorties than Allied pilots flying any other type of fighter. They claimed 608 enemy a/c destroyed in the air, 123 probably destroyed and 343 damaged, against the loss of 131 Lightnings.

In the war against Japan, the P-38 truly excelled. Combat rarely occurred above 6,080 m (20,000 ft) and the engine and cockpit comfort problems common in Europe never plagued pilots in the Pacific Theater. The Lightning’s excellent range was used to full advantage above the vast expanses of water. In early 1945, Lightning pilots of the 12th Fighter Squadron, 18th Fighter Group, flew a mission that lasted 10 ½ hours and covered more than 3,220 km (2,000 miles). In August, P-38 pilots established the world’s long-distance record for a World War II combat fighter when they flew from the Philippines to the Netherlands East Indies, a distance of 3,703 km (2,300 miles). During early 1944, Lightning pilots in the 475th Fighter Group began the ‘race of aces.’ By March, Lieutenant Colonel Thomas J. Lynch had scored 21 victories before he fell to antiaircraft gunfire while strafing enemy ships. Major Thomas B. McGuire downed 38 Japanese aircraft before he was killed when his P-38 crashed at low altitude in early January 1945. Major Richard I. Bong became America’s highest scoring fighter ace (40 victories) but died in the crash of a Lockheed P-80 (see NASM collection) on August 6, 1945.

Museum records show that Lockheed assigned the construction number 422-2273 to the National Air and Space Museum’s P-38. The Army Air Forces accepted this Lightning as a P-38J-l0-LO on November 6, 1943, and the service identified the airplane with the serial number 42-67762. Recent investigations conducted by a team of specialists at the Paul E. Garber Facility, and Herb Brownstein, a volunteer in the Aeronautics Division at the National Air and Space Museum, have revealed many hitherto unknown aspects to the history of this aircraft.

Brownstein examined NASM files and documents at the National Archives. He discovered that a few days after the Army Air Forces (AAF) accepted this airplane, the Engineering Division at Wright Field in Dayton, Ohio, granted Lockheed permission to convert this P-38 into a two-seat trainer. The firm added a seat behind the pilot to accommodate an instructor who would train civilian pilots in instrument flying techniques. Once trained, these test pilots evaluated new Lightnings fresh off the assembly line.

In a teletype sent by the Engineering Division on March 2, 1944, Brownstein also discovered that this P-38 was released to Colonel Benjamin S. Kelsey from March 3 to April 10, 1944, to conduct special tests. This action was confirmed the following day in a cable from the War Department. This same pilot, then a Lieutenant, flew the XP-38 across the United States in 1939 and survived the crash that destroyed this Lightning at Mitchel Field, New York. In early 1944, Kelsey was assigned to the Eighth Air Force in England and he apparently traveled to the Lockheed factory at Burbank to pick up the P-38. Further information about these tests and Kelsey’s involvement remain an intriguing question.

One of Brownstein’s most important discoveries was a small file rich with information about the NASM Lightning. This file contained a cryptic reference to a "Major Bong" who flew the NASM P-38 on April 16, 1945, at Wright Field. Bong had planned to fly for an hour to evaluate an experimental method of interconnecting the movement of the throttle and propeller control levers. His flight ended after twenty-minutes when "the right engine blew up before I had a chance [to conduct the test]." The curator at the Richard I. Bong Heritage Center confirmed that America’s highest scoring ace made this flight in the NASM P-38 Lightning.

Working in Building 10 at the Paul E. Garber Facility, Rob Mawhinney, Dave Wilson, Wil Lee, Bob Weihrauch, Jim Purton, and Heather Hutton spent several months during the spring and summer of 2001 carefully disassembling, inspecting, and cleaning the NASM Lightning. They found every hardware modification consistent with a model J-25 airplane, not the model J-10 painted in the data block beneath the artifact’s left nose. This fact dovetails perfectly with knowledge uncovered by Brownstein. On April 10, the Engineering Division again cabled Lockheed asking the company to prepare 42-67762 for transfer to Wright Field "in standard configuration." The standard P-38 configuration at that time was the P-38J-25. The work took several weeks and the fighter does not appear on Wright Field records until May 15, 1944. On June 9, the Flight Test Section at Wright Field released the fighter for flight trials aimed at collecting pilot comments on how the airplane handled.

Wright Field’s Aeromedical Laboratory was the next organization involved with this P-38. That unit installed a kit on July 26 that probably measured the force required to move the control wheel left and right to actuate the power-boosted ailerons installed in all Lightnings beginning with version J-25. From August 12-16, the Power Plant Laboratory carried out tests to measure the hydraulic pump temperatures on this Lightning. Then beginning September 16 and lasting about ten days, the Bombing Branch, Armament Laboratory, tested type R-3 fragmentation bomb racks. The work appears to have ended early in December. On June 20, 1945, the AAF Aircraft Distribution Office asked that the Air Technical Service Command transfer the Lightning from Wright Field to Altus Air Force Base, Oklahoma, a temporary holding area for Air Force museum aircraft. The P-38 arrived at the Oklahoma City Air Depot on June 27, 1945, and mechanics prepared the fighter for flyable storage.

Airplane Flight Reports for this Lightning also describe the following activities and movements:

6-21-45 Wright Field, Ohio, 5.15 hours of flying.
6-22-45Wright Field, Ohio, .35 minutes of flying by Lt. Col. Wendel [?] J. Kelley and P. Shannon.
6-25-45Altus, Oklahoma, .55 hours flown, pilot P. Shannon.
6-27-45Altus, Oklahoma, #2 engine changed, 1.05 hours flown by Air Corps F/O Ralph F. Coady.
10-5-45 OCATSC-GCAAF (Garden City Army Air Field, Garden City, Kansas), guns removed and ballast added.
10-8-45Adams Field, Little Rock, Arkansas.
10-9-45Nashville, Tennessee,
5-28-46Freeman Field, Indiana, maintenance check by Air Corps Capt. H. M. Chadhowere [sp]?
7-24-46Freeman Field, Indiana, 1 hour local flight by 1st Lt. Charles C. Heckel.
7-31-46 Freeman Field, Indiana, 4120th AAF Base Unit, ferry flight to Orchard Place [Illinois] by 1st Lt. Charles C. Heckel.

On August 5, 1946, the AAF moved the aircraft to another storage site at the former Consolidated B-24 bomber assembly plant at Park Ridge, Illinois. A short time later, the AAF transferred custody of the Lightning and more than sixty other World War II-era airplanes to the Smithsonian National Air Museum. During the early 1950s, the Air Force moved these airplanes from Park Ridge to the Smithsonian storage site at Suitland, Maryland.

• • •

Quoting from Wikipedia | Lockheed P-38 Lightning:

The Lockheed P-38 Lightning was a World War II American fighter aircraft built by Lockheed. Developed to a United States Army Air Corps requirement, the P-38 had distinctive twin booms and a single, central nacelle containing the cockpit and armament. Named "fork-tailed devil" by the Luftwaffe and "two planes, one pilot" by the Japanese, the P-38 was used in a number of roles, including dive bombing, level bombing, ground-attack, photo reconnaissance missions, and extensively as a long-range escort fighter when equipped with drop tanks under its wings.

The P-38 was used most successfully in the Pacific Theater of Operations and the China-Burma-India Theater of Operations as the mount of America’s top aces, Richard Bong (40 victories) and Thomas McGuire (38 victories). In the South West Pacific theater, the P-38 was the primary long-range fighter of United States Army Air Forces until the appearance of large numbers of P-51D Mustangs toward the end of the war. The P-38 was unusually quiet for a fighter, the exhaust muffled by the turbo-superchargers. It was extremely forgiving, and could be mishandled in many ways, but the rate of roll was too slow for it to excel as a dogfighter. The P-38 was the only American fighter aircraft in production throughout American involvement in the war, from Pearl Harbor to Victory over Japan Day.

Variants: Lightning in maturity: P-38J

The P-38J was introduced in August 1943. The turbo-supercharger intercooler system on previous variants had been housed in the leading edges of the wings and had proven vulnerable to combat damage and could burst if the wrong series of controls were mistakenly activated. In the P-38J model, the streamlined engine nacelles of previous Lightnings were changed to fit the intercooler radiator between the oil coolers, forming a "chin" that visually distinguished the J model from its predecessors. While the P-38J used the same V-1710-89/91 engines as the H model, the new core-type intercooler more efficiently lowered intake manifold temperatures and permitted a substantial increase in rated power. The leading edge of the outer wing was fitted with 55 gal (208 l) fuel tanks, filling the space formerly occupied by intercooler tunnels, but these were omitted on early P-38J blocks due to limited availability.

The final 210 J models, designated P-38J-25-LO, alleviated the compressibility problem through the addition of a set of electrically-actuated dive recovery flaps just outboard of the engines on the bottom centerline of the wings. With these improvements, a USAAF pilot reported a dive speed of almost 600 mph (970 km/h), although the indicated air speed was later corrected for compressibility error, and the actual dive speed was lower. Lockheed manufactured over 200 retrofit modification kits to be installed on P-38J-10-LO and J-20-LO already in Europe, but the USAAF C-54 carrying them was shot down by an RAF pilot who mistook the Douglas transport for a German Focke-Wulf Condor. Unfortunately the loss of the kits came during Lockheed test pilot Tony LeVier‘s four-month morale-boosting tour of P-38 bases. Flying a new Lightning named "Snafuperman" modified to full P-38J-25-LO specs at Lockheed’s modification center near Belfast, LeVier captured the pilots’ full attention by routinely performing maneuvers during March 1944 that common Eighth Air Force wisdom held to be suicidal. It proved too little too late because the decision had already been made to re-equip with Mustangs.

The P-38J-25-LO production block also introduced hydraulically-boosted ailerons, one of the first times such a system was fitted to a fighter. This significantly improved the Lightning’s rate of roll and reduced control forces for the pilot. This production block and the following P-38L model are considered the definitive Lightnings, and Lockheed ramped up production, working with subcontractors across the country to produce hundreds of Lightnings each month.

Noted P-38 pilots

Richard Bong and Thomas McGuire

The American ace of aces and his closest competitor both flew Lightnings as they tallied 40 and 38 victories respectively. Majors Richard I. "Dick" Bong and Thomas J. "Tommy" McGuire of the USAAF competed for the top position. Both men were awarded the Medal of Honor.

McGuire was killed in air combat in January 1945 over the Philippines, after racking up 38 confirmed kills, making him the second-ranking American ace. Bong was rotated back to the United States as America’s ace of aces, after making 40 kills, becoming a test pilot. He was killed on 6 August 1945, the day the atomic bomb was dropped on Japan, when his P-80 Shooting Star jet fighter flamed out on takeoff.

Charles Lindbergh

The famed aviator Charles Lindbergh toured the South Pacific as a civilian contractor for United Aircraft Corporation, comparing and evaluating performance of single- and twin-engined fighters for Vought. He worked to improve range and load limits of the F4U Corsair, flying both routine and combat strafing missions in Corsairs alongside Marine pilots. In Hollandia, he attached himself to the 475th FG flying P-38s so that he could investigate the twin-engine fighter. Though new to the machine, he was instrumental in extending the range of the P-38 through improved throttle settings, or engine-leaning techniques, notably by reducing engine speed to 1,600 rpm, setting the carburetors for auto-lean and flying at 185 mph (298 km/h) indicated airspeed which reduced fuel consumption to 70 gal/h, about 2.6 mpg. This combination of settings had been considered dangerous; it was thought it would upset the fuel mixture and cause an explosion. Everywhere Lindbergh went in the South Pacific, he was accorded the normal preferential treatment of a visiting colonel, though he had resigned his Air Corps Reserve colonel’s commission three years before. While with the 475th, he held training classes and took part in a number of Army Air Corps combat missions. On 28 July 1944, Lindbergh shot down a Mitsubishi Ki-51 "Sonia" flown expertly by the veteran commander of 73rd Independent Flying Chutai, Imperial Japanese Army Captain Saburo Shimada. In an extended, twisting dogfight in which many of the participants ran out of ammunition, Shimada turned his aircraft directly toward Lindbergh who was just approaching the combat area. Lindbergh fired in a defensive reaction brought on by Shimada’s apparent head-on ramming attack. Hit by cannon and machine gun fire, the "Sonia’s" propeller visibly slowed, but Shimada held his course. Lindbergh pulled up at the last moment to avoid collision as the damaged "Sonia" went into a steep dive, hit the ocean and sank. Lindbergh’s wingman, ace Joseph E. "Fishkiller" Miller, Jr., had also scored hits on the "Sonia" after it had begun its fatal dive, but Miller was certain the kill credit was Lindbergh’s. The unofficial kill was not entered in the 475th’s war record. On 12 August 1944 Lindbergh left Hollandia to return to the United States.

Charles MacDonald

The seventh-ranking American ace, Charles H. MacDonald, flew a Lightning against the Japanese, scoring 27 kills in his famous aircraft, the Putt Putt Maru.

Robin Olds

Main article: Robin Olds

Robin Olds was the last P-38 ace in the Eighth Air Force and the last in the ETO. Flying a P-38J, he downed five German fighters on two separate missions over France and Germany. He subsequently transitioned to P-51s to make seven more kills. After World War II, he flew F-4 Phantom IIs in Vietnam, ending his career as brigadier general with 16 kills.

Clay Tice

A P-38 piloted by Clay Tice was the first American aircraft to land in Japan after VJ-Day, when he and his wingman set down on Nitagahara because his wingman was low on fuel.

Antoine de Saint-Exupéry

Noted aviation pioneer and writer Antoine de Saint-Exupéry vanished in a F-5B-1-LO, 42-68223, c/n 2734, of Groupe de Chasse II/33, out of Borgo-Porreta, Bastia, Corsica, a reconnaissance variant of the P-38, while on a flight over the Mediterranean, from Corsica to mainland France, on 31 July 1944. His health, both physical and mental (he was said to be intermittently subject to depression), had been deteriorating and there had been talk of taking him off flight status. There have been suggestions (although no proof to date) that this was a suicide rather than an aircraft failure or combat loss. In 2000, a French scuba diver found the wreckage of a Lightning in the Mediterranean off the coast of Marseille, and it was confirmed in April 2004 as Saint-Exupéry’s F-5B. No evidence of air combat was found. In March 2008, a former Luftwaffe pilot, Horst Rippert from Jagdgruppe 200, claimed to have shot down Saint-Exupéry.

Adrian Warburton

The RAF’s legendary photo-recon "ace", Wing Commander Adrian Warburton DSO DFC, was the pilot of a Lockheed P-38 borrowed from the USAAF that took off on 12 April 1944 to photograph targets in Germany. W/C Warburton failed to arrive at the rendezvous point and was never seen again. In 2003, his remains were recovered in Germany from his wrecked USAAF P-38 Lightning.

• • • • •

Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Boeing B-29 Superfortress "Enola Gay":

Boeing’s B-29 Superfortress was the most sophisticated propeller-driven bomber of World War II and the first bomber to house its crew in pressurized compartments. Although designed to fight in the European theater, the B-29 found its niche on the other side of the globe. In the Pacific, B-29s delivered a variety of aerial weapons: conventional bombs, incendiary bombs, mines, and two nuclear weapons.

On August 6, 1945, this Martin-built B-29-45-MO dropped the first atomic weapon used in combat on Hiroshima, Japan. Three days later, Bockscar (on display at the U.S. Air Force Museum near Dayton, Ohio) dropped a second atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Japan. Enola Gay flew as the advance weather reconnaissance aircraft that day. A third B-29, The Great Artiste, flew as an observation aircraft on both missions.

Transferred from the United States Air Force.

Boeing Aircraft Co.
Martin Co., Omaha, Nebr.


Country of Origin:
United States of America

Overall: 900 x 3020cm, 32580kg, 4300cm (29ft 6 5/16in. x 99ft 1in., 71825.9lb., 141ft 15/16in.)

Polished overall aluminum finish

Physical Description:
Four-engine heavy bomber with semi-monoqoque fuselage and high-aspect ratio wings. Polished aluminum finish overall, standard late-World War II Army Air Forces insignia on wings and aft fuselage and serial number on vertical fin; 509th Composite Group markings painted in black; "Enola Gay" in black, block letters on lower left nose.

Most recent China Mould Create Services News

Most recent China Mould Create Services News

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: View of south hangar, such as B-29 Superfortress “Enola Gay”, a glimpse of the Air France Concorde, and many other people
china mould produce services
Image by Chris Devers
Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Boeing B-29 Superfortress &quotEnola Gay&quot:

Boeing’s B-29 Superfortress was the most sophisticated propeller-driven bomber of World War II and the first bomber to residence its crew in pressurized compartments. Despite the fact that created to fight in the European theater, the B-29 discovered its niche on the other side of the globe. In the Pacific, B-29s delivered a variety of aerial weapons: standard bombs, incendiary bombs, mines, and two nuclear weapons.

On August six, 1945, this Martin-built B-29-45-MO dropped the initial atomic weapon used in combat on Hiroshima, Japan. 3 days later, Bockscar (on display at the U.S. Air Force Museum near Dayton, Ohio) dropped a second atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Japan. Enola Gay flew as the advance weather reconnaissance aircraft that day. A third B-29, The Fantastic Artiste, flew as an observation aircraft on both missions.

Transferred from the United States Air Force.

Boeing Aircraft Co.
Martin Co., Omaha, Nebr.


Country of Origin:
United States of America

General: 900 x 3020cm, 32580kg, 4300cm (29ft six 5/16in. x 99ft 1in., 71825.9lb., 141ft 15/16in.)

Polished all round aluminum finish

Physical Description:
Four-engine heavy bomber with semi-monoqoque fuselage and high-aspect ratio wings. Polished aluminum finish all round, common late-World War II Army Air Forces insignia on wings and aft fuselage and serial quantity on vertical fin 509th Composite Group markings painted in black &quotEnola Gay&quot in black, block letters on lower left nose.

Advantages Of Injection Molding

Injection molding is one of the most widely used methods for mass manufacture of items like cars, car parts, pet bottles, etc. It is a process by which material is injected into a mould used usually to manufacture small or large parts of a larger assembly. One of the most common applications of injection molding is to produce plastic housings which are used in a variety of household appliances, consumer electronics, etc. Buckets, toothbrushes, medical devices like syringes and the valves are manufactured using injection molding.

Injection Molding
Injection Molding

The four processes involved in an injection molding process which all together take typically between two and four minutes  are:

Clamping, injection, cooling and ejection

Clamping is securing the mould before injection, typically clamping together both its halves

Injection – is injection of the material to be molded, usually melted plastic

The cooling – molten plastic begins to cool as soon as it comes in contact with the mould surface.

Ejection – after sufficient cooling, the molded part may be ejected from the molding machine.

Building the mould to utmost precision is the main task, rather than the process of molding itself. Finishing of a mould by machines can take up to 20 hours.

Benefits of Injection molding:

  • Huge range of applications – some of the common products manufactured using injection molding are bearings, cams, gears, rollers, rotors, slide guides, valves, display stands, knobs, lenses, panels, automotive consoles, eyeglass frames, air filters, safety masks, aircraft components, kitchenware, drains, gutters, bushings, seals, washers and many more
  • It is a very precise method.
  • Allows the manufacture of complicated shapes and designs that would otherwise be difficult and time consuming to make
  • Mass production of such parts is possible; high output coupled with low labor cost, easy to repeat.
  • Less workload as essentially the product is ready after injection molding
  • Helps recycling plastic as scrap and unused molding can be reused. Hence it can be termed as environmentally friendly
  • Design can be changed by changing the mould specifications.
  • The color of the product can be changed easily
  • In addition to plastic, fillers can be added while molding to make the part stronger by reducing the density of plastic. Inserts can also be made available in the final product.
  • Co-injection molding is possible when two different types of plastic can be used. This helps when there is difficulty in sourcing one type of plastic for mass production
  • Good finish
  • Has wide applications. Almost every manufactured thing around us, is manufactured through injection molding
  • Injection molding allows greater detailing than any other molding process, because of the extremely high pressure the plastic is subjected to.
  • It is a highly automated process performed by machines and robots. Just one person is sufficient to oversee the process. Hence this cuts down on manufacturing costs, as the overheads are reduced. This cost saving can be passed onto the customer. Much cheaper method of manufacture when compared to machining which can cost up to 25times more.
  • Encourages research on more and more durable thermosetting polymers which can be used in injection molding.

 Injection moulding in China is very well known the world over. They provide accurate moulding machines to specifications of mould makers in China and abroad. Mould tech in China is actually gone worldwide.

How To Make Precision Plastic Molded Parts

Precision Plastic molded parts can be made only by Plastic injection molding. This is the preferred method because injection molding has the advantages of high tolerance precision work.

precision plastic molded parts
precision plastic molded parts

The following points go into making Precision Plastic molds.

  1. Using the proper clamping force

Injection molding machine – also known as presses, consist of a material hopper, an injection ram or plunger, and a heating unit. Plastic is injected into the mold through the sprue orifice. These presses are rated by tonnage which is the calculation of the clamping force the press can exert. This force keeps the mold closed while the molding is going on. By rule of thumb, the force needed is determined by the projected surface area of the part being molded. Tonnage can vary from a few to a few thousand. The nature of the material also determines the clamping force. If the plastic is stiff, more injection pressure and more clamping force is needed to keep the mold closed.  Also, larger parts require greater clamping forces. These points should be kept in mind when molding.

  1. Using the proper material for Molds – or die refers to the tooling used to produce the plastic parts by molding. They are expensive to manufacture and were preferred to be used only in large scale production. They are typically constructed from hardened steel, beryllium-copper alloys or aluminium. Steel though expensive, is more long lasting and its high initial cost will definitely be offset by the number of times it can be used. Pre hardened steel is used for larger parts molding. The mold is heat treated after machining for longer life.

Aluminum Molds cost much less and are used for mass manufacture of small parts. Aircraft quality aluminum is used for making molds. They offer quicker turnaround times because of their high heat dissipation quality. Since they are not wear resistant, they can be coated with fiberglass reinforced material.

Beryllium Copper also is used for quick heat removal especially where the shear heat is more. Shear heat is the phenomenon of heat trapping in a viscous material like melted plastic when the mechanical energy of the plastic granules when they are injected under high pressure is converted to heat energy.

  1. Using the right Gate

The main enemy of injection molding is stress. The molecules of plastic undergo severe stresses as they are extruded out of the injector into the crevices and corners of the mold to take that shape. They are forced to take sharp corners instead of their natural flow movement. These stresses when the part is cooled get locked into the part and cause warping, cracking, sink marks etc.

Gates are provided at the point of injection to prevent warping. Depending on the shape and size of the part, different types of gates are used.

  1. State of the art Machining

Using the proper machining to achieve very tight tolerances for their clients molded products. Proper initial designing is very important and can be outsourced to experts on a turnkey project basis. State of the art CNC machining, large boring mills, Blanchard grinding capabilities, conventional EDMs all go into making that perfect precision plastic mold.

Mold manufacturers in China have incorporated these and many more features to produce high quality Chinese molds that are in demand the world over at a fraction of the cost at which they are available in western countries.